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Low level viremia

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091393/viral-blips-were-infrequent-in-treatment-naive-adults-treated-with-rilpivirine-emtricitabine-tenofovir-df-or-efavirenz-emtricitabine-tenofovir-df-through-96-weeks
#1
Danielle P Porter, Rima Kulkarni, Will Garner, Michael D Miller, Kirsten L White
BACKGROUND: The clinical impact of transient episodes of HIV viremia (viral blips) on virologic failure and resistance development is not fully understood. Here we investigated the blip frequency and virologic outcomes of HIV-1-infected subjects experiencing viral blips among treatment-naïve subjects initiating therapy on rilpivirine (RPV)/emtricitabine (FTC)/tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) or efavirenz (EFV)/FTC/TDF through 96 weeks of treatment. METHODS: Subjects treated with at least one dose of study drug and with at least one post-baseline HIV-1 RNA value were included in this analysis...
January 16, 2017: Antiviral Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043030/potential-gingival-crevicular-fluid-and-serum-biomarkers-by-stage-of-hiv-infection
#2
Jesús Eduardo Elizondo, María Del Refugio Rocha-Pizaña, Ana Cecilia Treviño, Deborah Violant, Mario Moisés Álvarez, Ana María Rivas-Estilla
OBJECTIVE: This study evaluates the potential of gingival crevicular fluid and serum cytokines as HIV stage biomarkers. METHODS: Gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) and serum samples from 78 HIV-positive adult male subjects (cases) and 39 HIV-negative male subjects (controls) from Mexico were examined for 17 cytokines using multiplex ELISA. Participants were divided into five subgroups by HIV stage of infection on age-specific CD4+ T-lymphocyte count and antiretroviral therapy (ART), and further correlated to the cytokine levels...
December 30, 2016: Cytokine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28041834/the-hla-g-14-base-pair-deletion-allele-and-the-deletion-deletion-genotype-are-associated-with-persistent-hbe-antigenemia-in-chronic-hepatis-b-infection
#3
Sandro da Costa Ferreira, Silvana Gama Florêncio Chachá, Fernanda Fernandes Souza, Andreza Corrêa Teixeira, Rodrigo de Carvalho Santana, Neifi Hassan Saloun Deghaide, Sandra Rodrigues, Leonardo A Marano, Celso Teixeira Mendes-Junior, Leandra Naira Zambelli Ramalho, Sérgio Zucoloto, Eduardo Antônio Donadi, Ana de Lourdes Candolo Martinelli
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: HLA-G has well-recognized immunomodulatory properties, and this molecule is frequently expressed in the livers of hepatitis B virus (HBV)-infected patients. Because the HLA-G 14 bp-insertion/deletion polymorphism (rs371194629) has been associated with the magnitude of HLA-G expression, we evaluated this polymorphism in the recognized evolutionary forms of chronic HBV infection. METHODS: We studied 196 chronic HBV-infected patients (118 HBeAg-negative chronic hepatitis, 53 HBeAg-positive chronic hepatitis and 25 inactive carriers exhibiting low levels of serum HBVDNA and persistently normal ALT levels), and 202 healthy individuals...
December 29, 2016: Human Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28036372/collapse-of-cytolytic-potential-in-siv-specific-cd8-t-cells-following-acute-siv-infection-in-rhesus-macaques
#4
Emily R Roberts, Diane G Carnathan, Hui Li, George M Shaw, Guido Silvestri, Michael R Betts
Poor maintenance of cytotoxic factor expression among HIV-specific CD8+ T cells, in part caused by dysregulated expression of the transcription factor T-bet, is associated with HIV disease progression. However, the precise evolution and context in which CD8+ T cell cytotoxic functions become dysregulated in HIV infection remain unclear. Using the rhesus macaque (RM) SIV infection model, we evaluated the kinetics of SIV-specific CD8+ T cell cytolytic factor expression in peripheral blood, lymph node, spleen, and gut mucosa from early acute infection through chronic infection...
