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Kidney disease

Shereen M Hamza, John E Hall
Renal sympathetic nerves contribute significantly to both physiological and pathophysiological phenomena. Evaluating renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA) is of great interest in many areas of research such as chronic kidney disease, hypertension, heart failure, diabetes and obesity. Unequivocal assessment of the role of the sympathetic nervous system is thus imperative for proper interpretation of experimental results and understanding of disease processes. RSNA has been traditionally measured in anesthetized rodents, including mice...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Kavi Devraj, Sylvaine Guérit, Jakranka Macas, Yvonne Reiss
Blood-brain barrier (BBB) is a specialized barrier that protects the brain microenvironment from toxins and pathogens in the circulation and maintains brain homeostasis. The principal sites of the barrier are endothelial cells of the brain capillaries whose barrier function results from tight intercellular junctions and efflux transporters expressed on the plasma membrane. This function is regulated by pericytes and astrocytes that together form the neurovascular unit (NVU). Several neurological diseases such as stroke, Alzheimer's disease (AD), brain tumors are associated with an impaired BBB function...
February 26, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Musallam Abukhalil, Osama Mehjez, Mohammed Aladdam, Bettina Bottcher, Sobhi Skaik, Mohammed Matter
BACKGROUND: In 2013, al-Shifa Hospital, the largest hospital in the Gaza Strip, introduced an assessment programme for potential kidney donors on the basis of medical and radiological evaluation. The aims of this study and an associated clinical audit were to examine the final outcome of the potential live kidney donors assessment programme, to review the findings and determine the level of accuracy of the radiological evaluations, to assess the completeness and standard of radiological record keeping, and to evaluate adherence to guidelines...
February 21, 2018: Lancet
Yi-Feng Carol Lan, Diane C Zelman, Wen-Tao Chao
Bipolar disorder (BD) affects a significant proportion of Taiwanese individuals (Weissman et al., 1996; Yang, Yeh, & Hwu, 2012). Psychotropic medications are typically the mainstay of treatment for BD, and there is an abundance of international research on biological etiology and medication options. However, there is comparatively little research on psychosocial aspects of BD, including how it is understood and managed within families. As culture provides the context in which psychiatric disease is managed, there is a need to identify distinct Chinese psychosocial perspectives that might shed light on intervention options...
January 1, 2018: Transcultural Psychiatry
Yi Shi, Yanhui Su, Joshua H Lipschutz, Glenn P Lobo
Cilia are highly-conserved organelles projecting from the cell surface of nearly every cell type in vertebrates. Ciliary proteins have essential functions in human physiology, particularly in signaling and organ development. As cilia are a component of almost all vertebrate cells, cilia dysfunction can manifest as a constellation of features that characteristically include, retinal degeneration, renal disease and cerebral anomalies. The terminology "Ciliopathies" refers to inherited human disorders caused by genetic mutations in ciliary genes, leading to cilia dysfunctions that form an important and ever expanding multi-organ disease spectrum...
December 2017: Clin Nephrol Res
Vikram Thakur, Munmun Chattopadhyay
BACKGROUND: Nephropathy is a debilitating complication of diabetes associated with increased risk for renal failure, leading to poor quality of life of the affected patients and eventually to mortality. Early intervention is crucial to enhance the well-being of the patients with nephropathy. Albuminuria is a well-known predictor of weak renal outcomes in patients with diabetes and hypertension, unfortunately, it is not an early marker for kidney injury. OBJECTIVE: Assessment of new and precise markers is necessary to predict the early onset and progression of nephropathy...
