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Zhiyuan Ma, Xi Yang, Ting Jiang, Mengru Bai, Caihong Zheng, Su Zeng, Dongli Sun, Huidi Jiang
Entecavir (ETV), a nucleoside analogue with high efficacy against hepatitis B virus, is recommended as a first-line antiviral drug for the treatment of chronic hepatitis B. However, scant information is available on the use of ETV in pregnancy. To better understand the safety of ETV in pregnant women, we aimed to demonstrate whether ETV could permeate placental barrier and the underlying mechanism. Our study showed that small amount of ETV could permeate across placenta in mice. ETV accumulation in activated or non-activated BeWo cells (treated with or without forskolin) was sharply reduced in the presence of 100 μM of adenosine, cytidine and in Na+ free medium, indicating that nucleoside transporters possibly mediate the uptake of ETV...
January 6, 2017: Drug Metabolism and Disposition: the Biological Fate of Chemicals
Teresa Rubio
The FDA's MedWatch program safety labeling changes for boxed warnings are compiled quarterly for drugs and therapeutic biologics where important changes have been made to the safety information. Search of Drug Safety Labeling Changes (SLC) database was conducted on October 10, 2016 for date range "7/1/2016-9/30/2016", labeling section "Boxed Warning". These and other label changes are searchable in the Drug Safety Labeling Changes (SLC) database, where data are available to the public in downloadable and searchable formats...
December 2016: Hospital Pharmacy
D Carver, C Willis, P Stauduhar, T Nishino, J Wells, E Samei
PURPOSE: To illustrate how performance analytics can identify performance decrement in digital radiography systems. METHODS: Subsequent to a radiologist's image quality complaint, four different advanced methods contributed to root cause analysis. Our system was a GE Revolution XQi digital radiography unit. Initially, we reviewed weekly GE Quality Assurance Procedures (QAP) results in a database dating from 2001. Next, we evaluated objective image quality metrics of individual PA Chest radiographs acquired...
June 2016: Medical Physics
Yang Sun, Shuijin Huang, Shuping Wang, Dianhao Guo, Chang Ge, Huamei Xiao, Wencai Jie, Qiupu Yang, Xiaolu Teng, Fei Li
Insects undergo metamorphosis, involving an abrupt change in body structure through cell growth and differentiation. Rice stem stripped borer (SSB), Chilo suppressalis, is one of the most destructive rice pests. However, little is known about the regulation mechanism of metamorphosis development in this notorious insect pest. Here, we studied the expression of 22,197 SSB genes at seven time points during pupa development with a customized microarray, identifying 622 differentially expressed genes (DEG) during pupa development...
December 29, 2016: Journal of Insect Physiology
Ewa Stefanko, Justyna Rybka, Bożena Jaźwiec, Olga Haus, Sylwia Stąpor, Kazimierz Kuliczkowski, Tomasz Wróbel
Organic cation transporter 1 (OCT1) is one of the membrane proteins in the large solute carrier (SLC) family. It participates in the transport of organic cations, i.e. nutrients, neurotransmitters, metabolites or drugs in an electrogenic manner and translocate various cationic cytostatics. Knowledge concerning the expression of drug transporters in tumor cells may help to develop cytotoxic agents that are targeted to specific tumors. OCT1 expression and its relationship to the proliferation of cancer cells, development of metastases and resistance to chemotherapy has been observed in solid tumors...
December 26, 2016: Pathology Oncology Research: POR
Shu-Meng Guo, Xiao Liang, Cui-Hong Zhang, Mei Chen, Chen Shen, Lan-Ying Zhang, Xiao Yuan, Bao-Feng He, Huai Yang
Polymer-dispersed liquid crystal (PDLC) and polymer-stabilized liquid crystal (PSLC) systems are the two primary distinct systems in the field of liquid crystal (LC) technology, and they are differentiated by their unique microstructures. Here, we present a novel coexistent system of polymer-dispersed and polymer-stabilized liquid crystals (PD&SLCs), which forms a homeotropically aligned polymer network (HAPN) within the LC droplets after a microphase separation between the LC and polymer matrix and combines the advantages of both the PDLC and PSLC systems...
January 11, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Hidekazu Takahashi, Ichiro Takemasa, Naotsugu Haraguchi, Junichi Nishimura, Taishi Hata, Hirofumi Yamamoto, Chu Matsuda, Tsunekazu Mizushima, Yuichiro Doki, Masaki Mori
PURPOSE: Complete mesocolic excision (CME) with central vascular ligation (CVL) has been widely accepted as a surgical treatment for right-sided colon cancer. Single-site laparoscopic colectomy (SLC) is associated with reduced pain and improved cosmesis, in comparison to the multi-site laparoscopic colectomy (MCL). Although the feasibility of CME + CVL under MCL has been reported, SLC for right-sided colon cancer is generally challenging. The purpose of this study is to demonstrate our efforts to standardize the SLC for right-sided colon cancer...