December 2016: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28033514/infections-due-to-alphaherpesviruses-in-early-post-transplant-period-after-allogeneic-haematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation-results-of-a-5-year-survey
#5
Maciej Przybylski, Anna Majewska, Tomasz Dzieciatkowski, Patrycja Rusicka, Grzegorz W Basak, Barbara Nasilowska-Adamska, Jaroslaw Bilinski, Wieslaw W Jedrzejczak, Marta Wroblewska, Kazimierz Halaburda, Grazyna Mlynarczyk, Agnieszka Tomaszewska
BACKGROUND: Infections caused by human α-herpesviruses usually have a benign course with recurrencies. However, they may become dangerous in immunocompromised hosts. In this case, molecular methods constitute a reliable diagnostic tool enabling rapid assessment of the efficacy of antiviral treatment strategies. OBJECTIVES: We estimated the frequency of alphaherpesviral DNAemia and the viral load during early post-transplantation period after alloHSCT; we also analyzed association of the DNAemia and chosen parameters of the patients...
December 21, 2016: Journal of Clinical Virology: the Official Publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012257/low-level-viremia-and-the-increased-risk-of-hepatocellular-carcinoma-in-patients-receiving-entecavir-treatment
#6
Jung Hee Kim, Dong Hyun Sinn, Wonseok Kang, Geum-Youn Gwak, Yong-Han Paik, Moon Seok Choi, Joon Hyeok Lee, Kwang Cheol Koh, Seung Woon Paik
: The long-term clinical impact of low-level viremia (LLV; <2,000 IU/mL) is not well understood. As a result, it is unclear whether the development of LLV during entecavir monotherapy requires a change in therapy. A retrospective cohort of 875 treatment-naive chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) monoinfected patients (mean age 47.7 years, male = 564 [65.5%], cirrhosis = 443 [50.6%]) who received entecavir monotherapy were analyzed for the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The HCC risk was compared between patients who maintained virological response (MVR), defined by persistently undetectable HBV DNA (<12 IU/mL), and patients who experienced LLV, defined by either persistent or intermittent episodes of <2,000 IU/mL detectable HBV DNA...
November 5, 2016: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28006671/recapitulation-of-treatment-response-patterns-in-a-novel-humanized-mouse-model-for-chronic-hepatitis-b-virus-infection
#7
Benjamin Y Winer, Tiffany Huang, Benjamin E Low, Cindy Avery, Mihai-Alexandru Pais, Gabriela Hrebikova, Evelyn Siu, Luis Chiriboga, Michael V Wiles, Alexander Ploss
There are ~350 million chronic carriers of hepatitis B (HBV). While a prophylactic vaccine and drug regimens to suppress viremia are available, chronic HBV infection is rarely cured. HBV's limited host tropism leads to a scarcity of susceptible small animal models and is a hurdle to developing curative therapies. Mice that support engraftment with human hepatoctyes have traditionally been generated through crosses of murine liver injury models to immunodeficient backgrounds. Here, we describe the disruption of fumarylacetoacetate hydrolase directly in the NOD Rag1(-/-) IL2RγNULL (NRG) background using zinc finger nucleases...
December 19, 2016: Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27986689/hla-b-57-and-ifnl4-related-polymorphisms-are-associated-with-protection-against-hiv-1-disease-progression-in-controllers
#8
B Dominguez-Molina, L Tarancon-Diez, S Hua, C Abad-Molina, E Rodriguez-Gallego, K Machmach, F Vidal, C Tural, S Moreno, J M Goñi, E Ramírez de Arellano, M Del Val, M F Gonzalez-Escribano, J Del Romero, C Rodriguez, L Capa, P Viciana, J Alcamí, X G Yu, B D Walker, Leal M, M Lichterfeld, E Ruiz-Mateos
BACKGROUND: HIV-1-controllers maintain HIV-1 viremia at low levels (normally <2000 HIV-RNA copies/mL) without antiretroviral treatment. However, some HIV-1-controllers have evidence of immunologic progression with marked CD4(+)T-cell decline. We investigated host genetic factors associated with protection against CD4(+)T-cell loss in HIV-1-controllers. METHODS: We analysed the association of interferon lambda 4 (IFNL4)-related polymorphisms and HLA-B haplotypes within Long Term Non-Progressor HIV-1-controllers ((LTNP-C), defined by maintaining CD4(+)T-cells counts >500 cells/mm(3) for more than 7 years after HIV-1 diagnosis) versus non-LTNP-C, who developed CD4(+)T-cells counts <500 cells/mm(3) Both a Spanish study cohort (n=140) and an international validation cohort (n=914) were examined...
