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surfactant protein

Deepthi Alapati, Edward E Morrisey
While our understanding of the genetics and pathology of congenital lung diseases such as surfactant protein deficiency, cystic fibrosis and alpha 1 antitrypsin deficiency is extensive, treatment options are lacking. Since the lung is a barrier organ in direct communication with the external environment, targeted delivery of gene corrective technologies to the respiratory system via intra-tracheal or intranasal routes is an attractive option for therapy. CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing technology is a promising approach to repair or inactivate disease causing mutations...
October 25, 2016: American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology
Bárbara Olmeda, Marta Martinez-Calle, Jesus Pérez-Gil
Pulmonary surfactant is a lipid-protein complex that lines and stabilizes the respiratory interface in the alveoli, allowing for gas exchange during the breathing cycle. At the same time, surfactant constitutes the first line of lung defense against pathogens. This review presents an updated view on the processes involved in biogenesis and intracellular processing of newly synthesized and recycled surfactant components, as well as on the extracellular surfactant transformations before and after the formation of the surface active film at the air-water interface...
October 20, 2016: Annals of Anatomy, Anatomischer Anzeiger: Official Organ of the Anatomische Gesellschaft
Qingdi Zhu, Dieter Trau
Surface-tension-driven capillary systems (CSs) enable self-powered delivery of samples and reagents for bioassays and thus are especially suitable for point-of-care applications. Current silicon and polymer based CSs require extensive work in professional cleanroom for the fabrication of either the silicon device itself or the micromold for polymer processing. In this work, we fabricated a PEG-based CS in a one-step photopolymerization process without the requirement of any cleanroom work. Water, buffer and serum can flow autonomously in this CS and the liquid flow rate can be tuned by modification with surfactant solution of different concentrations...
January 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
Marco Muth, Stefanie Rothkötter, Steven Paprosch, Reiner P Schmid, Klaus Schnitzlein
Lipase-catalyzed hydrolysis of triglycerides yields glycerol and free fatty-acids, provided that the enzyme is non-regioselective. For an Sn-1,3 regioselective enzyme, such as lipase from Thermomyces lanuginosus, the final product is no longer glycerol but Sn-2 monoglyceride instead. However, surface active molecules generated by lipolysis may have a detrimental effect on the interfacial biocatalysis since it is known that low molecular weight surfactants can displace proteins from interfaces. By using drop profile analysis tensiometry, we evaluated the interfacial properties of the lipase-generated molecules and their competitive effect on the adsorption behavior of the lipase and on the proceeding lipolysis...
October 12, 2016: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
Cho-Ming Chao, Faady Yahya, Alena Moiseenko, Caterina Tiozzo, Amit Shrestha, Negah Ahmadvand, Elie El Agha, Jennifer Quantius, Salma Dilai, Vahid Kheirollahi, Matthew Jones, Jochen Wilhem, Gianni Carraro, Harald Ehrhardt, Klaus-Peter Zimmer, Guillermo Barreto, Katrin Ahlbrecht, Rory E Morty, Susanne Herold, Rosanna G Abellar, Werner Seeger, Ralph Schermuly, Jin-San Zhang, Parviz Minoo, Saverio Bellusci
Inflammation-induced FGF10 protein deficiency is associated with bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), a chronic lung disease of prematurely born infants characterized by arrested alveolar development. So far, experimental evidence for a direct role of FGF10 in lung disease is lacking. Using the hyperoxia-induced neonatal lung injury as a mouse model of BPD, the impact of Fgf10 deficiency in Fgf10(+/-) versus Fgf10(+/+) pups was investigated. In normoxia, no lethality of Fgf10(+/+) or Fgf10(+/-) pups was observed...
October 22, 2016: Journal of Pathology
Majid Jafari, Faramarz Mehrnejad
Changes in the tertiary structure of proteins and the resultant fibrillary aggregation could result in fatal heredity diseases, such as lysozyme systemic amyloidosis. Human lysozyme is a globular protein with antimicrobial properties with tendencies to fibrillate and hence is known as a fibril-forming protein. Therefore, its behavior under different ambient conditions is of great importance. In this study, we conducted two 500000 ps molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of human lysozyme in sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) at two ambient temperatures...
2016: PloS One
Folasade M Olajuyigbe, Cornelius O Fatokun
Functionality of enzymes within narrow pH range and temperature is a major challenge which limits their industrial applications, hence, there is need to search for thermostable pH-versatile enzymes. Here, a novel thermostable pH-versatile laccase from Sporothrix carnis CPF-05 was purified by ion-exchange and gel filtration chromatography. Single protein band on sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) confirmed homogeneity of the enzyme with molecular weight of 56kDa. Enzyme yield was 3...
