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Low level viremia

Enrique Bernal, Jose Miguel Gómez, Inma Jarrín, Alfredo Cano, Angeles Muñoz, Antonia Alcaraz, Arkaitz Imaz, Jose Antonio Iribarren, María Rivero, Piedad Arazo, Félix Gutiérrez, CoRIS Study Group
BACKGROUND: The objetive was investigate the long-term impact of low level viremia (LLV) on all-cause mortality, AIDS and non-AIDS events (NAEs), and virological failure in patients receiving ART. METHODS: We analyzed ART-naïve adults from the cohort of the Spanish AIDS Research Network (CoRIS) who initiated ART from 2004 to 2015 and achieved plasma viral load (VL) below 50 copies/ml. LLV50-199 was defined as two consecutive VL between 50 and 199 copies/ml, and LLV200-499 as two consecutive VL between 50 and 499 copies/ml with at least one between 200 and 499 copies/ml...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
Wen-Han Yu, Cormac Cosgrove, Christoph T Berger, Patrick C Cheney, Marina Krykbaeva, Arthur Y Kim, Lia Lewis-Ximenez, Georg M Lauer, Galit Alter
Background: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) affects up to 400 million people worldwide and accounts for approximately one million deaths per year from liver pathologies. Current treatment regimens are effective in suppressing viremia but usually have to be taken indefinitely, warranting research into new therapeutic approaches. Acute HBV infection in adults almost universally results in resolution of viremia, with the exception of immunocompromised persons, suggesting that the immune response can functionally cure or even eradicate HBV infection...
2018: Pathogens & Immunity
Rebecca Strong, Simon P Graham, S A La Rocca, Rudiger Raue, Ilse Vangeel, Falko Steinbach
The objective of this study was to develop a bovine viral diarrhea virus type 2 (BVDV-2) challenge model suitable for evaluation of efficacy of BVDV vaccines; a model that mimics natural infection and induces clear leukopenia and viremia. Clinical, hematological and virological parameters were evaluated after infection of two age groups of calves (3 and 9 months) with two BVDV-2 strains (1362727 and 502643). Calves became pyrexic between 8 and 9 days post inoculation and exhibited symptoms, such as nasal discharge, mild depression, cough, and inappetence...
2018: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
Ann J Hessell, Mariya B Shapiro, Rebecca Powell, Delphine C Malherbe, Sean P McBurney, Shilpi Pandey, Tracy Cheever, William F Sutton, Christoph Kahl, Byung Park, Susan Zolla-Pazner, Nancy L Haigwood
A high level of V1V2-specific IgG antibodies in vaccinees' sera was the only independent variable that correlated with a reduced risk of HIV acquisition in the RV144 clinical trial. In contrast, IgG avidity, antibody neutralization, and antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity each failed as independent correlates of infection. Extended analyses of RV144 samples demonstrated antiviral activity of V1V2-specific vaccine-induced antibodies. V2-specific antibodies have also been associated with protection from SIV, and the V2i-specific subset of human monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), while poor neutralizers, mediate Fc-dependent antiviral functions in vitro The objective of this study was to determine the protective efficacy of a V2i-specific human mAb 830A against mucosal SHIV challenge...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Virology
Robin K Avery, Fernanda P Silveira, Kaitlin Benedict, Angela Ahlquist Cleveland, Carol A Kauffman, Mindy G Schuster, Erik R Dubberke, Shahid Husain, David Paterson, Tom Chiller, Peter Pappas
BACKGROUND: Most studies of post-transplant CMV infection have focused on either solid organ or hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT) recipients. A large prospective cohort study involving both lung and HCT recipients provided an opportunity to compare the epidemiology and outcomes of CMV infections in these two groups. METHODS: Patients were followed for 30 months in a 6-center prospective cohort study. Data on demographics, CMV infections, tissue-invasive disease, recurrences, rejection, and immunosuppression were recorded...
