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Low level viremia

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156086/impact-of-low-level-bk-polyomavirus-viremia-on-intermediate-term-renal-allograft-function
#1
Johannes Korth, Marek Widera, Sebastian Dolff, Hana Guberina, Anja Bienholz, Alexandra Brinkhoff, Olympia Evdoxia Anastasiou, Andreas Kribben, Ulf Dittmer, Jens Verheyen, Benjamin Wilde, Oliver Witzke
BACKGROUND: BK polyomavirus (BKPyV)-associated nephropathy (PyVAN) is a significant cause of premature renal transplant failure. High-level BKPyV viremia is predictive for PyVAN, however, low-level BKPyV viremia does not necessarily exclude the presence of PyVAN. As data are limited whether or not low-level BKPyV viremia has an effect on intermediate-term graft outcome, this study analyzes the impact of low-level BKPyV viremia on intermediate-term graft function and outcome compared to high-level viremia and non-viremic patients...
November 20, 2017: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142136/size-composition-and-evolution-of-hiv-dna-populations-during-early-antiretroviral-therapy-and-intensification-with-maraviroc
#2
Antoine Chaillon, Sara Gianella, Steven M Lada, Josué Perez-Santiago, Parris Jordan, Caroline Ignacio, Maile Karris, Douglas Richman, Sanjay R Mehta, Susan J Little, Joel O Wertheim, Davey M Smith
Residual viremia is common during antiretroviral therapy (ART), and could be caused by ongoing low-level virus replication or by release of viral particles from infected cells. ART Intensification should impact ongoing viral propagation but not virion release. Eighteen acutely infected men were enrolled in a randomized controlled trial, and followed for a median of 107 weeks. Participants started ART with (n=9) or without (n=9) intensification with maraviroc (MVC) within 90 days of infection. Levels of HIV DNA and cell-free RNA were quantified by droplet digital PCR...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135773/tree-based-claims-algorithm-for-measuring-pretreatment-quality-of-care-in-medicare-disabled-hepatitis-c-patients
#3
Viktor V Chirikov, Fadia T Shaya, Ebere Onukwugha, C Daniel Mullins, Susan dosReis, Charles D Howell
BACKGROUND: To help broaden the use of machine-learning approaches in health services research, we provide an easy-to-follow framework on the implementation of random forests and apply it to identify quality of care (QC) patterns correlated with treatment receipt among Medicare disabled patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV). METHODS: Using Medicare claims 2006-2009, we identified 1936 patients with 6 months continuous enrollment before HCV diagnosis. We ran a random forest on 14 pretreatment QC indicators, extracted the forest's representative tree, and aggregated its terminal nodes into 4 QC groups predictive of treatment...
December 2017: Medical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118123/estimating-initial-viral-levels-during-hiv-siv-reactivation-from-latency
#4
Mykola Pinkevych, Christine M Fennessey, Deborah Cromer, Martin Tolstrup, Ole S Søgaard, Thomas A Rasmussen, Brandon F Keele, Miles P Davenport
HIV viremia rebounds rapidly after treatment interruption, and a variety of strategies are being explored to reduce or control viral reactivation post-treatment. This viral rebound arises from reactivation of individual latently infected cells, which spread during ongoing rounds of productive infection. The level of virus produced by the initial individual reactivating cells is not known, although it may have major implications for the ability of different immune interventions to control viral rebound. Here we use data from both HIV and SIV treatment interruption studies to estimate the initial viral load post-interruption and thereby the initial individual reactivation event...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112956/hiv-1-persistence-following-extremely-early-initiation-of-antiretroviral-therapy-art-during-acute-hiv-1-infection-an-observational-study
#5
Timothy J Henrich, Hiroyu Hatano, Oliver Bacon, Louise E Hogan, Rachel Rutishauser, Alison Hill, Mary F Kearney, Elizabeth M Anderson, Susan P Buchbinder, Stephanie E Cohen, Mohamed Abdel-Mohsen, Christopher W Pohlmeyer, Remi Fromentin, Rebecca Hoh, Albert Y Liu, Joseph M McCune, Jonathan Spindler, Kelly Metcalf-Pate, Kristen S Hobbs, Cassandra Thanh, Erica A Gibson, Daniel R Kuritzkes, Robert F Siliciano, Richard W Price, Douglas D Richman, Nicolas Chomont, Janet D Siliciano, John W Mellors, Steven A Yukl, Joel N Blankson, Teri Liegler, Steven G Deeks
BACKGROUND: It is unknown if extremely early initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART) may lead to long-term ART-free HIV remission or cure. As a result, we studied 2 individuals recruited from a pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) program who started prophylactic ART an estimated 10 days (Participant A; 54-year-old male) and 12 days (Participant B; 31-year-old male) after infection with peak plasma HIV RNA of 220 copies/mL and 3,343 copies/mL, respectively. Extensive testing of blood and tissue for HIV persistence was performed, and PrEP Participant A underwent analytical treatment interruption (ATI) following 32 weeks of continuous ART...