December 20, 2016: Surgery Today
Arnaud Bruyere, Céline Hubert, Marc Le Vee, Lisa Chedik, Katia Sayyed, Bruno Stieger, Claire Denizot, Yannick Parmentier, Olivier Fardel
The plastic component bisphenol A (BPA) is suspected to exert deleterious effects towards human health and targets various cellular and molecular pathways, including activity of ATP-binding cassette drug transporters. The present study was designed to determine whether BPA and some derivatives, like its substitutes bisphenol F (BPF) and bisphenol S (BPS) and the flame retardant tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA), may additionally interact with solute carrier (SLC) drug transporters. Activities of the various following SLC transporters were inhibited in a major way (by >60%) by 100μM bisphenols: OCT1 and MATE1 (by BPA and TBBPA), OATP1B1 (by BPA, BPF and TBBPA), OATP1B3 and NTCP (by TBBPA) and OAT3 (by BPA, BPF, BPS and TBBPA); by contrast, activities of other transporters were not impacted (MATE2-K) or were stimulated (notably OCT1 by BPS and OCT2 by BPF)...
December 15, 2016: Toxicology in Vitro: An International Journal Published in Association with BIBRA
Emelie Perland, Sofie V Hellsten, Emilia Lekholm, Mikaela M Eriksson, Vasiliki Arapi, Robert Fredriksson
Membrane-bound solute carriers (SLCs) are essential as they maintain several physiological functions, such as nutrient uptake, ion transport and waste removal. The SLC family comprise about 400 transporters, and we have identified two new putative family members, major facilitator superfamily domain containing 1 (MFSD1) and 3 (MFSD3). They cluster phylogenetically with SLCs of MFS type, and both proteins are conserved in chordates, while MFSD1 is also found in fruit fly. Based on homology modelling, we predict 12 transmembrane regions, a common feature for MFS transporters...
December 16, 2016: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
Emelie Perland, Robert Fredriksson
Membrane-bound solute carrier (SLC) transporter proteins are vital to the human body, as they sustain homeostasis by moving soluble molecule as nutrients, drugs, and waste across lipid membranes. Of the 430 identified secondary active transporters in humans, 30% are still orphans, and systematic research has been requested to elaborate on their possible involvement in diseases and their potential as drug targets. To enable this, the various classification systems in use must be understood and used correctly...
December 8, 2016: Trends in Pharmacological Sciences
Gyong Hoon Kang, Ye Na Kim, Ho Sik Shin
We investigated the relationship between geriatric nutritional risk index (GNRI) and subpopulation lymphocyte counts (SLCs) in hemodialysis (HD) and peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients and evaluated whether they can be helpful in the diagnosis of malnutrition in these patients. We examined the GNRI and SLCs of 50 HD patients (mean: 55.8 ± 12.7 years; 28 men and 22 women) and 16 Continuous Ambulatory Peritoneal Dialysis (CAPD) patients (mean: 49.8 ± 14.5 years; 10 men and six women). The GNRI is calculated based on the serum albumin level, dry weight, and ideal body weight and uses the following equation: GNRI = [14...
November 2016: Renal Failure
Kalyan C Kondapalli, R Todd Alexander, Jennifer L Pluznick, Rajini Rao
Increased renal reabsorption of sodium is a significant risk factor in hypertension. An established clinical marker for essential hypertension is elevated sodium lithium countertransport (SLC) activity. NHA2 is a newly identified Na(+)(Li(+))/H(+) antiporter with potential genetic links to hypertension, which has been shown to mediate SLC activity and H(+)-coupled Na(+)(Li(+)) efflux in kidney-derived MDCK cells. To evaluate a putative role in sodium homeostasis, we determined the effect of dietary salt on NHA2...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Physiology and Biochemistry
Chih-Wei Wang, Kerwin Hui, Jeng-Da Chai
We propose a short- and long-range corrected (SLC) hybrid scheme employing 100% Hartree-Fock exchange at both zero and infinite interelectronic distances, wherein three SLC hybrid density functionals with the D3 dispersion corrections (SLC-LDA-D3, SLC-PBE-D3, and SLC-B97-D3) are developed. SLC-PBE-D3 and SLC-B97-D3 are shown to be accurate for a very diverse range of applications, such as core ionization and excitation energies, thermochemistry, kinetics, noncovalent interactions, dissociation of symmetric radical cations, vertical ionization potentials, vertical electron affinities, fundamental gaps, and valence, Rydberg, and long-range charge-transfer excitation energies...
November 28, 2016: Journal of Chemical Physics
Ramaswamy Ganesh, Natarajan Suresh, Thiruvengadam Vasanthi, K G Ravikumar
BACKGROUND: Neonatal Diabetes Mellitusis a rare disorder with an incidence of 1 in 2,60,000 live births. METHODS: Retrospective analysis of clinical and genetic profile of children admitted with neonatal diabetes mellitus in a tertiary care hospital in Chennai, India over 11 years. RESULTS: Ten children were diagnosed with neonatal diabetes of whom 9 had permanent neonatal diabetes mellitus. The age range at onset was from 3 days- 5 months...
