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Haolin Chen, Yiyan Wang, Renshan Ge, Barry R Zirkin
Adult Leydig cells develop from undifferentiated mesenchymal-like stem cells (stem Leydig cells, SLCs) present in the interstitial compartment of the early postnatal testis. Putative SLCs also have been identified in peritubular and perivascular locations of the adult testis. The latter cells, which normally are quiescent, are capable of regenerating new Leydig cells upon the loss of the adult cells. Recent studies have identified several protein markers to identify these cells, including nestin, PDGFRα, COUP-TFII, CD51 and CD90...
October 12, 2016: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
Chengzhi Wu, Bo Qi, Chunlin Chen, Daoyi Dong
Robust control design for quantum unitary transformations has been recognized as a fundamental and challenging task in the development of quantum information processing due to unavoidable decoherence or operational errors in the experimental implementation of quantum operations. In this paper, we extend the systematic methodology of sampling-based learning control (SLC) approach with a gradient flow algorithm for the design of robust quantum unitary transformations. The SLC approach first uses a "training" process to find an optimal control strategy robust against certain ranges of uncertainties...
September 29, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Cybernetics
Soheila Moeini, Mohsen Saeidi, Fatemeh Fotouhi, Mahdieh Mondanizdeh, Sadegh Shirian, Alireza Mohebi, Ali Gorji, Amir Ghaemi
The use of DNA vaccines has become an attractive approach for generating antigen-specific cytotoxic CD8(+) T lymphocytes (CTLs), which can mediate protective antitumor immunity. The potency of DNA vaccines encoding weakly immunogenic tumor-associated antigens (TAAs) can be improved by using an adjuvant injected together with checkpoint antibodies. In the current study, we evaluated whether the therapeutic effects of a DNA vaccine encoding human papilloma virus type 16 (HPV-16) E7 can be enhanced by combined application of an immune checkpoint blockade directed against the programmed death-1 (PD-1) pathway and secondary lymphoid tissue chemokine (SLC) also known as CCL21 adjuvant, in a mouse cervical cancer model...
October 3, 2016: Archives of Virology
Claire Colas, Peter Man-Un Ung, Avner Schlessinger
The human Solute Carrier (SLC) transporters are important targets for drug development. Structure-based drug discovery for SLC transporters requires the description of their structure, dynamics, and mechanism of interaction with small molecule ligands and ions. The recent determination of atomic structures of human SLC transporters and their homologs, combined with improved computational power and prediction methods have led to an increased applicability of structure-based drug design methods for human SLC members...
June 1, 2016: MedChemComm
Yan Li, Jezrael Revalde, James W Paxton
Membrane transporter proteins (the ABC transporters and SLC transporters) play pivotal roles in drug absorption and disposition, and thus determine their efficacy and safety. Accumulating evidence suggests that the expression and activity of these transporters may be modulated by various phytochemicals (PCs) found in diets rich in plants and herbs. PC absorption and disposition are also subject to the function of membrane transporter and drug metabolizing enzymes. PC-drug interactions may involve multiple major drug transporters (and metabolizing enzymes) in the body, leading to alterations in the pharmacokinetics of substrate drugs, and thus their efficacy and toxicity...
September 13, 2016: Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews
T Vats, S Dutt, R Kumar, P F Siril
Amazing conductivity, perfect honeycomb sp(2) arrangement and the high theoretical surface area make pristine graphene as one of the best materials suited for application as catalyst supports. Unfortunately, the low reactivity of the material makes the formation of nanocomposite with inorganic materials difficult. Here we report an easy approach to synthesize nanocomposites of pristine graphene with palladium (Pd-G) using swollen liquid crystals (SLCs) as a soft template. The SLC template gives the control to deposit very small Pd particles of uniform size on G as well as RGO...
2016: Scientific Reports
Anna Jurczak, Małgorzata Szkup, Anna Grzywacz, Krzysztof Safranow, Elżbieta Grochans
The purpose of this study was to determine whether anxiety and mood disorders in late-reproductive-stage women are related to the serotonin transporter and monoamine oxidase A gene polymorphisms. Research instrument used in this study were the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory and the UWIST Mood Adjective Checklist. The 44-bp VNTR polymorphism in the 5-HTT (SLC 6A4) promoter region and the 30-bp VNTR polymorphism in the MAO-A promoter region were analyzed. The study included 345 healthy Polish women in the late reproductive stage...