March 19, 2018: Current Drug Targets
Horng-Ruey Chua, Weng-Kin Wong, Venetia Huiling Ong, Dipika Agrawal, Anantharaman Vathsala, Hui-Ming Tay, Amartya Mukhopadhyay
PURPOSE: To evaluate 1-year mortality in patients with septic acute kidney injury (AKI) and to determine association between initial AKI recovery patterns ( reversal within 5 days, beyond 5 days but recovery, or nonrecovery) and chronic kidney disease (CKD) progression. METHODS: Prospective observational study, with retrospective evaluation of initial nonconsenters, of critically ill patients with septic AKI. RESULTS: We studied 207 patients (age, mean [SD]: 64 [16] years, 39% males), of which 56 (27%), 18 (9%), and 9 (4%) died in intensive care unit (ICU), post-ICU in hospital, and posthospitalization, respectively...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Intensive Care Medicine
Mariusz Kusztal, Krzysztof Nowak
For arrhythmia treatment or sudden cardiac death prevention in hemodialysis patients, there is a frequent need for placement of a cardiac implantable electronic device (pacemaker, implantable cardioverter defibrillator, or cardiac resynchronization device). Leads from a cardiac implantable electronic device can cause central vein stenosis and carry the risk of tricuspid regurgitation or contribute to infective endocarditis. In patients with end-stage kidney disease requiring vascular access and cardiac implantable electronic device, the best strategy is to create an arteriovenous fistula on the contralateral upper limb for a cardiac implantable electronic device and avoidance of central vein catheter...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Vascular Access
Maya Laura König, Diana Henke, Katja Adamik, Cristina Pérez Vera
Case summary: A 3-month-old intact male Somali cat was evaluated for a history of seizures, hypoglycaemia and mental dullness 4 weeks after being bitten in the head by a dog. The cat's body size and weight were approximately half that of his littermates and its haircoat was woolly, with fewer guard hairs. Multiple hypoglycaemic episodes were documented over a period of 4 weeks, which resolved rapidly after correction of the hypoglycaemia. Juvenile hyposomatotropism was presumptively diagnosed by demonstrating low circulating levels of insulin-like growth factor 1 and after exclusion of other endocrine and non-endocrine causes of small stature and hypoglycaemia...
January 2018: JFMS Open Reports
Giorgina B Piccoli, Mona Alrukhaimi, Zhi-Hong Liu, Elena Zakharova, Adeera Levin
Background: Chronic kidney disease affects approximately 10% of the world's adult population: It is within the top 20 causes of death worldwide, and its impact on patients and their families can be devastating. World Kidney Day and International Women's Day in 2018 coincide, thus giving an occasion to reflect on open questions on the importance of kidney health in women for the present and the future generations. Objectives: In this review, we summarize some aspects that are unique to women's kidney health, offering an opportunity to reflect on the importance of women's health and specifically their kidney health, on the community, and the next generations, as well as to strive to be more curious about the unique aspects of kidney disease in women so that we may apply those learnings more broadly...
2018: Canadian Journal of Kidney Health and Disease
Nina Bon, Giulia Frangi, Sophie Sourice, Jérôme Guicheux, Sarah Beck-Cormier, Laurent Beck
OBJECTIVE: The canonical role of the bone-derived fibroblast growth factor 23 (Fgf23) is to regulate the serum inorganic phosphate (Pi) level. As part of a feedback loop, serum Pi levels control Fgf23 secretion through undefined mechanisms. We recently showed in vitro that the two high-affinity Na+ -Pi co-transporters PiT1/Slc20a1 and PiT2/Slc20a2 were required for mediating Pi-dependent signaling. Here, we addressed the contribution of PiT1 and PiT2 to the regulation of Fgf23 secretion...
February 26, 2018: Molecular Metabolism
Juan N Pulido
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 17, 2018: Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
Masanari Kuwabara, Claudio Borghi, Arrigo F G Cicero, Ichiro Hisatome, Koichiro Niwa, Minoru Ohno, Richard J Johnson, Miguel A Lanaspa
BACKGROUND: High serum uric acid (SUA) is associated with the dyslipidemia, but whether hyperuricemia predicts an increase in serum low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol is unknown. This study is to evaluate whether an elevated SUA predicts the development of high LDL cholesterol as well as hypertriglyceridemia. METHODS: This is a retrospective 5-year cohort study of 6476 healthy Japanese adults (age, 45.7 ± 10.1 years; 2.243 men) who underwent health examinations at 2004 and were reevaluated in 2009 at St...
March 13, 2018: International Journal of Cardiology
D Díaz-Díaz, M Villanova Martínez, E Palencia Herrejón
OBJECTIVE: To analyze the factors influencing in-hospital mortality among cancer patients admitted to an Intensive Care Unit (ICU). DESIGN: A retrospective observational study was carried out. SETTING: The ICU of a community hospital. PATIENTS: Adults diagnosed with solid or hematological malignancies admitted to the ICU, excluding those admitted after scheduled surgery and those with an ICU stay of under 24h. INTERVENTIONS: Review of clinical data...