December 16, 2016: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27974456/kinetics-of-myeloid-derived-suppressor-cell-frequency-and-function-during-simian-immunodeficiency-virus-infection-combination-antiretroviral-therapy-and-treatment-interruption
#9
Sandra E Dross, Paul V Munson, Se Eun Kim, Debra L Bratt, Hillary C Tunggal, Ana L Gervassi, Deborah H Fuller, Helen Horton
During chronic lentiviral infection, poor clinical outcomes correlate both with systemic inflammation and poor proliferative ability of HIV-specific T cells; however, the connection between the two is not clear. Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC), which expand during states of elevated circulating inflammatory cytokines, may link the systemic inflammation and poor T cell function characteristic of lentiviral infections. Although MDSC are partially characterized in HIV and SIV infection, questions remain regarding their persistence, activity, and clinical significance...
January 15, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27959961/persistent-low-level-replication-of-siv%C3%AE-nef-drives-maturation-of-antibody-and-cd8-t-cell-responses-to-induce-protective-immunity-against-vaginal-siv-infection
#10
Sama Adnan, R Keith Reeves, Jacqueline Gillis, Fay E Wong, Yi Yu, Jeremy V Camp, Qingsheng Li, Michelle Connole, Yuan Li, Michael Piatak, Jeffrey D Lifson, Wenjun Li, Brandon F Keele, Pamela A Kozlowski, Ronald C Desrosiers, Ashley T Haase, R Paul Johnson
Defining the correlates of immune protection conferred by SIVΔnef, the most effective vaccine against SIV challenge, could enable the design of a protective vaccine against HIV infection. Here we provide a comprehensive assessment of immune responses that protect against SIV infection through detailed analyses of cellular and humoral immune responses in the blood and tissues of rhesus macaques vaccinated with SIVΔnef and then vaginally challenged with wild-type SIV. Despite the presence of robust cellular immune responses, animals at 5 weeks after vaccination displayed only transient viral suppression of challenge virus, whereas all macaques challenged at weeks 20 and 40 post-SIVΔnef vaccination were protected, as defined by either apparent sterile protection or significant suppression of viremia in infected animals...
December 2016: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27957384/mitigating-the-risk-of-transfusion-transmitted-dengue-in-australia
#11
Kelly Rooks, Clive R Seed, Jesse J Fryk, Catherine A Hyland, Robert J Harley, Jerry A Holmberg, Denese C Marks, Robert L P Flower, Helen M Faddy
Dengue viruses (DENV 1-4) are a risk to transfusion safety, with several transfusion-transmitted (TT) cases reported globally. DENV 1-4 are endemic in over 100 countries, with seasonal outbreaks occurring in northeastern Australia. To mitigate TT-DENV risk in Australia, fresh blood components are not manufactured from donors returning from any area (domestic/overseas) with known dengue transmission. Alternatively, TT-DENV risk may be mitigated using an appropriate blood donor screening assay. We aimed to determine the rate of dengue infection in donors during dengue outbreaks in Australia...
2016: Journal of Blood Transfusion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903948/characterizing-patients-with-very-low-level-hiv-viremia-a-community-based-study
#12
Elie Helou, Sheela Shenoi, Tassos Kyriakides, Marie-Louise Landry, Michael Kozal, Lydia Aoun Barakat
OBJECTIVE: Very-low-level viremia (VLLV) is a relatively new concept in the realm of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) care. Newer generation assays are now able to detect plasma HIV RNA Viral Load (VL) levels as low as 20 copies/mL. The authors characterized patients with VLLV (VL between 20 and 50 copies/mL) in order to identify possible risk factors associated with virologic failure and poor clinical outcomes. METHODS: The authors reviewed 119 consecutive charts of patients with VLLV...
