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Low level viremia

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346318/predictors-of-impaired-hdl-function-in-hiv-1-infected-compared-to-uninfected-individuals
#1
Theodoros Kelesidis, Michael N Oda, Mark S Borja, Yumin Yee, Kit F Ng, Diana Huynh, David Elashoff, Judith S Currier
OBJECTIVE: HDL function rather than absolute level may be a more accurate indicator for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Novel methods can measure HDL function using patient samples. The objective of this study is to identify factors that may contribute to HDL dysfunction in chronic, treated HIV-1 infection. DESIGN: Retrospective study of HDL function measured in two ways in HIV-1 infected males with low overall CVD risk and healthy males with no known CVD risk matched by race to the HIV-1 infected participants...
March 23, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328546/temporal-patterns-and-drug-resistance-in-csf-viral-escape-among-art-experienced-hiv-1-infected-adults
#2
Shibani S Mukerji, Vikas Misra, David Lorenz, Anna M Cervantes-Arslanian, Jennifer Lyons, Spyridon Chalkias, Alysse Wurcel, Deirdre Burke, Nagagopal Venna, Susan Morgello, Igor J Koralnik, Dana Gabuzda
BACKGROUND: Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) viral escape is an increasingly recognized clinical event among HIV-1-infected adults. We analyzed longitudinal data and drug-resistance mutations to characterize profiles of HIV-1-infected patients on antiretroviral therapy with discordant CSF and plasma HIV-1 RNA levels. METHODS: Forty-one cases of CSF escape defined as detectable CSF HIV-1 RNA when plasma levels were undetectable, or HIV-1 RNA >0.5-log higher in CSF than plasma, were identified from Boston Hospitals and National NeuroAIDS Tissue Consortium (NNTC) from 2005-2016...
March 21, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324675/arterial-stiffness-in-hiv-infected-youth-and-associations-with-hiv-related-variables
#3
Allison Ross Eckard, Paolo Raggi, Joshua H Ruff, Mary Ann O'Riordan, Julia C Rosebush, Danielle Labbato, Julie E Daniels, Monika Uribe-Leitz, Christopher T Longencker, Grace A McComsey
Children and young adults infected with HIV are at elevated risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, scarce data exist on the utility of non-invasive methods to diagnose subclinical CVD, such as pulse wave velocity (PWV), a non-invasive measure of arterial stiffness. The objectives of this study were to assess the relationship of carotid-femoral PWV with subclinical atherosclerosis measured by carotid intima-media thickness (IMT), compare measurements to healthy controls, and evaluate variables associated with PWV in HIV-infected youth...
March 21, 2017: Virulence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302457/mucosal-vaccination-with-heterologous-viral-vectored-vaccine-targeting-subdominant-siv-accessory-antigens-strongly-inhibits-early-viral-replication
#4
Huanbin Xu, Anne-Marie Andersson, Emeline Ragonnaud, Ditte Boilesen, Anders Tolver, Benjamin Anderschou Holbech Jensen, James L Blanchard, Alfredo Nicosia, Antonella Folgori, Stefano Colloca, Riccardo Cortese, Allan Randrup Thomsen, Jan Pravsgaard Christensen, Ronald S Veazey, Peter Johannes Holst
Conventional HIV T cell vaccine strategies have not been successful in containing acute peak viremia, nor in providing long-term control. We immunized rhesus macaques intramuscularly and rectally using a heterologous adenovirus vectored SIV vaccine regimen encoding normally weakly immunogenic tat, vif, rev and vpr antigens fused to the MHC class II associated invariant chain. Immunizations induced broad T cell responses in all vaccinees. Following up to 10 repeated low-dose intrarectal challenges, vaccinees suppressed early viral replication (P=0...
