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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717013/mechanisms-of-carbon-dioxide-acquisition-and-co2-sensing-in-marine-diatoms-a-gateway-to-carbon-metabolism
#1
REVIEW
Yusuke Matsuda, Brian M Hopkinson, Kensuke Nakajima, Christopher L Dupont, Yoshinori Tsuji
Diatoms are one of the most successful marine eukaryotic algal groups, responsible for up to 20% of the annual global CO2 fixation. The evolution of a CO2-concentrating mechanism (CCM) allowed diatoms to overcome a number of serious constraints on photosynthesis in the marine environment, particularly low [CO2]aq in seawater relative to concentrations required by the CO2 fixing enzyme, ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RubisCO), which is partly due to the slow diffusion rate of CO2 in water and a limited CO2 formation rate from [Formula: see text] in seawater...
September 5, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698977/pharmacogenetics-and-pharmacogenomics-of-targeted-therapeutics-in-chronic-myeloid-leukemia
#2
REVIEW
Aritro Nath, Jacqueline Wang, R Stephanie Huang
The advent of targeted therapeutics has greatly improved outcomes of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) patients. Despite increased efficacy and better clinical responses over cytotoxic chemotherapies, many patients receiving targeted drugs exhibit a poor initial response, develop drug resistance, or undergo relapse after initial success. This inter-individual variation in response has heightened the interest in studying pharmacogenetics and pharmacogenomics (PGx) of cancer drugs. In this review, we discuss the influence of various germline and somatic factors on targeted drug response in CML...
July 11, 2017: Molecular Diagnosis & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696229/mdr1-and-bcrp-transporter-mediated-drug-drug-interaction-between-rilpivirine-and-abacavir-effect-on-intestinal-absorption
#3
Josef Reznicek, Martina Ceckova, Zuzana Ptackova, Ondrej Martinec, Lenka Tupova, Lukas Cerveny, Frantisek Staud
Rilpivirine (TMC278) is a highly potent second-generation non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) representing an effective component of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) in the treatment of HIV-positive patients. Many antiretroviral drugs commonly used in cART are substrates of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) and/or solute carrier (SLC) drug transporters and, therefore, prone to pharmacokinetic drug-drug interactions (DDIs). The aim of our study was to evaluate rilpivirine interactions with abacavir and lamivudine on selected ABC and SLC transporters in vitro and assess its importance for pharmacokinetics in vivoUsing accumulation assays in MDCK cells overexpressing selected ABC or SLC drug transporters we revealed rilpivirine as a potent inhibitor of MDR1 and BCRP, but not MRP2, OCT1, OCT2 or MATE1...
July 10, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694436/expression-and-regulation-of-drug-transporters-in-vertebrate-neutrophils
#4
Matthew J Foulkes, Katherine M Henry, Julien Rougeot, Edward Hooper-Greenhill, Catherine A Loynes, Phil Jeffrey, Angeleen Fleming, Caroline O Savage, Annemarie H Meijer, Simon Jones, Stephen A Renshaw
There remains a need to identify novel pro-resolution drugs for treatment of inflammatory disease. To date, there are no neutrophil-specific anti-inflammatory treatments in clinical use, perhaps due to our lack of understanding of how drugs access this complex cell type. Here we present the first comprehensive description and expression of both major classes of drug transporters, SLC and ABC, in resting human blood neutrophils. Moreover, we have studied the expression of these carriers in the tractable model system, the zebrafish (Danio rerio), additionally examining the evolutionary relationship between drug transporters in zebrafish and humans...
July 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693494/variation-of-sentinel-lymphatic-channels-slcs-and-sentinel-lymph-nodes-slns-assessed-by-contrast-enhanced-ultrasound-ceus-in-breast-cancer-patients
#5
Ying Wang, Wenbin Zhou, Cuiying Li, Haiyan Gong, Chunlian Li, Nianzhao Yang, Xiaoming Zha, Lin Chen, Tiansong Xia, Xiaoan Liu, Minghai Wang, Qiang Ding
BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to assess the feasibility of detecting the variation of sentinel lymphatic channels (SLCs) and sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs) in breast cancer patients using contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS). METHODS: A total of 46 breast cancer patients were prospectively recruited in the study. All the participants received intradermal and peritumoral injection of microbubbles as contrast agent, and SLCs and SLNs were assessed preoperatively...