November 2017: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29103686/pathogenicity-of-a-newly-emerged-recombined-porcine-reproductive-and-respiratory-syndrome-virus-strain-subgenotype-iii-in-china
#6
Jianguo Dong, Yanwu Wang, Linyang Yu, Pengfei Zhang, Xiangcong Liu, Leyi Zhang, Yanling Liu, Pengshuai Liang, Lei Wang, Changxu Song
Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is a severe pathogen that causes enormous economic losses to the swine industry worldwide. Since its first report in the 1980s, PRRSV has undergone extensive variation. In the previous study, we demonstrated that the GDsg strain was a new recombined virus between the low pathogenic field strain QYYZ and the vaccine strain JXA1-P80, belonging to the newly emerging type 2 PRRSV subgenotype III. In this study, the pathogenicity of a new recombined strain GDsg for pigs was analyzed...
October 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29099873/assessing-zika-virus-replication-and-the-development-of-zika-specific-antibodies-after-a-mid-gestation-viral-challenge-in-guinea-pigs
#7
Craig J Bierle, Claudia Fernández-Alarcón, Nelmary Hernandez-Alvarado, Jason C Zabeli, Bradley C Janus, Dira S Putri, Mark R Schleiss
Primary Zika virus (ZIKV) infections that occur during pregnancy can cause spontaneous abortion and profoundly disrupt fetal development. While the full range of developmental abnormalities associated with congenital Zika syndrome is not yet known, severe cases of the syndrome can present with microcephaly, extensive neurologic and ocular damage, and pronounced joint malformations. Animal models that accurately recapitulate congenital Zika syndrome are urgently needed for vaccine development and for the study of ZIKV pathogenesis...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29076048/prevalence-of-hepatitis-c-virus-infection-according-to-the-year-of-birth-identification-of-risk-groups
#8
K Neukam, E Ridruejo, P Pérez, R H Campos, A P Martínez, F A Di Lello
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) screening according to the year of birth is recommended is some countries based on epidemiological data. The aim of this study was to analyze anti-HCV prevalence among people born between 1905 and 2015 in Argentina. Patients attending a tertiary care hospital in Buenos Aires, Argentina, from 2001 to 2015, who had a determination of anti-HCV, were included. Of 22,079 patients analyzed, 1,152 (5.2%; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 4.9%-5.5%) patients showed positive anti-HCV and 729 (3.3%; 95% CI: 3...
October 27, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29063859/meticulous-plasma-isolation-is-essential-to-avoid-false-low-level-viraemia-in-roche-cobas-hiv-1-viral-load-assays
#9
Virginie Mortier, Leen Vancoillie, Kenny Dauwe, Delfien Staelens, Els Demecheleer, Marlies Schauvliege, Sylvie Dinakis, Tom Van Maerken, Géraldine Dessilly, Jean Ruelle, Chris Verhofstede
BACKGROUND: Pre-analytical sample processing is often overlooked as a potential cause of inaccurate assay results. Here we demonstrate how plasma, extracted from standard EDTA- containing blood collection tubes, may contain traces of blood cells consequently resulting in a false low-level HIV-1 viral load when using Roche Cobas HIV-1 assays. METHODS: The presence of human DNA in Roche Cobas 4800 RNA extracts and in RNA extracts from the Abbott HIV-1 RealTime assay was assessed by quantifying the human albumin gene by means of qPCR...
October 24, 2017: Antiviral Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028655/potency-of-hiv-2-specific-antibodies-increase-in-direct-association-with-loss-of-memory-b-cells
#10
Cheila Rocha, Joana Duarte, Pedro Borrego, Rita Calado, José Maria Marcelino, Rita Tendeiro, Emília Valadas, Ana Espada Sousa, Nuno Taveira
: Potent HIV-neutralizing antibodies are critical for vaccination and viral reservoir control. High levels of neutralizing antibodies characterize HIV-2 infection, a naturally occurring model of attenuated HIV disease with low-to-undectable viremia. We found that HIV-2-specific antibody potency increased in direct association with the loss of both switched and unswitched memory B cells in untreated HIV-2 infection. Thus, HIV antibody affinity maturation is linked to memory B-cell exhaustion even in reduced viremia settings...