October 17, 2016: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Joshua B Lewis, Dallin C Milner, Adam L Lewis, Todd M Dunaway, Kaleb M Egbert, Scott C Albright, Brigham J Merrell, Troy D Monson, Dallin S Broberg, Jason R Gassman, Daniel B Thomas, Juan A Arroyo, Paul R Reynolds
It has long been understood that increased epithelial permeability contributes to inflammation observed in many respiratory diseases. Recently, evidence has revealed that environmental exposure to noxious material such as cigarette smoke reduces tight junction barrier integrity, thus enhancing inflammatory conditions. Claudin-6 (Cldn6) is a tetraspanin transmembrane protein found within the tight junctional complex and is implicated in maintaining lung epithelial barriers. To test the hypothesis that increased Cldn6 ameliorates inflammation at the respiratory barrier, we utilized the Tet-On inducible transgenic system to conditionally over-express Clnd6 in the distal lung...
October 17, 2016: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Nuria Roldan, Thomas K M Nyholm, J Peter Slotte, Jesús Pérez-Gil, Begoña García-Álvarez
To allow breathing and prevent alveolar collapse, lung surfactant (LS) develops a complex membranous system at the respiratory surface. LS is defined by a specific protein and lipid composition, including saturated and unsaturated phospholipid species and cholesterol. Surfactant protein C (SP-C) has been suggested to be an essential element for sustaining the presence of cholesterol in surfactant without functional impairment. In this work, we used a fluorescent sterol-partitioning assay to assess the effect of the surfactant proteins SP-B and SP-C on cholesterol distribution in membranes...
October 18, 2016: Biophysical Journal
Martina Doubková, Michal Karpíšek, Jiri Mazoch, Jana Skřičková, Michael Doubek
BACKGROUND: Identification of serum and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) biomarkers may facilitate diagnosis and prognostication in various lung disorders. OBJECTIVE: Serum and BALF levels of surfactant protein A (SP-A), surfactant protein D (SP-D), Clara cell protein 16 (CC16), S100 protein, trefoil factor 3 (TFF3), and prostatic secretory protein 94 (PSP94) were evaluated in 94 consecutive patients (idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF; n=18), sarcoidosis (n=25), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD; n=51)), and in 155 healthy controls...
October 7, 2016: Sarcoidosis, Vasculitis, and Diffuse Lung Diseases: Official Journal of WASOG
Young Seok Lee, Ho Cheol Kim, Bo Young Lee, Chang Keun Lee, Mi-Young Kim, Se Jin Jang, Hye Sun Lee, Jieun Moon, Thomas V Colby, Dong Soon Kim
BACKGROUND: Because of the highly variable clinical course of rheumatoid arthritis-associated usual interstitial pneumonia (RA-UIP), the prediction of patient prognosis is important. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the role of blood biomarkers as prognostic predictors in the patients with RA-UIP. METHODS: The blood levels of biomarkers (Krebs von den Lungen-6 [KL-6], surfactant protein-A [SP-A], matrix metalloproteinase-7 [MMP-7], interleukin-6 [IL-6], and interleukin-32 [IL-32]) were retrospectively compared with the clinical courses of 62 patients with RA-UIP...
October 7, 2016: Sarcoidosis, Vasculitis, and Diffuse Lung Diseases: Official Journal of WASOG
Asmaa R Abdel-Hamed, Dina M Abo-Elmatty, Juergen Wiegel, Noha M Mesbah
An extracellular, halophilic, alkalithermophilic serine protease from the halo-alkaliphilic Alkalibacillus sp. NM-Da2 was purified to homogeneity by ethanol precipitation and anion-exchange chromatography. The purified protease was a monomeric enzyme with an approximate molecular mass of 35 kDa and exhibited maximal activity at 2.7 M NaCl, pH(55 °C) 9 and 56 °C. The protease showed great temperature stability, retaining greater than 80 % of initial activity after 2 h incubation at 55 °C. The protease was also extremely pH tolerant, retaining 80 % of initial activity at pH(55 °C) 10...
October 18, 2016: Extremophiles: Life Under Extreme Conditions
Dongmei Lu, Nanfang Li, Xiaoguang Yao, Ling Zhou
Obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS) is a complex chronic inflammatory respiratory disease with multiple pathogenic factors and high morbidity and mortality. Serum levels of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), hypoxia-inducible factor-1 alpha (HIF-1α), and surfactant protein D (SPD) were investigated in OSAHS patients, to determine their clinical significance and correlation with the pathogenesis. Patients were classified into a mild and moderate OSAHS group (n = 25) and severe OSAHS group (n = 33). Twenty healthy patients served as a control group...