July 10, 2017: World Journal of Surgical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28692097/controlling-the-enthalpy-entropy-competition-in-supramolecular-fullerene-liquid-crystals-by-tuning-the-flexible-chain-length
#6
Tiantian Zhu, Xiaoyan Zhang, Zhikai Li, Chih-Hao Hsu, Wei Chen, Toshikazu Miyoshi, Xiaohong Li, Xiaoming Yang, Yingfeng Tu, Christopher Y Li
We present here that in two-dimensional (2D) fullerene supramolecular liquid crystals (SLCs), the phase diagram and lamella thickness of SLCs and 2D crystals can be tuned by the flexible alkyl tail and spacer length, due to their different effects on enthalpy and entropy changes during SLC formation.
July 10, 2017: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28681281/population-health-outcomes-of-a-student-led-free-health-clinic-for-an-underserved-population-a-naturalistic-study
#7
Cynthia M Stuhlmiller, Barry Tolchard
There are a number of hard to reach and underserved communities who experience inadequate health care. In Australia, the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders peoples experience low life expectancy, higher levels for chronic disease and elevated smoking and drinking. These problems are further exacerbated when living in regional and rural Australia and poverty. There are growing concerns over helping such groups in order to close the health disparity gap. A student-led clinic (SLC) was developed to address clinical placement shortages while providing free health and social services in an underserved community in regional Australia...
July 5, 2017: Journal of Community Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28678109/age-correlated-phenotypic-alterations-in-cells-isolated-from-human-degenerated-intervertebral-discs-with-contained-hernias
#8
Maria Molinos, Carla Cunha, Catarina R Almeida, Raquel M Gonçalves, Paulo Pereira, Pedro Santos Silva, Rui Vaz, Mário A Barbosa
STUDY DESIGN: Human intervertebral disc (hIVD) cells were isolated from 41 surgically excised samples and assessed for their phenotypic alterations with age. OBJECTIVE: Towards the design of novel anti-ageing strategies to overcome degenerative disc disease (DDD), we investigated age-correlated phenotypic alterations that occur on primary hIVD cells. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Although regenerative medicine holds great hope, much is still to be unveiled on IVD cell biology and its intrinsic signalling pathways, which can lead the way to successful therapies for IDD...
July 3, 2017: Spine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28664465/slc-and-abc-transporters-expression-localization-and-species-differences-at-the-blood-brain-and-the-blood-cerebrospinal-fluid-barriers
#9
Marilyn E Morris, Vivian Rodriguez-Cruz, Melanie A Felmlee
The blood-brain barrier (BBB) and the blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier (BCSFB) separate the brain and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from the systemic circulation and represent a barrier to the uptake of both endogenous compounds and xenobiotics into the brain. For compounds whose passive diffusion is limited due to their ionization or hydrophilicity, membrane transporters can facilitate their uptake across the BBB or BCSFB. Members of the solute carrier (SLC) and ATP-binding case (ABC) families are present on these barriers...
June 29, 2017: AAPS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651537/improving-sperm-banking-efficiency-in-endangered-species-through-the-use-of-a-sperm-selection-method-in-brown-bear-ursus-arctos-thawed-sperm
#10
L Anel-Lopez, C Ortega-Ferrusola, M Álvarez, S Borragán, C Chamorro, F J Peña, J Morrell, L Anel, P de Paz
BACKGROUND: Sperm selection methods such as Single Layer Centrifugation (SLC) have been demonstrated to be a useful tool to improve the quality of sperm samples and therefore to increase the efficiency of other artificial reproductive techniques in several species. This procedure could help to improve the quality of genetic resource banks, which is essential for endangered species. In contrast, these sperm selection methods are optimized and focused on farm animals, where the recovery task is not as important as in endangered species because of their higher sperm availability...