November 13, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020145/interferon-%C3%AE-inducible-protein-10-ip-10-as-a-screening-tool-to-optimize-human-immunodeficiency-virus-rna-monitoring-in-resource-limited-settings
#11
Lucía Pastor, Aina Casellas, María Rupérez, Jorge Carrillo, Sonia Maculuve, Chenjerai Jairoce, Roger Paredes, Julià Blanco, Denise Naniche
Background: Achieving effective antiretroviral treatment (ART) monitoring is a key determinant to ensure viral suppression and reach the UNAIDS 90-90-90 targets. The gold standard for detecting virological failure is plasma human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) RNA (viral load [VL]) testing; however, its availability is very limited in low-income countries due to cost and operational constraints. Methods: HIV-1-infected adults on first-line ART attending routine visits at the Manhiça District Hospital, Mozambique, were previously evaluated for virologic failure...
July 19, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017246/viral-load-and-cytokine-response-profile-does-not-support-antibody-dependent-enhancement-in-dengue-primed-zika-virus-infected-patients
#12
Ana Carolina Bernardes Terzian, Alessandra Soares Schanoski, Mânlio Tasso de Oliveira Mota, Rafael Alves da Silva, Cássia Fernanda Estofolete, Tatiana Elias Colombo, Paula Rahal, Kathryn A Hanley, Nikos Vasilakis, Jorge Kalil, Maurício Lacerda Nogueira
Background: The pathogenesis of severe dengue disease involves immune components as biomarkers. The mechanism by which some dengue virus (DENV)-infected individuals progress to severe disease is poorly understood. Most studies on the pathogenesis of severe dengue disease focus on the process of antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE) as a primary risk factor. With the circulation of Zika virus (ZIKV) in DENV-endemic areas, many people infected by ZIKV were likely exposed to DENV. The influence of such exposure on Zika disease outcomes remains unknown...
October 15, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28971485/evolution-of-the-serologic-and-virologic-course-of-occult-hbv-infection-in-therapy-experienced-hiv-co-infected-patients
#13
Edina Amponsah-Dacosta, Selokela G Selabe, M Jeffrey Mphahlele
BACKGROUND: We investigated how the natural course of occult hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection (OBI) may evolve during HIV co-infection and long term HBV-active HAART. METHODS: From a cohort of 181 HIV infected patients who were consecutively recruited over a 5 year period, 28 HBV co-infected patients with sequential sera (n = 98) were identified. Iterative HBV serology and viral loads were determined before and during treatment. The viral HBsAg gene was then serially amplified, directly sequenced and molecularly characterized...
October 2, 2017: Journal of Medical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28968794/replication-and-excretion-of-the-live-attenuated-tetravalent-dengue-vaccine-cyd-tdv-in-a-flavivirus-naive-adult-population-assessment-of-vaccine-viremia-and-virus-shedding
#14
Joseph Torresi, Peter C Richmond, Leon G Heron, Ming Qiao, Joanne Marjason, Linda Starr-Spires, Diane van der Vliet, Jing Jin, T Anh Wartel, Alain Bouckenooghe
Background: We assessed replication and excretion of the live attenuated tetravalent dengue vaccine (CYD-TDV) into biological fluids following vaccination in dengue-naive adults in Australia. Methods: Vaccinal viremia/shedding was assessed in a subset of participants enrolled in a lot-to-lot consistency study; 95 participants received 3 subcutaneous doses of CYD-TDV from phase 2/3 lots of the vaccine, and 8 received placebo; doses were administered 6 months apart...
October 17, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28964268/a-dual-regimen-of-ritonavir-darunavir-plus-dolutegravir-for-rescue-or-simplification-of-rescue-therapy-48%C3%A2-weeks-observational-data
#15
Amedeo F Capetti, Maria Vittoria Cossu, Giancarlo Orofino, Gaetana Sterrantino, Giovanni Cenderello, Giuseppe V De Socio, Anna Maria Cattelan, Alessandro Soria, Stefano Rusconi, Niccolò Riccardi, Gian Maria Baldin, Fosca P Niero, Giorgio Barbarini, Giuliano Rizzardini
BACKGROUND: Dolutegravir (DTG) plus darunavir/ritonavir (DRV/r) is a simple combination of drugs that has the best genetic barrier to HIV-1 resistance and may be fit for salvage therapy. METHODS: All HIV-1-infected subjects treated with DTG plus DRV/r between March 2014 and September 2015 in eight Italian centres were included in the analysis. The main metabolic data, efficacy parameters and safety data routinely collected were provided. This observational study is aimed to assess the efficacy of such approach...