November 30, 2016: Journal of the International Association of Providers of AIDS Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882759/-management-of-care-of-hiv-positive-pregnant-women-in-the-period-1996-2014
#13
M Mojhová, I Mikysková, M Halaška, M Staňková, H Rozsypal, J Šrámek, J Záhumenský, M Malý
OBJECTIVE: The evaluation of multidisplinary care about HIV positive pregnant women in the Czech Republic. DESIGN: Review. SETTINGS: Gynekologicko-porodnická klinika 1. LF UK a Nemocnice na Bulovce, Praha. METHODS: The vertical transmission of HIV infection from mother to fetus occurs most often during birth, still 1-2% of HIV-positive pregnant women will transfer the virus transplacenta. Due to careful screening for HIV during pregnancy, counselling, combination antiretroviral (cART) therapy, childbirth planning and its performance by C-section there appears a significant decrease of the virus transmission to the fetus, its occurrence is around 2%...
2016: Ceská Gynekologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878102/antiretroviral-naive-and-treated-patients-discrepancies-of-b-cell-subsets-during-the-natural-course-of-human-immunodeficiency-virus-type-1-infection
#14
Olga Tsachouridou, Lemonia Skoura, Pantelis Zebekakis, Apostolia Margariti, Adamantini Georgiou, Dimitrios Bougiouklis, Dimitrios Pilalas, Antonios Galanos, Michael Daniilidis, Symeon Metallidis
AIM: To evaluate alterations of memory B cell subpopulations during a 48-wk period in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) patients. METHODS: Forty-one antiretroviral naïve and 41 treated HIV-1 patients matched for age and duration of HIV infection were recruited. All clinical, epidemiological and laboratory data were recorded or measured. The different B cell subsets were characterized according to their surface markers: Total B cells (CD19(+)), memory B cells (CD19(+)CD27(+), BMCs), resting BMCs (CD19(+)CD27(+)CD21(high), RM), exhausted BMCs (CD19(+)CD21(low)CD27(-), EM), IgM memory B (CD19(+)CD27(+)IgM(high)), isotype-switched BMCs (CD19(+)CD27(+)IgM(-), ITS) and activated BMCs (CD19(+)CD21(low+)CD27(+), AM) at baseline on week 4 and week 48...
November 12, 2016: World Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27762148/strategies-to-limit-immune-activation-in-hiv-patients
#15
Alessandra Bandera, Elisa Colella, Giuliano Rizzardini, Andrea Gori, Mario Clerici
Antiretroviral treatment of HIV infection reduces, but does not eliminate, viral replication and down modulates immune activation. The persistence of low level HIV replication in the host, nevertheless, drives a smouldering degree of immune activation that is observed throughout the natural history of disease and is the main driving force sustaining morbidity and mortality. Areas covered: Early start of antiretroviral therapy (ART) and intensive management of behavioural risk factors are possible but, at best, marginally successful ways to manage immune activation...