October 18, 2016: Bosnian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences
Crystal N Marconett, Beiyun Zhou, Mitsuhiro Sunohara, Tiffany M Pouldar, HongJun Wang, Yixin Liu, Megan E Rieger, Evelyn Tran, Per Flodby, Kimberly D Siegmund, Edward D Crandall, Ite A Laird-Offringa, Zea Borok
Diseases involving the distal lung alveolar epithelium include chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) and lung adenocarcinoma. Accurate labeling of specific cell types is critical for determining the contribution of each to pathogenesis of these diseases. The distal lung alveolar epithelium is comprised of two cell types, alveolar epithelial type 1 (AT1) and type 2 (AT2) cells. While cell type-specific markers, most prominently surfactant protein C (SFTPC), have allowed detailed lineage tracing studies of AT2 cell differentiation and their roles in disease, studies of AT1 cells have been hampered by lack of genes with expression unique to AT1 cells...
October 17, 2016: American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology
Tetsuro Sawata, Masashi Bando, Masayuki Nakayama, Naoko Mato, Hideaki Yamasawa, Yukihiko Sugiyama
Objective The influence of smoking on the pathogenesis and clinical course of interstitial pneumonia has recently attracted attention. To clarify the influence of smoking on the clinical patient characteristics and therapeutic effects in patients with interstitial pneumonia presenting with a non-specific interstitial pneumonia (NSIP) pattern, we compared the clinical patient characteristics and therapeutic effects in smokers and nonsmokers in this study. Methods We divided 31 NSIP (16 idiopathic nonspecific interstitial pneumonia and 15 collagen vascular disease-associated nonspecific interstitial pneumonia) patients into smoker and non-smoker groups for each case...
2016: Internal Medicine
A Jézéquel, M Kerjouan, M Lederlin, C Lainé-Caroff, C Camus, P Delaval, S Jouneau
INTRODUCTION: Auto-immune pulmonary alveolar proteinosis is a rare disorder characterized by the accumulation of surfactant proteins in the alveoli. CASE REPORT: We report a case of a 41-year-old smoker, presenting initially with acute respiratory failure. Whole lung lavages were effective initially but only for a few weeks. GM-CSF subcutaneous injections were not effective, and then plasmapheresis were tried. CONCLUSION: This is the fifth report of the use of this treatment in auto-immune pulmonary alveolar proteinosis...
October 13, 2016: Revue des Maladies Respiratoires
Rahul Kumar, Sana Sandhu, Prabhpreet Singh, Subodh Kumar
The imidazolium derivatives due to their positive charge possess one of the most polarized and positively charged proton at C2-H to form strong ionic hydrogen bond (also termed as double ionic hydrogen bond) with anions and also provide opportunities for anion - π interactions with electron-deficient imidazolium ring. In the present review article, imidazolium based molecular probes for their ability to recognize inorganic anions like halides, cyanide, perchlorate, carboxylic acids, phosphate, sulfate etc...
October 14, 2016: Chemical Record: An Official Publication of the Chemical Society of Japan ... [et Al.]
F Cau, E Pisu, C Gerosa, G Senes, F Ronchi, C Botta, E Di Felice, F Uda, V Marinelli, G Faa, V Fanos, C Moretti, D Fanni
The surfactant complex, thanks to its multiple actions including decrease of surface- tension and antimicrobial activity, plays a fundamental role in newborn survival, lowering the risk of respiratory distress syndrome. The aim of this work was to determine if the synthesis of two surfactant proteins (SP), SPA and pro-SPB, shows some inter-individual variability during lung development in the intrauterine life. Immunoreactivity for SPA and pro-SPB was investigated in the lungs of  40 subjects, including 15 fetuses, ranging from 14 to 22 weeks of gestation, and 25 neonates, from 24 to 41 weeks...
September 26, 2016: European Journal of Histochemistry: EJH
Aysel Kurt, Hasan Turut, Ahmet Acipayam, Aynur Kirbas, Suleyman Yuce, Medine Cumhur Cure, Erkan Cure
OBJECTIVE: Multiple rib fractures (RFs) and pulmonary contusions (PCs), with resulting systemic lung inflammation, are the most common injuries caused by blunt chest trauma (BCT) in motor vehicle accidents. This study examined levels of the inflammation marker interleukin (IL)-6 and those of the acute-phase reactant surfactant protein (SP)-D in patients with BCT. DESIGN: Prospective, cross-sectional, observational study. SETTING: Single-centre, tertiary care hospital in the Black Sea Region of Turkey...
October 12, 2016: BMJ Open
Wahyu Wijaya, Paul Van der Meeren, Christofora Hanny Wijaya, Ashok R Patel
In recent years, there has been significant progress in edible emulsion technology especially with respect to creating and stabilizing surfactant-free emulsion systems for food applications. In this paper, we demonstrate the fabrication of high internal phase emulsions (HIPE) (φoil = 0.82) stabilized using colloidal complexes of non-gelling biopolymers (at concentrations as low as 0.3 wt%). The colloidal complexes were pre-formed by combining whey protein isolate (WPI) and low-methoxyl pectin (LMP) at three different pH values (i...
October 12, 2016: Food & Function
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