September 10, 2016: Archives of Women's Mental Health
Daria Schneider-Matyka, Anna Jurczak, Agnieszka Samochowiec, Beata Karakiewicz, Małgorzata Szkup, Anna Grzywacz, Elżbieta Grochans
BACKGROUND: Quality of life can be perceived as a subjective assessment of different aspects of human functioning. Personality is a factor which determines actions taken by individuals and their tendency to perceive reality in a particular way. Therefore, the assumption that personality may influence the QoL assessment seems reasonable. Our purpose was to assess the relationships between personality traits and the presence of the 44-bp VNTR polymorphism in the 5-HTT (SLC 6A4) promoter region and the 30-bp VNTR polymorphism in the MAO-A promoter region...
2016: Annals of General Psychiatry
Bryan H Thurtle-Schmidt, Robert M Stroud
Boron is essential for plant growth because of its incorporation into plant cell walls; however, in excess it is toxic to plants. Boron transport and homeostasis in plants is regulated in part by the borate efflux transporter Bor1, a member of the solute carrier (SLC) 4 transporter family with homology to the human bicarbonate transporter Band 3. Here, we present the 4.1-Å resolution crystal structure of Arabidopsis thaliana Bor1. The structure displays a dimeric architecture in which dimerization is mediated by centralized Gate domains...
September 20, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Asaf Honig, Ruth Eliahou, Roni Eichel, Ari Aharon Shemesh, Tamir Ben-Hur, Eitan Auriel
Bilateral thalamic infarction (BTI) typically presents as a sleep-like coma (SLC) without localizing signs, posing a diagnostic challenge that may lead the treating physician to search for toxic or metabolic causes and delay treatment. We review our experience with BTI of different etiologies, and emphasize the critical role of timely imaging, diagnosis, and management in a series of 12 patients with a presentation of SLC and acute BTI who were managed in our Medical Centers from 2006-2015. In 11/12, urgent head CT scans showed normal brain tissue, while diffusion-weighted (DWI) MRI revealed symmetric bilateral thalamic hyperintense lesions with variable degrees of brainstem involvement...
September 1, 2016: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
Yagmur Yagdiran, Jonas Tallkvist, Karin Artursson, Agneta Oskarsson
Inflammation in the mammary gland (mastitis) is the most common disease in dairy herds worldwide, often caused by the pathogens Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and Escherichia coli (E. coli). Little is known about the effects of mastitis on drug transporters and the impact on transporter-mediated excretion of drugs into milk. We used murine mammary epithelial HC11 cells, after lactogenic differentiation into a secreting phenotype, and studied gene expressions of ABC- and SLC- transporters after treatment of cells with S...
2016: PloS One
Ling Ye, Chuqi Hou, Shuwen Liu
Patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) receive antiretroviral therapy (ART) through the use of antiretroviral drugs. A combination of at least three drugs that suppreses HIV replication is used as standard treatment, and this is often called "highly active antiretroviral therapy" (HAART). Virus resistance is less likely when three or more drugs are used. A complication of anti-HIV drugs has a complex pharmacokinetic profile which is involved with extensive metabolism and transport by drug metabolizing enzymes (e...
August 29, 2016: Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry
W Tipkantha, P Thuwanut, J Morrell, P Comizzoli, K Chatdarong
The objectives of the present study were to evaluate sperm characteristic of captive clouded leopards in Thailand and examine the structural and functional properties of sperm after selection with the single-layer centrifugation (SLC) method. Twenty-two ejaculates from 11 captive clouded leopards (four housed with access to a female in estrus, and seven housed singly) were collected and assessed for semen traits during 2013 to 2015. Twelve fresh ejaculates were chosen from seven males, and each was divided between two sperm preparation methods; (1) simple washing and (2) SLC...
July 25, 2016: Theriogenology
Xianxiang Xu, Canghai Li, Pan Zhou, Tingliang Jiang
CONTEXT: Hyperuricaemia is known as an abnormally increased uric acid level in the blood. Although it was observed many years ago, since uric acid excretion via the intestine pathway accounted for approximately one-third of total elimination of uric acid, the molecular mechanism of 'extra-renal excretion' was poorly understood until the finding of uric acid transporters. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to gather all information related to uric acid transporters in the intestine and present this information as a comprehensive and systematic review article...
