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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811349/brain-macrophages-in-simian-immunodeficiency-virus-infected-antiretroviral-suppressed-macaques-a-functional-latent-reservoir
#1
Claudia R Avalos, Celina M Abreu, Suzanne E Queen, Ming Li, Sarah Price, Erin N Shirk, Elizabeth L Engle, Ellen Forsyth, Brandon T Bullock, Feilim Mac Gabhann, Stephen W Wietgrefe, Ashley T Haase, M Christine Zink, Joseph L Mankowski, Janice E Clements, Lucio Gama
A human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection cure requires an understanding of the cellular and anatomical sites harboring virus that contribute to viral rebound upon treatment interruption. Despite antiretroviral therapy (ART), HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) are reported in HIV-infected individuals on ART. Biomarkers for macrophage activation and neuronal damage in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of HIV-infected individuals demonstrate continued effects of HIV in brain and suggest that the central nervous system (CNS) may serve as a viral reservoir...
August 15, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810826/improving-fold-resistance-prediction-of-hiv-1-against-protease-and-reverse-transcriptase-inhibitors-using-artificial-neural-networks
#2
Olivier Sheik Amamuddy, Nigel T Bishop, Özlem Tastan Bishop
BACKGROUND: Drug resistance in HIV treatment is still a worldwide problem. Predicting resistance to antiretrovirals (ARVs) before starting any treatment is important. Prediction accuracy is essential, as low-accuracy predictions increase the risk of prescribing sub-optimal drug regimens leading to patients developing resistance sooner. Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) are a powerful tool that would be able to assist in drug resistance prediction. In this study, we constrained the dataset to subtype B, sacrificing generalizability for a higher predictive performance, and demonstrated that the predictive quality of the ANN regression models have definite improvement for most ARVs...
August 15, 2017: BMC Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810667/understanding-data-sources-to-measure-patient-retention-in-hiv-care-in-sub-saharan-africa
#3
Kate Clouse, Tamsin Phillips, Landon Myer
Antiretroviral therapy (ART) programs in sub-Saharan Africa are moving towards universal treatment, yet the success of these programs is threatened by gaps within the continuum of HIV care. In this commentary, we seek to draw attention to the advantages and limitations of different data sources currently used for measuring retention in HIV care. Within the context of a piecemeal combination of imperfect data sources, selecting a gold standard of collecting retention data is difficult. Currently, our data systems for measuring retention provide an incomplete picture of the health of our national ART systems and, thus, the health of our patients...
July 1, 2017: International Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810460/exploring-our-understanding-of-fatigue-among-adolescents-living-with-hiv-highlighting-the-unknown
#4
Maria Elizabeth Loades, Ashraf Kagee
Due to antiretroviral therapies, HIV is now a chronic illness rather than a terminal disease. Chronic symptoms, including fatigue, should be identified and managed to prevent or minimise their potential negative consequences. We apply a Symptom Management Model to conceptualise fatigue among adolescents with HIV. In the context of minimal research, we seek to identify a research agenda for resource-constrained contexts, where HIV prevalence remains high and treatment adherence is a significant problem. By better understanding and addressing the symptom of fatigue, treatment adherence, occupational, social and emotional functioning could be improved...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Health Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810359/the-role-of-motivation-in-predicting-antiretroviral-therapy-adherence-in-china
#5
Taryn Vian, Mary Bachman DeSilva, Howard J Cabral, Geoffrey C Williams, Allen L Gifford, Li Zhong, Wubin Xie, Christopher J Gill, Lora L Sabin
Patient motivation is important in managing medication regimens such as antiretroviral treatment for HIV/AIDS. We tested whether self-determination theory could predict adherence behavior among 115 HIV-positive patients in the China Adherence through Technology Study, a randomized controlled trial of an intervention using text reminders and supportive counseling to increase adherence. Being in the treatment group had a significant effect on improving adherence; however, we did not find evidence that self-determination theory predicts adherence in this population of HIV-positive patients...