March 7, 2018: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
Mohammad Arif Rahman, Katherine M McKinnon, Tatiana S Karpova, David A Ball, David J Venzon, Wenjin Fan, Guobin Kang, Qingsheng Li, Marjorie Robert-Guroff
Follicular CD8+ T (fCD8) cells reside within B cell follicles and are thought to be immune-privileged sites of HIV/SIV infection. We have observed comparable levels of fCD8 cells between chronically SIV-infected rhesus macaques with low viral loads (LVL) and high viral loads (HVL), raising the question concerning their contribution to viremia control. In this study, we sought to clarify the role of SIV-specific fCD8 cells in lymph nodes during the course of SIV infection in rhesus macaques. We observed that fCD8 cells, T follicular helper (Tfh) cells, and T follicular regulatory cells (Tfreg) were all elevated in chronic SIV infection...
March 5, 2018: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
Amedeo Ferdinando Capetti, Maria Vittoria Cossu, Gaetana Sterrantino, Giorgio Barbarini, Simona Di Giambenedetto, Giuseppe Vittorio De Socio, GianCarlo Orofino, Antonio Di Biagio, Benedetto M Celesia, Stefano Rusconi, Barbara Argenteri, Giuliano Rizzardini
BACKGROUND: Data from clinical studies confirm the efficacy of switching to dolutegravir (DTG) plus rilpivirine (RPV) in selected patients. OBJECTIVE: The primary objective is to report the 96-week virological suppression in our cohort, assessing the durability of this strategy in complicated situations. The secondary objective is to describe the safety and metabolic profile. METHODS: All patients who had switched to DTG plus RPV between October 1, 2014, and September 30, 2015, were analyzed using a retrospective-prospective design, approved by ethics committees...
February 1, 2018: Annals of Pharmacotherapy
M A Sargsyan, H E Voskanyan, E M Karalova, L H Hakobyan, Z A Karalyan
Aim: First cases of clinically uncommon African swine fever (ASF), caused by virus genotype II are described in this article. These cases occurred in Armenia, Tavush region, Dilijan municipality in 2011. The aim of this study was to identify and describe the new pathogenic forms of ASF in Armenia. Materials and Methods: The isolation and identification of ASF virus (ASFV) were carried out using conventional techniques. Clinical signs of infection were recorded daily...
January 2018: Veterinary World
Dionysios C Watson, Eirini Moysi, Antonio Valentin, Cristina Bergamaschi, Santhi Devasundaram, Sotirios P Fortis, Jenifer Bear, Elena Chertova, Julian Bess, Ray Sowder, David J Venzon, Claire Deleage, Jacob D Estes, Jeffrey D Lifson, Constantinos Petrovas, Barbara K Felber, George N Pavlakis
B cell follicles in secondary lymphoid tissues represent an immune privileged sanctuary for AIDS viruses, in part because cytotoxic CD8+ T cells are mostly excluded from entering the follicles that harbor infected T follicular helper (TFH) cells. We studied the effects of native heterodimeric IL-15 (hetIL-15) treatment on uninfected rhesus macaques and on macaques that had spontaneously controlled SHIV infection to low levels of chronic viremia. hetIL-15 increased effector CD8+ T lymphocytes with high granzyme B content in blood, mucosal sites and lymph nodes, including virus-specific MHC-peptide tetramer+ CD8+ cells in LN...
February 2018: PLoS Pathogens
Diane Carnathan, Benton Lawson, Joana Yu, Kalpana Patel, James M Billingsley, Gregory K Tharp, Olivia M Delmas, Reem Dawoud, Peter Wilkinson, Charles Nicolette, Mark J Cameron, Rafick-Pierre Sekaly, Steven E Bosinger, Guido Silvestri, Thomas H Vanderford
Pathogenic HIV/SIV infection of humans and rhesus macaques (RMs) induces persistently high production of type-I interferon (IFN-I) which is thought to contribute to disease progression. To elucidate the specific role of IFNα in SIV pathogenesis, 12 RMs were treated prior to i.v. SIVmac239 infection with a high or a low dose of an antibody (AGS-009) that neutralizes most IFNα subtypes, and compared with six mock-infused, SIV-infected controls. Plasma viremia was measured post infection to assess the effect of IFNα blockade on virus replication, and peripheral blood and lymphoid tissue samples were analyzed by immunophenotypical staining...