August 26, 2016: Pharmaceutical Biology
Sabine Hoja, Markus Schulze, Michael Rehli, Martin Proescholdt, Christel Herold-Mende, Peter Hau, Markus J Riemenschneider
Many glioblastoma patients suffer from seizures why they are treated with antiepileptic agents. Valproic acid (VPA) is a histone deacetylase inhibitor that apart from its anticonvulsive effects in some retrospective studies has been suggested to lead to a superior outcome of glioblastoma patients. However, the exact molecular effects of VPA treatment on glioblastoma cells have not yet been deciphered. We treated glioblastoma cells with VPA, recorded the functional effects of this treatment and performed a global and unbiased next generation sequencing study on the chromatin (ChIP) and RNA level...
August 18, 2016: Oncotarget
Sylvia Chen, Natalia Sutiman, Clara Zhenxian Zhang, Yingnan Yu, Shirley Lam, Chiea Chuen Khor, Balram Chowbay
Drug efflux and influx transporters play critical roles in regulating the cellular drug disposition and modulating the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of anti-cancer agents, which may potentially alter treatment outcomes. The efficiency of drug transport is often dependent on the expression and activity of these membrane-bound proteins, factors which have been shown to be regulated by genes that are known to be highly polymorphic in different ethnic populations. The role of drug transporters becomes even more critical for anti-cancer agents due to the narrow therapeutic windows that separate treatment response and toxicities for these agents...
November 2016: Drug Metabolism Reviews
Boon C Ng, Peter A Smith, Frank Nestler, Daniel Timms, William E Cohn, Einly Lim
The successful clinical applicability of rotary left ventricular assist devices (LVADs) has led to research interest in devising a total artificial heart (TAH) using two rotary blood pumps (RBPs). The major challenge when using two separately controlled LVADs for TAH support is the difficulty in maintaining the balance between pulmonary and systemic blood flows. In this study, a starling-like controller (SLC) hybridized with an adaptive mechanism was developed for a dual rotary LVAD TAH. The incorporation of the adaptive mechanism was intended not only to minimize the risk of pulmonary congestion and atrial suction but also to match cardiac demand...
August 19, 2016: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
R Santa Cruz, S M Giuliano, M C Gambarotta, J M Morrell, M C Abraham, M H Miragaya, M I Carretero
The objective of this study was to compare the efficiency of different sperm selection methods applied to the same llama ejaculate. Four treatments were compared: two variants of the swim up technique (with and without seminal plasma), and two different colloids, Androcoll-E-Large and Percoll(®). Using electroejaculation, 21 semen samples were obtained from 7 llama males (n=7, r=3). The ejaculates were incubated in a solution of 0.1% collagenase, to decrease thread formation, and then split into 4 aliquots: one aliquot was layered over a column of Androcoll-E-Large (SLC) and the second over a column of Percoll (45%)...
October 2016: Animal Reproduction Science
Ivan Mihaljevic, Marta Popovic, Roko Zaja, Tvrtko Smital
BACKGROUND: SLC22 protein family is a member of the SLC (Solute carriers) superfamily of polyspecific membrane transporters responsible for uptake of a wide range of organic anions and cations, including numerous endo- and xenobiotics. Due to the lack of knowledge on zebrafish Slc22 family, we performed initial characterization of these transporters using a detailed phylogenetic and conserved synteny analysis followed by the tissue specific expression profiling of slc22 transcripts. RESULTS: We identified 20 zebrafish slc22 genes which are organized in the same functional subgroups as human SLC22 members...
2016: BMC Genomics
Katarzyna A Nałęcz
Blood-brain barrier formed by brain capillary endothelial cells, being in contact with astrocytes endfeet and pericytes, separates extracellular fluid from plasma. Supply of necessary nutrients and removal of certain metabolites takes place due to the activity of transporting proteins from ABC (ATP binding cassette) and SLC (solute carrier) superfamilies. This review is focused on the SLC families involved in transport though the blood-brain barrier of energetic substrates (glucose, monocarboxylates, creatine), amino acids, neurotransmitters and their precursors, as well as organic ions...
August 9, 2016: Neurochemical Research
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