September 30, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28962629/west%C3%A2-nile-virus-host-vector-pathogen-interactions-in-a-colonial-raptor
#16
Zoltán Soltész, Károly Erdélyi, Tamás Bakonyi, Mónika Barna, Katalin Szentpáli-Gavallér, Szabolcs Solt, Éva Horváth, Péter Palatitz, László Kotymán, Ádám Dán, László Papp, Andrea Harnos, Péter Fehérvári
BACKGROUND: Avian host species have different roles in the amplification and maintenance of West Nile virus (WNV), therefore identifying key taxa is vital in understanding WNV epidemics. Here, we present a comprehensive case study conducted on red-footed falcons, where host-vector, vector-virus and host-virus interactions were simultaneously studied to evaluate host species contribution to WNV circulation qualitatively. RESULTS: Mosquitoes were trapped inside red-footed falcon nest-boxes by a method originally developed for the capture of blackflies and midges...
September 29, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28953921/virological-and-immunological-outcome-of-treatment-interruption-in-hiv-1-infected-subjects-vaccinated-with-mva-b
#17
Miriam Rosás-Umbert, Beatriz Mothe, Marc Noguera-Julian, Rocío Bellido, Maria C Puertas, Jorge Carrillo, C Rodriguez, Núria Perez-Alvarez, Patricia Cobarsí, Carmen E Gomez, Mariano Esteban, Jose Luis Jímenez, Felipe García, Julià Blanco, Javier Martinez-Picado, Roger Paredes, Christian Brander
The most relevant endpoint in therapeutic HIV vaccination is the assessment of time to viral rebound or duration of sustained control of low-level viremia upon cART treatment cessation. Structured treatment interruptions (STI) are however not without risk to the patient and reliable predictors of viral rebound/control after therapeutic HIV-1 vaccination are urgently needed to ensure patient safety and guide therapeutic vaccine development. Here, we integrated immunological and virological parameters together with viral rebound dynamics after STI in a phase I therapeutic vaccine trial of a polyvalent MVA-B vaccine candidate to define predictors of viral control...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28947538/phenotypic-and-functional-characterization-of-circulatory-splenic-and-hepatic-nk-cells-in-simian-immunodeficiency-virus-controlling-macaques
#18
Diego A Vargas-Inchaustegui, Sabrina Helmold Hait, Hye Kyung Chung, Jigna Narola, Tanya Hoang, Marjorie Robert-Guroff
NK cells are key components of the immune system because of their rapid response potential and their ability to mediate cytotoxic and immunomodulatory functions. Additionally, NK cells have recently been shown to persist for long periods in vivo and to have the capacity to establish immunologic memory. In the current study, we assessed the phenotype and function of circulatory and tissue-resident NK cells in a unique cohort of SIV-controlling rhesus macaques that maintained low to undetectable levels of viremia in the chronic phase of infection...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28939451/hla-haploidentical-stem-cell-transplant-with-pretransplant-immunosuppression-for-patients-with-sickle-cell-disease
#19
Anna B Pawlowska, Jerry C Cheng, Nicole A Karras, Weili Sun, Leo D Wang, Alison D Bell, Lisa Gutierrez, Joseph Rosenthal
Allogeneic stem cell transplantation (HCT) is curative in patients with severe sickle cell disease (SCD), but a significant number of patients lack an HLA-identical sibling or matched unrelated donor. Mismatched related (haploidentical) HCT with post-transplant cyclophosphamide (PTCY) allows expansion of the donor pool but is complicated by high rates of graft failure. In this report we describe a favorable haploidentical HCT approach in a limited cohort of SCD patients with significant comorbidities. To reduce the risk of graft failure we administered the conditioning regimen of rabbit antithymocyte globulin, busulfan, and fludarabine preceded with 2 courses of pretransplant immunosuppressive therapy (PTIS) with fludarabine and dexamethasone...
September 20, 2017: Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895867/markedly-different-immune-responses-and-virus-kinetics-in-littermates-infected-with-porcine-circovirus-type-2-or-porcine-parvovirus-type-1
#20
Tanja Opriessnig, Priscilla F Gerber, Shannon R Matzinger, Xiang-Jin Meng, Patrick G Halbur
Porcine parvovirus type 1 (PPV1) and porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) are small single-stranded DNA viruses with high prevalence in the global pig population. The aim of this study was to compare and contrast PCV2 and PPV1 infections in high-health status pigs and to describe PCV2 long-term infection dynamics. Six caesarian-derived colostrum-deprived pigs were randomly divided into two groups and were experimentally infected with PCV2 or PPV1 at 5 weeks of age. All pigs had detectable viremia by day (D) 3 post-infection...
September 2017: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
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