March 8, 2017: EBioMedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225830/ex-vivo-activation-of-cd4-t-cells-from-donors-on-suppressive-art-can-lead-to-sustained-production-of-infectious-hiv-1-from-a-subset-of-infected-cells
#5
John K Bui, Elias K Halvas, Elizabeth Fyne, Michele D Sobolewski, Dianna Koontz, Wei Shao, Brian Luke, Feiyu F Hong, Mary F Kearney, John W Mellors
The fate of HIV-infected cells after reversal of proviral latency is not well characterized. Simonetti, et al. recently showed that CD4+ T-cells containing intact proviruses can clonally expand in vivo and produce low-level infectious viremia. We hypothesized that reversal of HIV latency by activation of CD4+ T-cells can lead to the expansion of a subset of virus-producing cells rather than their elimination. We established an ex vivo cell culture system involving stimulation of CD4+ T-cells from donors on suppressive antiretroviral therapy (ART) with PMA/ionomycin (day 1-7), followed by rest (day 7-21), and then repeat stimulation (day 21-28), always in the presence of high concentrations of raltegravir and efavirenz to effectively block new cycles of viral replication...
February 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220254/hiv-1-persistent-viremia-is-frequently-followed-by-episodes-of-low-level-viremia
#6
Marek Widera, Miriam Dirks, Barbara Bleekmann, Robert Jablonka, Martin Däumer, Hauke Walter, Robert Ehret, Jens Verheyen, Stefan Esser
After the start of antiretroviral therapy (ART), plasma HIV-RNA levels should fall below the limit of detection (LOD) within 24 weeks. Hence, the prolonged decline of HIV-RNA after ART initiation is defined as persistent viremia (PV). In this retrospective study, we analyzed factors associated with PV. Next-generation sequencing of viral RNA/DNA was performed to study viral evolution and the emergence of drug-resistance mutations in HIV-infected patients with PV (n = 20). In addition, HIV-DNA species, immunological parameters, and clinical data of the patients were analyzed...
February 20, 2017: Medical Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198350/cerebrospinal-fluid-viral-load-and-neopterin-in-hiv-positive-patients-with-undetectable-viraemia
#7
Ilaria Motta, Tiziano Allice, Alessandra Romito, Micol Ferrara, Sara Ecclesia, Daniele Imperiale, Valeria Ghisetti, Giovanni Di Perri, Stefano Bonora, Andrea Calcagno
BACKGROUND: Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) HIV RNA is commonly used as a marker of compartmental antiviral activity in HIV-positive patients. Undetectable CSF HIV RNA levels have been associated with low CSF neopterin levels and better neurocognitive performances. Aim of this study was to analyse the prevalence and predictors of non-detectable CSF HIV RNA using a commercial assay. METHODS: In adult HIV-positive HAART-treated patients with confirmed plasma HIV RNA <50 copies/mL, CSF HIV RNA (with Roche Amplicor Assay) and neopterin were measured...
February 15, 2017: Antiviral Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28128912/robotic-assisted-radical-cystoprostatectomy-and-intracorporeal-ileal-conduit-urinary-diversion-for-a-kidney-transplant-recipient
#8
Peter A Caputo, Daniel Ramirez, Matthew Maurice, Ryan Nelson, Onder Kara, Ercan Malkoc, David Goldfarb, Jihad Kaouk
INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES: Robotic assisted radical cystectomy (RARC) is an alternative to open radical cystectomy. As experience is gained with the RARC approach the technique is being applied to more complex surgical cases. We describe here our technique for RARC with intracorporeal ileal conduit urinary diversion for a renal transplant recipient. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The patient is a 60-year old man with high-grade muscle invasive bladder cancer. He has a history of renal failure due to polycystic kidney disease and received a deceased donor renal transplant in 2008...
January 27, 2017: International Braz J Urol: Official Journal of the Brazilian Society of Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28128885/mechanisms-of-hiv-persistence-in-hiv-reservoirs
#9
REVIEW
Mayibongwe L Mzingwane, Caroline T Tiemessen
The establishment and maintenance of HIV reservoirs that lead to persistent viremia in patients on antiretroviral drugs remains the greatest challenge of the highly active antiretroviral therapy era. Cellular reservoirs include resting memory CD4+ T lymphocytes, implicated as the major HIV reservoir, having a half-life of approximately 44 months while this is less than 6 hours for HIV in plasma. In some individuals, persistent viremia consists of invariant HIV clones not detected in circulating resting CD4+ T lymphocytes suggesting other possible sources of residual viremia...
