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Low level viremia

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774593/bk-viremia-is-not-associated-with-adverse-outcomes-in-the-absence-of-bk-nephropathy
#1
Amber L Hertz-Tang, Brad C Astor, Didier A Mandelbrot, Maha A Mohamed, Arjang Djamali, Sandesh Parajuli
There are limited data regarding the association of different levels of BK viremia and BK nephropathy (BKN), and graft outcomes. We studied the BK plasma PCR levels of all kidney transplant recipients (KTR) transplanted at our institution between 01/01/2006 and 06/30/2014. Patients were divided into groups based on their highest BK plasma PCR level within the first year following transplantation: undetectable, low (<1000 copies/ml), moderate (1000-10,000 copies/ml), high (>10,000-100,000 copies/ml), very high (>100,000copies/ml), and those that had biopsy-proven BKN...
May 17, 2018: Clinical Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774022/acute-zika-virus-infection-in-an-endemic-area-shows-modest-proinflammatory-systemic-immunoactivation-and-cytokine-symptom-associations
#2
Jéssica Barletto de Sousa Barros, Paulo Alex Neves da Silva, Rosemary de Carvalho Rocha Koga, Patrícia Gonzalez-Dias, José Rodrigues Carmo Filho, Patrícia Resende Alo Nagib, Verônica Coelho, Helder I Nakaya, Simone Gonçalves Fonseca, Irmtraut Araci Hoffmann Pfrimer
An early immune response to Zika virus (ZIKV) infection may determine its clinical manifestation and outcome, including neurological effects. However, low-grade and transient viremia limits the prompt diagnosis of acute ZIKV infection. We have investigated the plasma cytokine, chemokine, and growth factor profiles of 36 individuals from an endemic area displaying different symptoms such as exanthema, headache, myalgia, arthralgia, fever, hyperemia, swelling, itching, and nausea during early-phase infection...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760177/epigenetic-promoter-dna-methylation-of-mir-124-promotes-hiv-1-tat-mediated-microglial-activation-via-mecp2-stat3-axis
#3
Palsamy Periyasamy, Annadurai Thangaraj, Ming-Lei Guo, Guoku Hu, Shannon Callen, Shilpa Buch
The present study demonstrates HIV-1 Tat-mediated epigenetic downregulation of microglial miR-124 and its association with microglial activation. Exposure of mouse primary microglia isolated from newborn pups of either sex to HIV-1 Tat resulted in decreased expression of primary miR-124-1, primary miR-124-2 as well as the mature miR-124. In parallel, HIV-1 Tat exposure to mouse primary microglial cells resulted in increased expression of DNA methylation enzymes, such as DNMT1, DNMT3A, and DNMT3B that were also accompanied by increased global DNA methylation...
May 14, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29726399/diagnostic-dilemma-for-low-viremia-with-significant-fibrosis-is-hbv-dna-threshold-level-a-good-indicator-for-predicting-liver-damage
#4
Ercan Yenilmez, Rıza Aytaç Çetinkaya, Ersin Tural
BACKGROUND: The most important difficulties about management of hepatitis B are still determining the liver damage and the right time to start antiviral therapy. AIMS: To reveal the role of hepatitis B virus DNA threshold level for prediction of liver fibrosis and inflammation in young-aged hepatitis B e antigen negative chronic hepatitis B patients. STUDY DESIGN: Diagnostic accuracy study. METHODS: A total of 273 hepatitis B e antigen negative young chronic hepatitis B patients with any hepatitis B virus DNA levels between 2008 and 2016, who had liver biopsy after at least 6 months follow up period, enrolled in this retrospective study...
May 4, 2018: Balkan Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29725333/follicular-dendritic-cells-of-lymph-nodes-as-human-immunodeficiency-virus-simian-immunodeficiency-virus-reservoirs-and-insights-on-cervical-lymph-node
#5
REVIEW
Rajnish S Dave, Pooja Jain, Siddappa N Byrareddy
A hallmark feature of follicular dendritic cells (FDCs) within the lymph nodes (LNs) is their ability to retain antigens and virions for a prolonged duration. FDCs in the cervical lymph nodes (CLNs) are particularly relevant in elucidating human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 infection within the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) draining LNs of the central nervous system. The FDC viral reservoir in both peripheral LN and CLN, like the other HIV reservoirs, contribute to both low-level viremia and viral resurgence upon cessation or failure of combined antiretroviral therapy (cART)...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29683841/monotypic-low-level-hiv-viremias-during-art-are-associated-with-disproportionate-production-of-x4-virions-and-systemic-immune-activation
#6
Marta E Bull, Caroline Mitchell, Jaime Soria, Sheila Styrchak, Corey Williams-Wietzikoski, Jillian Legard, Jennifer Mckernan-Mullin, Kelli Kraft, Frankline Onchiri, Joshua Stern, Sarah Holte, Kevin J Ryan, Edward P Acosta, Alberto La Rosa, Robert W Coombs, Eduardo Ticona, Lisa M Frenkel
OBJECTIVE: During effective antiretroviral therapy (ART), low-level plasma viremias (LLV) (HIV RNA >30-1000 copies/ml) can be detected intermittently. We hypothesized that systemic inflammation is associated with LLV either as the cause or result of the production of virions from clonally expanded cells. METHODS: Prospective cohort study of HIV-infected ART-naïve Peruvians enrolled prior to ART and followed for 2 years. Plasma HIV RNA and peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) HIV DNA concentrations were quantified pre-ART from individuals whose plasma HIV RNA was ART-suppressed...