October 1, 2016: Journal of Health Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808480/salvage-chemotherapy-for-adults-with-relapsed-or-refractory-lymphoma-in-malawi
#6
Bongani Kaimila, Toon van der Gronde, Christopher Stanley, Edwards Kasonkanji, Maria Chikasema, Blessings Tewete, Paula Fox, Satish Gopal
BACKGROUND: Lymphoma is highly associated with HIV in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), which contributes to worse outcomes relative to resource-rich settings, and frequent failure of first-line chemotherapy. However, there are no second-line treatment descriptions for adults with relapsed or refractory lymphoma (RRL) in SSA. METHODS: We describe HIV+ and HIV- patients with RRL receiving salvage chemotherapy in Malawi. Patients were prospectively treated at a national teaching hospital in Lilongwe, with the modified EPIC regimen (etoposide, prednisolone, ifosfamide, cisplatin) between June 2013 and May 2016, after failing prior first-line chemotherapy...
2017: Infectious Agents and Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807190/socioeconomic-differences-in-mortality-in-the-antiretroviral-therapy-era-in-agincourt-rural-south-africa-2001-13-a-population-surveillance-analysis
#7
Chodziwadziwa W Kabudula, Brian Houle, Mark A Collinson, Kathleen Kahn, Francesc Xavier Gómez-Olivé, Stephen Tollman, Samuel J Clark
BACKGROUND: Understanding the effects of socioeconomic disparities in health outcomes is important to implement specific preventive actions. We assessed socioeconomic disparities in mortality indicators in a rural South African population over the period 2001-13. METHODS: We used data from 21 villages of the Agincourt Health and socio-Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS). We calculated the probabilities of death from birth to age 5 years and from age 15 to 60 years, life expectancy at birth, and cause-specific and age-specific mortality by sex (not in children <5 years), time period, and socioeconomic status (household wealth) quintile for HIV/AIDS and tuberculosis, other communicable diseases (excluding HIV/AIDS and tuberculosis) and maternal, perinatal, and nutritional causes, non-communicable diseases, and injury...
September 2017: Lancet Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807188/the-global-burden-of-tuberculosis-mortality-in-children-a-mathematical-modelling-study
#8
Peter J Dodd, Courtney M Yuen, Charalambos Sismanidis, James A Seddon, Helen E Jenkins
BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis in children is increasingly recognised as an important component of the global tuberculosis burden, with an estimated 1 million cases in 2015. Although younger children are vulnerable to severe forms of tuberculosis disease, no age-disaggregated estimates of paediatric tuberculosis mortality exist, and tuberculosis has never been included in official estimates of under-5 child mortality. We aimed to produce a global mortality burden estimate in children using a complementary approach not dependent on vital registration data...
September 2017: Lancet Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806412/missed-opportunities-for-hiv-control-gaps-in-hiv-testing-for-partners-of-people-living-with-hiv-in-lima-peru
#9
Ana L Vasquez, Renato A Errea, Daniel Hoces, Juan Echevarria, Elsa González-Lagos, Eduardo Gotuzzo
INTRODUCTION: Based on the hypothesis that HIV programs struggle to deliver health services that harmonize necessities of treatment and prevention, we described the outcomes of routinely provided HIV testing to partners of people living with HIV (PLWH) through a secondary analysis of routine data collected at a public hospital in Lima, Peru. METHODS: Among PLWH enrolled in the study center's HIV program between 2005 and 2014, we identified index cases (IC): PLWH who reported a unique partner not previously enrolled...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806196/the-costs-of-hiv-treatment-and-care-in-ghana-a-longitudinal-multi-site-analysis
#10
Evelinn Mikkelsen, Jan Hontelez, Justice Nonvignon, Sam Amon, Felix A Asante, Moses K Aikins, Julie van de Haterd, Rob Baltussen
OBJECTIVE: To determine cost-functions that describe the dynamics of costs of HIV treatment and care in Ghana by CD4 cell count at treatment initiation and over time on antiretroviral therapy (ART). DESIGN: We used detailed longitudinal healthcare utilization data from clinical health records of HIV-infected patients at seven Ghanaian ART clinics to estimate cost-functions of treatment and care by CD4 cell count at treatment initiation and time on ART. METHODS: We developed two linear regression models; one with individual random effects to determine the relationship between CD4 cell count at ART initiation and costs of treatment and care, and one with individual fixed effects to determine the causal effect of time in care on costs of treatment and care...