January 27, 2017: Reviews in Medical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091393/viral-blips-were-infrequent-in-treatment-naive-adults-treated-with-rilpivirine-emtricitabine-tenofovir-df-or-efavirenz-emtricitabine-tenofovir-df-through-96-weeks
#10
Danielle P Porter, Rima Kulkarni, Will Garner, Michael D Miller, Kirsten L White
BACKGROUND: The clinical impact of transient episodes of HIV viremia (viral blips) on virologic failure and resistance development is not fully understood. Here we investigated the blip frequency and virologic outcomes of HIV-1-infected subjects experiencing viral blips among treatment-naïve subjects initiating therapy on rilpivirine (RPV)/emtricitabine (FTC)/tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) or efavirenz (EFV)/FTC/TDF through 96 weeks of treatment. METHODS: Subjects treated with at least one dose of study drug and with at least one post-baseline HIV-1 RNA value were included in this analysis...
January 16, 2017: Antiviral Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043030/potential-gingival-crevicular-fluid-and-serum-biomarkers-by-stage-of-hiv-infection
#11
Jesús Eduardo Elizondo, María Del Refugio Rocha-Pizaña, Ana Cecilia Treviño, Deborah Violant, Mario Moisés Álvarez, Ana María Rivas-Estilla
OBJECTIVE: This study evaluates the potential of gingival crevicular fluid and serum cytokines as HIV stage biomarkers. METHODS: Gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) and serum samples from 78 HIV-positive adult male subjects (cases) and 39 HIV-negative male subjects (controls) from Mexico were examined for 17 cytokines using multiplex ELISA. Participants were divided into five subgroups by HIV stage of infection on age-specific CD4+ T-lymphocyte count and antiretroviral therapy (ART), and further correlated to the cytokine levels...
December 30, 2016: Cytokine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28041834/the-hla-g-14-base-pair-deletion-allele-and-the-deletion-deletion-genotype-are-associated-with-persistent-hbe-antigenemia-in-chronic-hepatis-b-infection
#12
Sandro da Costa Ferreira, Silvana Gama Florêncio Chachá, Fernanda Fernandes Souza, Andreza Corrêa Teixeira, Rodrigo de Carvalho Santana, Neifi Hassan Saloun Deghaide, Sandra Rodrigues, Leonardo A Marano, Celso Teixeira Mendes-Junior, Leandra Naira Zambelli Ramalho, Sérgio Zucoloto, Eduardo Antônio Donadi, Ana de Lourdes Candolo Martinelli
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: HLA-G has well-recognized immunomodulatory properties, and this molecule is frequently expressed in the livers of hepatitis B virus (HBV)-infected patients. Because the HLA-G 14 bp-insertion/deletion polymorphism (rs371194629) has been associated with the magnitude of HLA-G expression, we evaluated this polymorphism in the recognized evolutionary forms of chronic HBV infection. METHODS: We studied 196 chronic HBV-infected patients (118 HBeAg-negative chronic hepatitis, 53 HBeAg-positive chronic hepatitis and 25 inactive carriers exhibiting low levels of serum HBVDNA and persistently normal ALT levels), and 202 healthy individuals...
February 2017: Human Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28036372/collapse-of-cytolytic-potential-in-siv-specific-cd8-t-cells-following-acute-siv-infection-in-rhesus-macaques
#13
Emily R Roberts, Diane G Carnathan, Hui Li, George M Shaw, Guido Silvestri, Michael R Betts
Poor maintenance of cytotoxic factor expression among HIV-specific CD8+ T cells, in part caused by dysregulated expression of the transcription factor T-bet, is associated with HIV disease progression. However, the precise evolution and context in which CD8+ T cell cytotoxic functions become dysregulated in HIV infection remain unclear. Using the rhesus macaque (RM) SIV infection model, we evaluated the kinetics of SIV-specific CD8+ T cell cytolytic factor expression in peripheral blood, lymph node, spleen, and gut mucosa from early acute infection through chronic infection...