March 15, 2018: Medicina Intensiva
Tae Hyun Ban, Ji-Won Min, Changhwan Seo, Da Rae Kim, Yu Ho Lee, Byung Ha Chung, Kyung-Hwan Jeong, Jae Wook Lee, Beom Seok Kim, Sang-Ho Lee, Bum Soon Choi, Jin Suk Han, Chul Woo Yang
Background/Aims: The true incidence of aristolochic acid nephropathy (AAN) is thought to be underestimated because numerous ingredients known or suspected to contain aristolochic acid (AA) are used in traditional medicine in Korea. Methods: We collected data on cases of AAN since 1996 via a database in Korea. We evaluated the year of AAN development, route to obtaining AA-containing herbal medicine, gender, reason for taking AA-containing herbal medicine, clinical manifestations, histological findings, phytochemical analysis, and prognosis of patients with AAN...
March 20, 2018: Korean Journal of Internal Medicine
Andrea Petronio Rossi, Gianluigi Zaza, Marina Zanardo, Francesco Pedelini, Laura Dalla Verde, Chiara Caletti, Alessia D'Introno, Antonio Lupo, Mauro Zamboni
BACKGROUND: Renal transplant (RTX) recipients seem to experience a better quality of life compared to dialysis patients. However, the factors responsible for this positive effect are not completely defined. Conceivably, a change in the physical performance of these patients could play a role. METHODS: To assess this, we measured: (1) waist circumference, fat mass and appendicular fat-free mass (aFFM) by dual-energy X-ray densitometry, (2) physical performance with the Short Physical Performance Battery, and (3) muscle strength with the handgrip test, in 59 male RTX, 11 chronic kidney disease in conservative treatment (CKD) and 10 peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients...
March 17, 2018: Journal of Nephrology
Nancy Kim, Roxanna Juarez, Angela D Levy
In patients with end-stage renal disease, the treatment of choice for most patients is renal transplantation. Complications that occur after kidney transplant can be broadly divided into vascular and non-vascular categories. Non-vascular complications can further be divided into surgical and medical categories. When evaluating renal transplant imaging, it is helpful to consider the occurrence of complications in a timeline from time of surgery. Ultrasound is often the first modality used for evaluation of renal transplants particularly in the early postoperative period...
March 17, 2018: Abdominal Radiology
Mohammed Al Za'abi, Suhail Al Salam, Yousuf Al Suleimani, Priyadarsini Manoj, Abderrahim Nemmar, Badreldin H Ali
BACKGROUND/AIMS: The effect of treatment with gum acacia (GA), a prebiotic shown previously to ameliorate chronic kidney disease (CKD), in diabetic and non - diabetic rats with adenine - induced CKD has been investigated using several conventional and novel physiological, biochemical, and histopathological parameters. METHODS: Diabetes mellitus was induced in rats by a single injection of streptozotocin (STZ). Diabetic and non - diabetic rats were randomly divided into several groups, and given either normal food or food mixed with adenine (0...
March 13, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
Filipa Caeiro Alves, Rute Aguiar, Pedro Pessegueiro, Carlos Pires
Thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA) comprises a process of sequential endothelial damage, microvascular thrombosis, consumptive thrombocytopenia and microangiopathic haemolytic anaemia that can affect several organs, including the kidney. A 36-year-old woman was presented with a petechial rash 3 weeks after an upper respiratory tract infection. Laboratory results showed normocytic normochromic anaemia, thrombocytopenia and evidence of TMA with decreased haptoglobin, elevated serum lactate dehydrogenase and a peripheral blood smear with numerous schistocytes...
March 17, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
Jarrod M Zamparini, Andrew R Immelman, Frederick J Raal
BACKGROUND: Patients with homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia (HoFH) develop significant vascular calcification early in life, the cause of which is not yet fully understood. Patients with chronic kidney disease have similar vascular calcification, with fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF23) implicated in these patients. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether there was a difference in FGF23 between patients with HoFH and age- and gender-matched controls and whether there is a correlation between FGF23 and serum low-density lipoprotein, total cholesterol, and carotid intima-media thickness in patients with HoFH...
February 16, 2018: Journal of Clinical Lipidology
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