August 12, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806195/antiretroviral-combination-use-during-pregnancy-and-the-risk-of-major-congenital-malformations
#11
Anick Bérard, Odile Sheehy, Jin-Ping Zhao, Michal Abrahamowicz, Mona Loutfy, Isabelle Boucoiran, Sasha Bernatsky
OBJECTIVE: To quantify the risk of major congenital malformations associated with gestational combination antiretroviral use. DESIGN: Population-based prospective cohort study. METHODS: Using the Quebec Pregnancy Cohort from 1998-2015, we included women who covered by Quebec Drug Plan and have a singleton livebirth. All antiretroviral use alone or in combination were considered. Major congenital malformations overall and organ-specific malformations in the first year of life were identified...
August 12, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805985/willingness-to-pay-for-antiretroviral-drugs-among-hiv-and-aids-clients-in-south-east-nigeria
#12
Chinyere Mbachu, Chijioke Okoli, Obinna Onwujekwe, Fabian Enabulele
BACKGROUND: The current trend of withdrawal of donor support for HIV/AIDS treatment in Nigeria may require that the cost of antiretroviral drugs be borne in part by infected people and their families. OBJECTIVE: This study was conducted to determine the economic value for free antiretroviral drugs (ARVs) expressed by clients receiving treatment for HIV/AIDS in a tertiary hospital. STUDY METHOD: The contingent valuation method was used to elicit the values attached to free ARVs from people living with HIV/AIDS that were receiving care in a public tertiary hospital in south-east Nigeria...
August 14, 2017: Health Expectations: An International Journal of Public Participation in Health Care and Health Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803049/modeling-aging-in-hiv-infection-in-nonhuman-primates-to-address-an-emerging-challenge-of-the-post-art-era
#13
REVIEW
Tianyu He, Elizabeth Falwell, Egidio Brocca-Cofano, Ivona Pandrea
The advent of antiretroviral therapy (ART) has dramatically improved both quality and length of life for subjects infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), delaying or preventing progression to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). However, the virus induces aging-related changes to the immune system which confound treatment. Additionally, the normal physiologic events that occur during aging lead to deficiencies in immunity which not only exacerbate HIV pathogenesis but also trigger a variety of comorbidities...
August 9, 2017: Current Opinion in Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800335/an-overview-of-human-immunodeficiency-virus-type-1-associated-common-neurological-complications-does-aging-pose-a-challenge
#14
Anantha Ram Nookala, Joy Mitra, Nitish S Chaudhari, Muralidhar L Hegde, Anil Kumar
With increasing survival of patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), the manifestation of heterogeneous neurological complications is also increasing alarmingly in these patients. Currently, more than 30% of about 40 million HIV-1 infected people worldwide develop central nervous system (CNS)-associated dysfunction, including dementia, sensory, and motor neuropathy. Furthermore, the highly effective antiretroviral therapy has been shown to increase the prevalence of mild cognitive functions while reducing other HIV-1-associated neurological complications...
August 9, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799999/features-of-cardiovascular-disease-in-low-income-and-middle-income-countries-in-adults-and-children-living-with-hiv
#15
Andrew W McCrary, Chidozie U Nduka, Saverio Stranges, Gerald S Bloomfield
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The current article addresses crucial issues in identifying risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in people living with HIV in low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs). These issues are in need of urgent attention to advance our knowledge and inform actions to mitigate CVD in this population. We address CVDs in adults living with HIV as well as the unique aspects pertaining to children living with HIV (CLHIV), a group sorely under-represented in this field. RECENT FINDINGS: CVDs affecting adults such as hypertension, dyslipidemia, coronary artery disease, and heart failure, in addition to myocardial dysfunction, vascular diseases, and autoimmune phenomena are also being reported in CLHIV...