December 2016: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28033514/infections-due-to-alphaherpesviruses-in-early-post-transplant-period-after-allogeneic-haematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation-results-of-a-5-year-survey
#14
Maciej Przybylski, Anna Majewska, Tomasz Dzieciatkowski, Patrycja Rusicka, Grzegorz W Basak, Barbara Nasilowska-Adamska, Jaroslaw Bilinski, Wieslaw W Jedrzejczak, Marta Wroblewska, Kazimierz Halaburda, Grazyna Mlynarczyk, Agnieszka Tomaszewska
BACKGROUND: Infections caused by human α-herpesviruses usually have a benign course with recurrencies. However, they may become dangerous in immunocompromised hosts. In this case, molecular methods constitute a reliable diagnostic tool enabling rapid assessment of the efficacy of antiviral treatment strategies. OBJECTIVES: We estimated the frequency of alphaherpesviral DNAemia and the viral load during early post-transplantation period after alloHSCT; we also analyzed association of the DNAemia and chosen parameters of the patients...
December 21, 2016: Journal of Clinical Virology: the Official Publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012257/low-level-viremia-and-the-increased-risk-of-hepatocellular-carcinoma-in-patients-receiving-entecavir-treatment
#15
Jung Hee Kim, Dong Hyun Sinn, Wonseok Kang, Geum-Youn Gwak, Yong-Han Paik, Moon Seok Choi, Joon Hyeok Lee, Kwang Cheol Koh, Seung Woon Paik
The long-term clinical impact of low-level viremia (LLV; <2,000 IU/mL) is not well understood. As a result, it is unclear whether the development of LLV during entecavir monotherapy requires a change in therapy. A retrospective cohort of 875 treatment-naive chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) monoinfected patients (mean age 47.7 years, male = 564 [65.5%], cirrhosis = 443 [50.6%]) who received entecavir monotherapy were analyzed for the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The HCC risk was compared between patients who maintained virological response (MVR), defined by persistently undetectable HBV DNA (<12 IU/mL), and patients who experienced LLV, defined by either persistent or intermittent episodes of <2,000 IU/mL detectable HBV DNA...
November 5, 2016: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28006671/recapitulation-of-treatment-response-patterns-in-a-novel-humanized-mouse-model-for-chronic-hepatitis-b-virus-infection
#16
Benjamin Y Winer, Tiffany Huang, Benjamin E Low, Cindy Avery, Mihai-Alexandru Pais, Gabriela Hrebikova, Evelyn Siu, Luis Chiriboga, Michael V Wiles, Alexander Ploss
There are ~350 million chronic carriers of hepatitis B (HBV). While a prophylactic vaccine and drug regimens to suppress viremia are available, chronic HBV infection is rarely cured. HBV's limited host tropism leads to a scarcity of susceptible small animal models and is a hurdle to developing curative therapies. Mice that support engraftment with human hepatoctyes have traditionally been generated through crosses of murine liver injury models to immunodeficient backgrounds. Here, we describe the disruption of fumarylacetoacetate hydrolase directly in the NOD Rag1(-/-) IL2RγNULL (NRG) background using zinc finger nucleases...