February 21, 2018: Journal of Virology
Ameet N Dravid, Kartik Natrajan, Milind M Kulkarni, Chinmay K Saraf, Uma S Mahajan, Sachin D Kore, Niranjan M Rathod, Umakant S Mahajan, Rustom S Wadia
Aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)/Plasma HIV-1 RNA discordance in virologically suppressed individuals presenting with incident neurologic symptoms.In this retrospective cohort study conducted between March 1, 2009, and March 1, 2017, HIV-1 infected adults exposed to atleast 12 months of antiretroviral therapy (ART) and having plasma viral load (VL) <1000 copies/mL (virologically suppressed) were included. Among these, individuals presenting with neurologic symptoms during follow-up were assessed for CSF/Plasma HIV-1 RNA discordance by measuring HIV-1 RNA in collected plasma and CSF samples...
February 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Alain Amstutz, Bienvenu Lengo Nsakala, Fiona Vanobberghen, Josephine Muhairwe, Tracy Renée Glass, Beatrice Achieng, Mamorena Sepeka, Katleho Tlali, Lebohang Sao, Kyaw Thin, Thomas Klimkait, Manuel Battegay, Niklaus Daniel Labhardt
BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends viral load (VL) measurement as the preferred monitoring strategy for HIV-infected individuals on antiretroviral therapy (ART) in resource-limited settings. The new WHO guidelines 2016 continue to define virologic failure as two consecutive VL ≥1000 copies/mL (at least 3 months apart) despite good adherence, triggering switch to second-line therapy. However, the threshold of 1000 copies/mL for defining virologic failure is based on low-quality evidence...
February 12, 2018: BMC Infectious Diseases
Minako Ikoma, Soren Gantt, Corey Casper, Yuko Ogata, Qing Zhang, Ryan Basom, Michael R Dyen, Timothy M Rose, Serge Barcy
Kaposi's sarcoma herpesvirus (KSHV) is the etiological agent of Kaposi's sarcoma (KS). Both KSHV and HIV infections are endemic in Uganda, where KS is among the most common cancers in HIV-infected individuals. Recent studies examined the use of small RNAs as biomarkers of disease, including microRNAs (miRNAs), with viral and tumor-derived miRNAs being detected in exosomes from individuals with KSHV-associated malignancies. In the current study, the host and viral extracellular mature miRNA expression profiles were analyzed in blood of KS-negative individuals in Uganda, comparing those with or without KSHV detectable from the oropharynx...
2018: PloS One
Kirsten White, Will Garner, Lilian Wei, Joseph J Eron, Lijie Zhong, Michael D Miller, Hal Martin, Andrew Plummer, Cecilia Tran-Muchowski, Kim Lindstrom, James Porter, David Piontkowsky, Angela Light, Heinz Reiske, Erin Quirk
OBJECTIVE: Assess the performance of HIV-1 RNA repeat testing of stored samples in cases of low-level viremia during clinical trials. DESIGN: Prospective and retrospective analysis of randomized clinical trial samples and reference standards. METHODS: To evaluate assay variability of the Cobas AmpliPrep/Cobas TaqMan HIV-1 Test, v2.0, three separate sources of samples were utilized: the World Health Organization (WHO) HIV reference standard (assayed using 50 independent measurements at six viral loads <200 copies/ml), retrospective analysis of four to six aliquots of plasma samples from four clinical trial participants, and prospective repeat testing of 120 samples from participants in randomized trials with low-level viremia...