January 2017: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27741309/switch-to-dolutegravir-plus-rilpivirine-dual-therapy-in-cart-experienced-subjects-an-observational-cohort
#16
Amedeo F Capetti, Gaetana Sterrantino, Maria Vittoria Cossu, GianCarlo Orofino, Giorgio Barbarini, Giuseppe V De Socio, Simona Di Giambenedetto, Antonio Di Biagio, Benedetto M Celesia, Barbara Argenteri, Giuliano Rizzardini
INTRODUCTION: Little information is available on the efficacy and safety of the dual combination of ripivirine plus dolutegravir. This work aims at beginning to fill this gap. METHODS: All HIV-1 infected subjects treated with ripivirine plus dolutegravir between October 2014 and September 2015 in eight Italian centres were included in an observational cohort. Data were collected at baseline and at weeks 4, 12, 24 and 48. RESULTS: One hundred and thirty-two subjects were followed for a median of 24 months, mean 33 months...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27733203/pre-treatment-minority-hiv-1-drug-resistance-mutations-and-long-term-virological-outcomes-is-prediction-possible
#17
M L Mzingwane, C T Tiemessen, K L Richter, S H Mayaphi, G Hunt, S M Bowyer
BACKGROUND: Although the use of highly active antiretroviral therapy in HIV positive individuals has proved to be effective in suppressing the virus to below detection limits of commonly used assays, virological failure associated with drug resistance is still a major challenge in some settings. The prevalence and effect of pre-treatment resistance associated variants on virological outcomes may also be underestimated because of reliance on conventional population sequencing data which excludes minority species...
October 12, 2016: Virology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27683550/nonprogressing-hiv-infected-children-share-fundamental-immunological-features-of-nonpathogenic-siv-infection
#18
Maximilian Muenchhoff, Emily Adland, Owen Karimanzira, Carol Crowther, Matthew Pace, Anna Csala, Ellen Leitman, Angeline Moonsamy, Callum McGregor, Jacob Hurst, Andreas Groll, Masahiko Mori, Smruti Sinmyee, Christina Thobakgale, Gareth Tudor-Williams, Andrew J Prendergast, Henrik Kloverpris, Julia Roider, Alasdair Leslie, Delane Shingadia, Thea Brits, Samantha Daniels, John Frater, Christian B Willberg, Bruce D Walker, Thumbi Ndung'u, Pieter Jooste, Penny L Moore, Lynn Morris, Philip Goulder
Disease-free infection in HIV-infected adults is associated with human leukocyte antigen-mediated suppression of viremia, whereas in the sooty mangabey and other healthy natural hosts of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV), viral replication continues unabated. To better understand factors preventing HIV disease, we investigated pediatric infection, where AIDS typically develops more rapidly than in adults. Among 170 nonprogressing antiretroviral therapy-naïve children aged >5 years maintaining normal-for-age CD4 T cell counts, immune activation levels were low despite high viremia (median, 26,000 copies/ml)...
September 28, 2016: Science Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27645784/antibody-prophylaxis-against-dengue-virus-2-infection-in-non-human-primates
#19
Monika Simmons, Robert Putnak, Peifang Sun, Timothy Burgess, Wayne A Marasco
Passive immunization with anti-dengue virus (DENV) immune serum globulin (ISG) or monoclonal antibodies (Mabs) may serve to supplement or replace vaccination for short-term dengue immune prophylaxis. In the present study, we sought to establish proof-of-concept by evaluating several DENV-neutralizing antibodies for their ability to protect rhesus macaques against viremia following live virus challenge, including human anti-dengue ISG, and a human Mab (Mab11/wt) and its genetically engineered variant (Mab11/mutFc) that is unable to bind to cells with Fc gamma receptors (FcγR) and potentiate antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE)...
November 2, 2016: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27602422/evaluation-of-performances-of-versant-hcv-rna-1-0-assay-kpcr-and-roche-cobas-ampliprep-cobas-taqman-hcv-test-v2-0-at-low-level-viremia
#20
Laura Mazzuti, Maria Antonietta Lozzi, Elisabetta Riva, Paola Maida, Francesca Falasca, Guido Antonelli, Ombretta Turriziani
We assess the concordance between low level HCV values obtained using the VERSANT HCV RNA 1.0 Assay (kPCR) and COBAS AmpliPrep/COBAS TaqMan HCV Quantitative Test v2.0. The correlation between the values obtained by the two RT-PCR assays for samples with quantifiable HCV RNA levels revealed that viral load measured by kPCR significantly correlated with that of the CAP/CTM (R=0.644, P<0.0001). The results show a good concordance (n=126/144, 87%); discordant results were mainly observed in the assessment of values below the lower limit of detection of the assays...
September 2016: New Microbiologica
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