February 2017: Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27986689/hla-b-57-and-ifnl4-related-polymorphisms-are-associated-with-protection-against-hiv-1-disease-progression-in-controllers
#17
B Dominguez-Molina, L Tarancon-Diez, S Hua, C Abad-Molina, E Rodriguez-Gallego, K Machmach, F Vidal, C Tural, S Moreno, J M Goñi, E Ramírez de Arellano, M Del Val, M F Gonzalez-Escribano, J Del Romero, C Rodriguez, L Capa, P Viciana, J Alcamí, X G Yu, B D Walker, Manuel Leal, M Lichterfeld, E Ruiz-Mateos
BACKGROUND: HIV-1-controllers maintain HIV-1 viremia at low levels (normally <2000 HIV-RNA copies/mL) without antiretroviral treatment. However, some HIV-1-controllers have evidence of immunologic progression with marked CD4(+)T-cell decline. We investigated host genetic factors associated with protection against CD4(+)T-cell loss in HIV-1-controllers. METHODS: We analysed the association of interferon lambda 4 (IFNL4)-related polymorphisms and HLA-B haplotypes within Long Term Non-Progressor HIV-1-controllers ((LTNP-C), defined by maintaining CD4(+)T-cells counts >500 cells/mm(3) for more than 7 years after HIV-1 diagnosis) versus non-LTNP-C, who developed CD4(+)T-cells counts <500 cells/mm(3) Both a Spanish study cohort (n=140) and an international validation cohort (n=914) were examined...
December 16, 2016: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27974456/kinetics-of-myeloid-derived-suppressor-cell-frequency-and-function-during-simian-immunodeficiency-virus-infection-combination-antiretroviral-therapy-and-treatment-interruption
#18
Sandra E Dross, Paul V Munson, Se Eun Kim, Debra L Bratt, Hillary C Tunggal, Ana L Gervassi, Deborah H Fuller, Helen Horton
During chronic lentiviral infection, poor clinical outcomes correlate both with systemic inflammation and poor proliferative ability of HIV-specific T cells; however, the connection between the two is not clear. Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC), which expand during states of elevated circulating inflammatory cytokines, may link the systemic inflammation and poor T cell function characteristic of lentiviral infections. Although MDSC are partially characterized in HIV and SIV infection, questions remain regarding their persistence, activity, and clinical significance...
January 15, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27959961/persistent-low-level-replication-of-siv%C3%AE-nef-drives-maturation-of-antibody-and-cd8-t-cell-responses-to-induce-protective-immunity-against-vaginal-siv-infection
#19
Sama Adnan, R Keith Reeves, Jacqueline Gillis, Fay E Wong, Yi Yu, Jeremy V Camp, Qingsheng Li, Michelle Connole, Yuan Li, Michael Piatak, Jeffrey D Lifson, Wenjun Li, Brandon F Keele, Pamela A Kozlowski, Ronald C Desrosiers, Ashley T Haase, R Paul Johnson
Defining the correlates of immune protection conferred by SIVΔnef, the most effective vaccine against SIV challenge, could enable the design of a protective vaccine against HIV infection. Here we provide a comprehensive assessment of immune responses that protect against SIV infection through detailed analyses of cellular and humoral immune responses in the blood and tissues of rhesus macaques vaccinated with SIVΔnef and then vaginally challenged with wild-type SIV. Despite the presence of robust cellular immune responses, animals at 5 weeks after vaccination displayed only transient viral suppression of challenge virus, whereas all macaques challenged at weeks 20 and 40 post-SIVΔnef vaccination were protected, as defined by either apparent sterile protection or significant suppression of viremia in infected animals...
December 2016: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27957384/mitigating-the-risk-of-transfusion-transmitted-dengue-in-australia
#20
Kelly Rooks, Clive R Seed, Jesse J Fryk, Catherine A Hyland, Robert J Harley, Jerry A Holmberg, Denese C Marks, Robert L P Flower, Helen M Faddy
Dengue viruses (DENV 1-4) are a risk to transfusion safety, with several transfusion-transmitted (TT) cases reported globally. DENV 1-4 are endemic in over 100 countries, with seasonal outbreaks occurring in northeastern Australia. To mitigate TT-DENV risk in Australia, fresh blood components are not manufactured from donors returning from any area (domestic/overseas) with known dengue transmission. Alternatively, TT-DENV risk may be mitigated using an appropriate blood donor screening assay. We aimed to determine the rate of dengue infection in donors during dengue outbreaks in Australia...
2016: Journal of Blood Transfusion
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