April 19, 2018: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29643242/rlrs-and-tlrs-signaling-pathways-cause-aberrant-production-of-inflammatory-cytokines-chemokines-in-an-sftsv-infection-mouse-model
#7
Shintaro Yamada, Masayuki Shimojima, Ryo Narita, Yuta Tsukamoto, Hiroki Kato, Masayuki Saijo, Takashi Fujita
Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) is an emerging infectious disease caused by a tick-borne phlebovirus of the family Bunyaviridae , the SFTS virus (SFTSV). Wild type and type I interferon (IFN-I) receptor 1-deficient (IFNAR1-/- ) mice have been established as non-lethal and lethal models of SFTSV infection, respectively. However, the mechanisms of IFN-I production in vivo and the factors causing the lethal disease are not well understood. Using bone marrow chimeric mice, we found that IFN-I signaling in hematopoietic cells was essential for survival from lethal SFTSV infection...
April 11, 2018: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29628513/hot-news-impact-of-low-level-viremia-on-treatment-outcomes-during-art-is-it-time-to-revise-the-definition-of-virological-failure
#8
Eva Poveda, Manuel Crespo
The level of HIV-RNA in plasma (HIV viral load) is the main marker used to monitor the virological response to antiretroviral therapy (ART) in HIV-infected patients. The threshold used to define virological suppression has historically been dictated by the limits of detection of the commercial assays used to quantify the plasma viral load. Thus, as more sensitive assays have proliferated and become more widely available, the definition has shifted from < 400 cop/mL with the first generation assays, to < 50 cop/mL, to < 20 cop/mL currently...
January 2018: AIDS Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29591536/sequence-typing-of-human-adenoviruses-isolated-from-polish-patients-subjected-to-allogeneic-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation-a-single-center-experience
#9
Maciej Przybylski, Sylwia Rynans, Anna Waszczuk-Gajda, Jarosław Bilinski, Grzegorz W Basak, Wiesław W Jędrzejczak, Marta Wróblewska, Grażyna Młynarczyk, Tomasz Dzieciątkowski
PURPOSE: Human adenoviruses (HAdV) from species A, B and C are commonly recognized as pathogens causing severe morbidity and mortality in hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) recipients. The purpose of the present study was to determine HAdV types responsible for viremia in HSCT recipients at a large tertiary hospital in Poland. METHODS: Analysis of partial nucleotide sequences of HAdV hexon gene was used to type 40 clinical isolates of HAdV obtained from 40 HSCT recipients...
March 28, 2018: Hematology (Amsterdam, Netherlands)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29543636/low-level-viremia-is-associated-with-clinical-progression-in-hiv-infected-patients-receiving-antiretroviral-treatment
#10
Enrique Bernal, Jose Miguel Gómez, Inma Jarrín, Alfredo Cano, Angeles Muñoz, Antonia Alcaraz, Arkaitz Imaz, Jose Antonio Iribarren, María Rivero, Piedad Arazo, Félix Gutiérrez, CoRIS Study Group
BACKGROUND: The objetive was investigate the long-term impact of low level viremia (LLV) on all-cause mortality, AIDS and non-AIDS events (NAEs), and virological failure in patients receiving ART. METHODS: We analyzed ART-naïve adults from the cohort of the Spanish AIDS Research Network (CoRIS) who initiated ART from 2004 to 2015 and achieved plasma viral load (VL) below 50 copies/ml. LLV50-199 was defined as two consecutive VL between 50 and 199 copies/ml, and LLV200-499 as two consecutive VL between 50 and 499 copies/ml with at least one between 200 and 499 copies/ml...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29541698/adcc-mediated-cd56-dim-nk-cell-responses-are-associated-with-early-hbsag-clearance-in-acute-hbv-infection
#11
Wen-Han Yu, Cormac Cosgrove, Christoph T Berger, Patrick C Cheney, Marina Krykbaeva, Arthur Y Kim, Lia Lewis-Ximenez, Georg M Lauer, Galit Alter
Background: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) affects up to 400 million people worldwide and accounts for approximately one million deaths per year from liver pathologies. Current treatment regimens are effective in suppressing viremia but usually have to be taken indefinitely, warranting research into new therapeutic approaches. Acute HBV infection in adults almost universally results in resolution of viremia, with the exception of immunocompromised persons, suggesting that the immune response can functionally cure or even eradicate HBV infection...