June 26, 2017: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638886/mechanisms-of-coix-seed-compositions-in-the-treatment-of-spleen-deficiency-and-wet-dampness-zheng
#11
Xiaochun Han, Xuming Ji, Haijun Zhao, Yanan Zhang, Guowei Liu, Yanfang Wang, Wenxiao Zhao, Shijun Wang
BACKGROUND: Coix seed has the functions of fortifying the spleen and inhibiting the dampness. However, it remains unclear which Coix seed compositions is responsible for these functions. Previous investigations have revealed that the main compositions of Coix seed are proteins, polysaccharides, oils and starches. The objectives of this study are to explore which is the most effective compositions in fortifying the spleen and examine how Coix seed works in regulating the water transport on the spleen deficiency and wet dampness (SDWD) rat model...
2017: African Journal of Traditional, Complementary, and Alternative Medicines: AJTCAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633848/novel-synthesis-of-nanocomposite-for-the-extraction-of-sildenafil-citrate-viagra-from-water-and-urine-samples-process-screening-and-optimization
#12
Arash Asfaram, Mehrorang Ghaedi, Mihir Kumar Purkait
A sensitive analytical method is investigated to concentrate and determine trace level of Sildenafil Citrate (SLC) present in water and urine samples. The method is based on a sample treatment using dispersive solid-phase micro-extraction (DSPME) with laboratory-made Mn@ CuS/ZnS nanocomposite loaded on activated carbon (Mn@ CuS/ZnS-NCs-AC) as a sorbent for the target analyte. The efficiency was enhanced by ultrasound-assisted (UA) with dispersive nanocomposite solid-phase micro-extraction (UA-DNSPME). Four significant variables affecting SLC recovery like; pH, eluent volume, sonication time and adsorbent mass were selected by the Plackett-Burman design (PBD) experiments...
September 2017: Ultrasonics Sonochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633304/molecular-aspects-of-the-biophysical-co2-concentrating-mechanism-and-its-regulation-in-marine-diatoms
#13
Yoshinori Tsuji, Kensuke Nakajima, Yusuke Matsuda
Diatoms operate a CO2-concentrating mechanism (CCM) that drives upwards of 20% of annual global primary production. Recent progress in CCM research in the marine pennate diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum revealed that this diatom directly takes up HCO3- from seawater through low-CO2-inducible plasma membrane HCO3- transporters, which belong to the solute carrier (SLC) 4 family. Apart from this, studies of carbonic anhydrases (CAs) in diatoms have revealed considerable diversity in classes and localization among species...
June 13, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631822/mesoporous-silica-based-dosage-forms-improve-bioavailability-of-poorly-soluble-drugs-in-pigs-case-example-fenofibrate
#14
Joseph P O'Shea, Kalpa Nagarsekar, Alena Wieber, Vanessa Witt, Elisabeth Herbert, Caitriona M O'Driscoll, Christoph Saal, Dieter Lubda, Brendan T Griffin, Jennifer B Dressman
OBJECTIVES: Mesoporous silicas (SLC) have demonstrated considerable potential to improve bioavailability of poorly soluble drugs by facilitating rapid dissolution and generating supersaturation. The addition of certain polymers can further enhance the dissolution of these formulations by preventing drug precipitation. This study uses fenofibrate as a model drug to investigate the performance of an SLC-based formulation, delivered with hydroxypropyl methylcellulose acetate succinate (HPMCAS) as a precipitation inhibitor, in pigs...
June 20, 2017: Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631600/inhibition-of-carbonic-anhydrase-ix-by-ureidosulfonamide-inhibitor-u104-reduces-prostate-cancer-cell-growth-but-does-not-modulate-daunorubicin-or-cisplatin-cytotoxicity
#15
Anne Riemann, Antje Güttler, Verena Haupt, Henri Wichmann, Sarah Reime, Matthias Bache, Dirk Vordermark, Oliver Thews
Carbonic anhydrase IX has emerged as a promising target for cancer therapy. It is highly up-regulated in hypoxic regions and mediates pH regulation critical for tumor cell survival as well as extracellular acidification of the tumor microenvironment which promotes tumor aggressiveness via various mechanisms, such as augmenting metastatic potential. Therefore, the aim of this study was to analyze the complex interdependency between CA IX and the tumor microenvironment in prostate tumor cells in concern of potential therapeutic implications...