August 10, 2017: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799998/use-of-direct-oral-anticoagulants-for-treatment-of-atrial-fibrillation-in-patients-with-hiv-a-review
#16
Timothy A West, Jacinta Perram, Cameron J Holloway
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Atrial fibrillation is increasingly common in the ageing population. Patients with atrial fibrillation and HIV have a higher stroke risk, with guidelines recommending anticoagulation in the majority. Whilst anticoagulation options have diversified in the last decade for the general population, there is limited evidence for the safety and efficacy of these medications when used concurrently with antiretroviral therapy. We review the potential for patients with HIV on antiretroviral therapy to have direct-acting oral anticoagulations (DOACs)...
August 10, 2017: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799920/3-year-efficacy-and-durability-of-simplification-to-single-tablet-regimens-a-comparison-between-co-formulated-efavirenz-emtricitabine-tenofovir-and-rilpivirine-emtricitabine-tenofovir
#17
Roberta Gagliardini, Alessandra Bandera, Mauro Zaccarelli, Gaetana Sterrantino, Alessandra Latini, Alessandro D'Avino, Giuseppe Lapadula, Andrea Antinori, Roberto Cauda, Andrea De Luca, Andrea Gori, Simona Di Giambenedetto, Massimiliano Fabbiani
BACKGROUND: Few data are available about efficacy and durability of simplification from multi-tablet antiretroviral regimens to co-formulated efavirenz(EFV)/emtricitabine(FTC)/tenofovir(TDF) versus rilpivirine(RPV)/emtricitabine/tenofovir in virologically-suppressed HIV-1-infected patients. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed HIV-infected patients with HIV-RNA<50copies/mL switching to co-formulated EFV/FTC/TDF or RPV/FTC/TDF at 5 Italian centers. Patients were followed from time of switch until regimen discontinuation or a maximum of 3-years follow-up...
August 11, 2017: Antiviral Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799688/developing-a-program-for-enhancing-youth-hiv-treatment-adherence-and-risk-reduction
#18
Warunee Fongkaew, Warawan Udomkhamsuk, Nongkran Viseskul, Marisa Guptaruk
Youth living with HIV face difficult and challenging situations that decrease their adherence to antiretroviral medications. In this study, we developed a pilot program to enhance HIV treatment adherence and risk reduction among youth living with HIV based on collaboration with a community hospital involving a multi-disciplinary healthcare team. Participants were 25 youth living with HIV/AIDS, 18 caregivers, and 12 healthcare providers. The action research process comprised a preliminary stage and four phases of assessment, planning, implementation, and evaluation...
August 11, 2017: Nursing & Health Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799413/an-initial-open-trial-of-a-brief-behavioral-activation-treatment-for-depression-and-medication-adherence-in-hiv-infected-patients
#19
Matthew T Tull, Christopher R Berghoff, Joseph R Bardeen, Michelle Schoenleber, Deborah J Konkle-Parker
Advances in HIV treatment through highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) have led to a steady decline in HIV-related mortality rates. However, HAART requires adherence to strict and often complicated medication regimens, and nonadherence to HAART can significantly decrease its effectiveness. Depression has consistently shown a robust association with medication nonadherence; consequently, numerous psychological interventions have been developed to target depression and increase medication adherence among HIV-infected individuals...
August 1, 2017: Behavior Modification
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797181/hiv-resistance-with-correlation-to-pmtct-regimen-in-hiv-infected-infants-in-northern-tanzania
#20
Dorothy Elizabeth Dow, Werner Schimana, Balthazar M Nyombi, Blandina T Mmbaga, Aisa M Shayo, John A Bartlett, Charles G Massambu, Emmanuel G Kifaro, Elizabeth L Turner, Todd DeMarco, Fangping Cai, Coleen Cunningham, Ann M Buchanan
Prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) guidelines recommend that all HIV-infected pregnant woman receive antiretroviral therapy (Option B) and HIV-infected infants should initiate therapy with a protease inhibitor based regimen; however, implementation of these guidelines has lagged in many resource-limited settings. Tanzania only recently implemented these guidelines with little country specific data to inform whether HIV non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) resistance was present among infected infants under the Option A guidelines...
August 11, 2017: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
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