2018: Pathogens & Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29536016/establishment-of-a-bovine-viral-diarrhea-virus-type-2-intranasal-challenge-model-for-assessing-vaccine-efficacy
#12
Rebecca Strong, Simon P Graham, S A La Rocca, Rudiger Raue, Ilse Vangeel, Falko Steinbach
The objective of this study was to develop a bovine viral diarrhea virus type 2 (BVDV-2) challenge model suitable for evaluation of efficacy of BVDV vaccines; a model that mimics natural infection and induces clear leukopenia and viremia. Clinical, hematological and virological parameters were evaluated after infection of two age groups of calves (3 and 9 months) with two BVDV-2 strains (1362727 and 502643). Calves became pyrexic between 8 and 9 days post inoculation and exhibited symptoms, such as nasal discharge, mild depression, cough, and inappetence...
2018: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29514914/reduced-cell-associated-dna-and-improved-viral-control-in-macaques-following-passive-transfer-of-a-single-anti-v2-monoclonal-antibody-and-repeated-shiv-challenges
#13
Ann J Hessell, Mariya B Shapiro, Rebecca Powell, Delphine C Malherbe, Sean P McBurney, Shilpi Pandey, Tracy Cheever, William F Sutton, Christoph Kahl, Byung Park, Susan Zolla-Pazner, Nancy L Haigwood
A high level of V1V2-specific IgG antibodies in vaccinees' sera was the only independent variable that correlated with a reduced risk of HIV acquisition in the RV144 clinical trial. In contrast, IgG avidity, antibody neutralization, and antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity each failed as independent correlates of infection. Extended analyses of RV144 samples demonstrated antiviral activity of V1V2-specific vaccine-induced antibodies. V2-specific antibodies have also been associated with protection from SIV, and the V2i-specific subset of human monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), while poor neutralizers, mediate Fc-dependent antiviral functions in vitro The objective of this study was to determine the protective efficacy of a V2i-specific human mAb 830A against mucosal SHIV challenge...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29512935/cytomegalovirus-infections-in-lung-and-hematopoietic-cell-transplant-recipients-in-the-organ-transplant-infection-prevention-and-detection-study-a-multi-year-multicenter-prospective-cohort-study
#14
Robin K Avery, Fernanda P Silveira, Kaitlin Benedict, Angela A Cleveland, Carol A Kauffman, Mindy G Schuster, Erik R Dubberke, Shahid Husain, David L Paterson, Tom Chiller, Peter Pappas
BACKGROUND: Most studies of post-transplant CMV infection have focused on either solid organ or hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT) recipients. A large prospective cohort study involving both lung and HCT recipients provided an opportunity to compare the epidemiology and outcomes of CMV infections in these 2 groups. METHODS: Patients were followed up for 30 months in a 6-center prospective cohort study. Data on demographics, CMV infections, tissue-invasive disease, recurrences, rejection, and immunosuppression were recorded...
March 7, 2018: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29507105/associations-of-simian-immunodeficiency-virus-siv-specific-follicular-cd8-t-cells-with-other-follicular-t-cells-suggest-complex-contributions-to-siv-viremia-control
#15
Mohammad Arif Rahman, Katherine M McKinnon, Tatiana S Karpova, David A Ball, David J Venzon, Wenjin Fan, Guobin Kang, Qingsheng Li, Marjorie Robert-Guroff
Follicular CD8+ T (fCD8) cells reside within B cell follicles and are thought to be immune-privileged sites of HIV/SIV infection. We have observed comparable levels of fCD8 cells between chronically SIV-infected rhesus macaques with low viral loads (LVL) and high viral loads (HVL), raising the question concerning their contribution to viremia control. In this study, we sought to clarify the role of SIV-specific fCD8 cells in lymph nodes during the course of SIV infection in rhesus macaques. We observed that fCD8 cells, T follicular helper (Tfh) cells, and T follicular regulatory cells (Tfreg) were all elevated in chronic SIV infection...