June 19, 2017: Oncology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630707/evidence-of-endometrial-amino-acid-metabolism-and-transport-modulation-by-peri-ovulatory-endocrine-profiles-driving-uterine-receptivity
#16
Moana Rodrigues França, Maressa Izabel Santos da Silva, Guilherme Pugliesi, Veerle Van Hoeck, Mario Binelli
BACKGROUND: In beef cattle, changes in the periovulatory endocrine milieu are associated with fertility and conceptus growth. A large preovulatory follicle (POF) and the resulting elevated concentrations of progesterone (P4) during diestrus positively affect pregnancy rates. Amino acids (AA) are important components of maternally derived secretions that are crucial for embryonic survival before implantation. The hypothesis is that the size of the POF and the concentration of P4 in early diestrus modulate the endometrial abundance of SLC transcripts related to AA transport and metabolism and subsequently impact luminal concentrations of AA...
2017: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625135/studying-interactions-of-drugs-with-cell-membrane-nutrient-transporters-new-frontiers-of-proteoliposome-nanotechnology
#17
Mariafrancesca Scalise, Michele Galluccio, Lorena Pochini, Lara Console, Maria Barile, Nicola Giangregorio, Annamaria Tonazzi, Cesare Indiveri
Transport systems are hydrophobic proteins localized in cell membranes where they mediate transmembrane flow of nutrients, ions and any other compounds essential for cell metabolism. More than 400 transporters of the SoLuteCarrier (SLC) group are present in human cells. Transporters take contacts also with xenobiotics, thus mediating absorption and/or interaction with these exogenous compounds. Since drugs belong to xenobiotics, transporters gained interest also in drug discovery. Transporters differentially expressed in pathological conditions are exploited as drug targets...
June 15, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617525/characterization-of-high-exopolysaccharide-producing-lactobacillus-strains-isolated-from-mustard-pickles-for-potential-probiotic-applications
#18
Jing-Yao Huang, Cheng-Yen Kao, We-Sin Liu, Tony J Fang
The aim of this study was to characterize high exopolysaccharide (EPS)-producing lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolated from mustard pickles in Taiwan for potential probiotic applications. Among 39 collected LAB strains, four most productive EPS-producing strains were selected for further analysis. Comparative analyses of 16S rDNA genes rpoA and pheS sequences demonstrated that these strains were members of Lactobacillus plantarum-group (LPG). NCD 2, NLD 4, SLC 13, and NLD 16 showed survival rates of 95.83% ± 0...
June 2017: International Microbiology: the Official Journal of the Spanish Society for Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28609288/eff-ect-of-a-single-asenapine-treatment-on-fos-expression-in-the-brain-catecholamine-synthesizing-neurons-impact-of-a-chronic-mild-stress-preconditioning
#19
J Osacka, L Horvathova, Z Majercikova, Alexander Kiss
OBJECTIVE: Fos protein expression in catecholamine-synthesizing neurons of the substantia nigra (SN) pars compacta (SNC, A8), pars reticulata (SNR, A9), and pars lateralis (SNL), the ventral tegmental area (VTA, A10), the locus coeruleus (LC, A6) and subcoeruleus (sLC), the ventrolateral pons (PON-A5), the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS-A2), the area postrema (AP), and the ventrolateral medulla (VLM-A1) was quantitatively evaluated aft er a single administration of asenapine (ASE) (designated for schizophrenia treatment) in male Wistar rats preconditioned with a chronic unpredictable variable mild stress (CMS) for 21 days...
April 25, 2017: Endocrine Regulations
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28603611/subtotal-laparoscopic-cholecystectomy-influences-the-rate-of-conversion-in-patients-with-difficult-laparoscopic-cholecystectomy-case-series
#20
W E Abdelrahim, Kamal E Elsiddig, A A Wahab, M Saad, H Saeed, E A G Khalil
OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to show that subtotal laparoscopic cholecystectomy (SLC) is a safe procedure that reduces the rate of conversion in patients with difficult laporoscopic cholecystectomies in resource-meagre settings. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Following informed consent, patients with gallstones reporting to Atbara Medical Centre, Atbara, Northern Sudan from February 2012 to July 2013 were managed laparoscopically except those with choledocholithiasis. SLC was done for patients with difficult cholecystectomy and obscured Callot's triangle...
July 2017: Annals of Medicine and Surgery
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