November 5, 2016: Indian Pediatrics
Kelly Khomtchouk, Sarah Alter, Michelle Ratliff, Bonnie B Blomberg, Richard L Riley
In young adult BALB/c mice, antibodies to phosphorylcholine (PC) bearing the T15 (TEPC 15) idiotype confer protection against pneumococcal infections. In old age, even though PC reactive B cells are often increased, the proportion of T15(+) antibodies declines. We hypothesize that limited surrogate light chain (SLC) and compromise of the pre-B cell receptor checkpoint in old mice contribute to both reduced new B cell generation and changes in the anti-PC antibodies seen in old age. In old mice: 1) early pre-B cell loss is most pronounced at the preBCR checkpoint; however, the reduced pool of early pre-B cells continues to proliferate consistent with preBCR signaling; 2) increased PC reactivity is seen in bone marrow immature B cells; 3) deficient SLC promotes increased B cell PC reactivity and diminished T15 idiotype expression; and 4) as pre-B cell losses and reduced SLC become progressively more severe, increased T15 negative PC reactive B cells occur...
November 19, 2016: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development
Hong Shen, Yurong Lai, A David Rodrigues
As a member of the solute carrier 22A (SLC22A) family, OAT2 (SLC22A7) is emerging as an important drug transporter because of its expression in both the liver and kidney, two major eliminating organs, and its ability to transport not only a wide variety of xenobiotics, but also numerous physiologically important endogenous compounds, like creatinine and guanosine 3,5-cyclic monophosphate (cGMP). However, OAT2 has received relatively little attention when compared to other OATs and solute carriers (SLCs) like organic cation transporters, sodium-dependent taurocholate co-transporting polypeptide, multidrug and toxin extrusion proteins, and organic anion-transporting polypeptides...
November 21, 2016: Drug Metabolism and Disposition: the Biological Fate of Chemicals
Minho Shin, Namkyu Choi, Youngsun Yoo, Yooseok Kim, Sungsoo Kim, Seongpyo Mun
PURPOSE: Laparoscopic subtotal cholecystectomy (LSC) can be an alternative surgical technique for difficult cholecystectomies. Surgeons performing LSC sometimes leave the posterior wall of the gallbladder (GB) to shorten the operation time and avoid liver injury. However, leaving the inflamed posterior GB wall is a major concern. In this study, we evaluated the clinical outcomes of standard laparoscopic cholecystectomy (SLC), LSC, and LSC removing only anterior wall of the GB (LSCA). METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of laparoscopic cholecystectomies performed between January 2006 to December 2015 and analyzed the outcomes of SLC, LSC, and LSCA...
November 2016: Annals of Surgical Treatment and Research
Brendon Pearce, Clifford Jacobs, Nisreen Hoosain, Mongi Benjeddou
BACKGROUND: The SLC22A2 gene is a polyspecific transporter that mediates the electrogenic transport of small organic cations with different molecular structures. Furthermore, single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of SLC22A2 are clinically significant because they can alter the transport of substrate drugs and may, thus, influence the efficacy and toxicity thereof. Additionally, further studies have reported that SLC22A2 is responsible for 80% of the total metformin clearance. Therefore, loss-of-function variants of SLC22A2 could affect the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic characteristics of metformin...
December 1, 2016: Drug Metabolism and Personalized Therapy
Birgitta C Burckhardt, Maja Henjakovic, Yohannes Hagos, Gerhard Burckhardt
Dantrolene is the only available drug for the treatment of malignant hyperthermia, a life-threatening inborn sensitivity of the ryanodine receptor (RyR1) in skeletal muscles to volatile anesthetics. Dantrolene is metabolized in the liver to 5-OH dantrolene. Both compounds are zwitterions or net negatively charged. Here, we investigated interactions of dantrolene and 5-OH dantrolene with solute carrier (SLC) family members occurring in skeletal muscle cells, hepatocytes, and renal proximal tubule cells. SLC22A8 (organic anion transporter 3, OAT3) was very sensitive to both compounds exhibiting IC50 values of 0...
November 2016: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
Maria Celina Abraham, Anders Johannisson, Jane M Morrell
Sperm preparation is an important step in the in vitro production of embryos. Centrifugation through colloids has been used to select normal sperm for assisted reproduction in several species. Animal models can sometimes be used as a preliminary step to investigate sperm preparation methods that are potentially of use for human fertility treatments. In this study bovine semen was prepared using three variants of the single-layer centrifugation sperm selection technique (Small, Mini, Mini-EP) with Bovicoll (Androcoll-B)...
December 2016: Zygote: the Biology of Gametes and Early Embryos
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