February 8, 2018: AIDS
Ismaheel O Lawal, Alfred O Ankrah, Gbenga O Popoola, Thabo Lengana, Mike M Sathekge
BACKGROUND: HIV infection is associated with the risk of development of atherosclerosis at a younger age. We compared arterial inflammation in HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected patients with otherwise low-risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD) using FDG PET/CT. METHODS: 242 patients aged 18-40 years with low-risk factors for CVD consisting of 121 HIV-infected patients and 121 HIV-uninfected age- and gender-matched controls were studied, mean age = 34.95 ± 5...
February 7, 2018: Journal of Nuclear Cardiology: Official Publication of the American Society of Nuclear Cardiology
Hanzhong Ke, Mingyuan Han, Qingzhan Zhang, Raymond Rowland, Maureen Kerrigan, Dongwan Yoo
Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) has the ability to suppress the type I interferons (IFNs-α/β) induction to facilitate its survival during infection, and the nsp1 protein of PRRSV has been identified as the potent IFN antagonist. The nsp1β subunit of nsp1 has also been shown to block the host mRNA nuclear export as one of the mechanisms to suppress host antiviral protein production. The SAP motif in nsp1β is the functional motif for both IFN suppression and host mRNA nuclear retention, and using infectious clones, two mutant viruses vL126A and vL135A have been generated...
February 2, 2018: Virology
Daria Matczyńska, Daniel Sypniewski, Sabina Gałka, Dagna Sołtysik, Tomasz Loch, Ewa Nowak, Zdzisław Smorąg, Ilona Bednarek
Molecular characterization of the SLA (Swine Leukocyte Antigen) genes is important for understanding the immune responses between swine-donor and human-recipient in course of xenotransplantation. Explanation of association between alleles of SLA class I genes, type of pigs genetic modification, the PERV viral titer, and its subtypes may shed light on the nature of xenograft acceptance or rejection and the safety of xenotransplantation. No significant differences in PERV gag RNA level between transgenic and non-transgenic pigs were noted, likewise the type of applied transgene had no impact on PERV viremia...
January 25, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Science
Adalbert Krawczyk, Jessica Ackermann, Birgit Goitowski, Rudolf Trenschel, Markus Ditschkowski, Jörg Timm, Hellmut Ottinger, Dietrich W Beelen, Nico Grüner, Melanie Fiedler
BACKGROUND: CMV reactivation is a major cause of severe complications in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) recipients. The risk of CMV reactivation depends on the serostatus (+/-) of the donor (D) and recipient (R). The reconstitution of CMV-specific T-cell responses after transplantation is crucial for the control of CMV reactivation. OBJECTIVES: The study aimed to determine the cellular immune status correlating with protection from high-level CMV viremia (>5000 copies/ml) and disease...
January 9, 2018: Journal of Clinical Virology: the Official Publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology
Matthew B Phillips, Johnasha D Stuart, Emily J Simon, Karl W Boehme
Reovirus non-structural protein σ1s is required for the establishment of viremia and hematogenous viral dissemination. However, the function of the σ1s protein during the reovirus replication cycle is not known. In this study, we found that σ1s was required for efficient reovirus replication in SV40-immortalized endothelial cells (SVECs), mouse embryonic fibroblasts, human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), and T84 human colonic epithelial cells. In each of these cell lines, wild type reovirus produced substantially higher viral titers than a σ1s-deficient mutant...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Virology
Xiao Qian Wang, Sarah Palmer
Antiretroviral therapy effectively suppresses, but does not eradicate HIV-1 infection. Persistent low-level HIV-1 can still be detected in plasma and cellular reservoirs even after years of effective therapy, and cessation of current treatments invariably results in resumption of viral replication. Efforts to eradicate persistent HIV-1 require a comprehensive examination of the quantity and genetic composition of HIV-1 within the plasma and infected cells located in the peripheral blood and tissues throughout the body...
January 9, 2018: Retrovirology
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