April 15, 2018: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29482352/dolutegravir-plus-rilpivirine-as-a-switch-option-in-cart-experienced-patients-96-week-data
#16
Amedeo Ferdinando Capetti, Maria Vittoria Cossu, Gaetana Sterrantino, Giorgio Barbarini, Simona Di Giambenedetto, Giuseppe Vittorio De Socio, GianCarlo Orofino, Antonio Di Biagio, Benedetto M Celesia, Stefano Rusconi, Barbara Argenteri, Giuliano Rizzardini
BACKGROUND: Data from clinical studies confirm the efficacy of switching to dolutegravir (DTG) plus rilpivirine (RPV) in selected patients. OBJECTIVE: The primary objective is to report the 96-week virological suppression in our cohort, assessing the durability of this strategy in complicated situations. The secondary objective is to describe the safety and metabolic profile. METHODS: All patients who had switched to DTG plus RPV between October 1, 2014, and September 30, 2015, were analyzed using a retrospective-prospective design, approved by ethics committees...
February 1, 2018: Annals of Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29479149/third-wave-of-african-swine-fever-infection-in-armenia-virus-demonstrates-the-reduction-of-pathogenicity
#17
M A Sargsyan, H E Voskanyan, E M Karalova, L H Hakobyan, Z A Karalyan
Aim: First cases of clinically uncommon African swine fever (ASF), caused by virus genotype II are described in this article. These cases occurred in Armenia, Tavush region, Dilijan municipality in 2011. The aim of this study was to identify and describe the new pathogenic forms of ASF in Armenia. Materials and Methods: The isolation and identification of ASF virus (ASFV) were carried out using conventional techniques. Clinical signs of infection were recorded daily...
January 2018: Veterinary World
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29474450/treatment-with-native-heterodimeric-il-15-increases-cytotoxic-lymphocytes-and-reduces-shiv-rna-in-lymph-nodes
#18
Dionysios C Watson, Eirini Moysi, Antonio Valentin, Cristina Bergamaschi, Santhi Devasundaram, Sotirios P Fortis, Jenifer Bear, Elena Chertova, Julian Bess, Ray Sowder, David J Venzon, Claire Deleage, Jacob D Estes, Jeffrey D Lifson, Constantinos Petrovas, Barbara K Felber, George N Pavlakis
B cell follicles in secondary lymphoid tissues represent an immune privileged sanctuary for AIDS viruses, in part because cytotoxic CD8+ T cells are mostly excluded from entering the follicles that harbor infected T follicular helper (TFH) cells. We studied the effects of native heterodimeric IL-15 (hetIL-15) treatment on uninfected rhesus macaques and on macaques that had spontaneously controlled SHIV infection to low levels of chronic viremia. hetIL-15 increased effector CD8+ T lymphocytes with high granzyme B content in blood, mucosal sites and lymph nodes, including virus-specific MHC-peptide tetramer+ CD8+ cells in LN...
February 2018: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29467313/reduced-chronic-lymphocyte-activation-following-interferon-alpha-blockade-during-the-acute-phase-of-simian-immunodeficiency-virus-infection-in-rhesus-macaques
#19
Diane Carnathan, Benton Lawson, Joana Yu, Kalpana Patel, James M Billingsley, Gregory K Tharp, Olivia M Delmas, Reem Dawoud, Peter Wilkinson, Charles Nicolette, Mark J Cameron, Rafick-Pierre Sekaly, Steven E Bosinger, Guido Silvestri, Thomas H Vanderford
Pathogenic human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection of humans and rhesus macaques (RMs) induces persistently high production of type I interferon (IFN-I), which is thought to contribute to disease progression. To elucidate the specific role of interferon alpha (IFN-α) in SIV pathogenesis, 12 RMs were treated prior to intravenous (i.v.) SIVmac239 infection with a high or a low dose of an antibody (AGS-009) that neutralizes most IFN-α subtypes and were compared with six mock-infused, SIV-infected controls...
May 1, 2018: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29465595/discordant-csf-plasma-hiv-1-rna-in-individuals-on-virologically-suppressive-antiretroviral-therapy-in-western-india
#20
Ameet N Dravid, Kartik Natrajan, Milind M Kulkarni, Chinmay K Saraf, Uma S Mahajan, Sachin D Kore, Niranjan M Rathod, Umakant S Mahajan, Rustom S Wadia
Aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)/Plasma HIV-1 RNA discordance in virologically suppressed individuals presenting with incident neurologic symptoms.In this retrospective cohort study conducted between March 1, 2009, and March 1, 2017, HIV-1 infected adults exposed to atleast 12 months of antiretroviral therapy (ART) and having plasma viral load (VL) <1000 copies/mL (virologically suppressed) were included. Among these, individuals presenting with neurologic symptoms during follow-up were assessed for CSF/Plasma HIV-1 RNA discordance by measuring HIV-1 RNA in collected plasma and CSF samples...
February 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
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