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Antiretroviral treatment

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719255/patient-reported-adverse-effects-associated-with-combination-antiretroviral-therapy-and-coadministered-enzyme-inducing-antiepileptic-drugs
#1
Melissa A Elafros, Gretchen L Birbeck, Joseph C Gardiner, Omar K Siddiqi, Izukanji Sikazwe, Nigel Paneth, Christopher M Bositis, Jason F Okulicz
AbstractConcurrent treatment with combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) and an enzyme-inducing antiepileptic drug (EI-AED) is common in resource-limited settings; however, the incidence and impact of adverse effects in cotreated patients is largely unknown. Symptoms of adverse effects were assessed by both spontaneous report and checklist for 145 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected Zambian adults initiating various treatment combinations, such as cART with an EI-AED (N = 20), cART only (N = 43), or neither drug (untreated; N = 82)...
June 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718497/review-of-hiv-treatment-progress-gaps-and-challenges-in-the-caribbean-2005-2015
#2
Yitades Gebre, Nikkiah Meoshi Forbes, Abena Peters
Objective: To highlight the current context of the HIV response in the Caribbean and what remains to be addressed to close gaps in HIV treatment and care and end AIDS by 2030. Methods: We reviewed and analyzed reports from peer-reviewed and gray literature for the period of 2005-2015 on HIV treatment progress and gaps in the Caribbean, based on searches done in four bibliographic databases and three organizations' websites and/or libraries. Data were extracted using forms detailing study objectives, thematic areas for HIV care and treatment in the Caribbean, results, and other key information...
December 2016: Revista Panamericana de Salud Pública, Pan American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718493/the-hiv-continuum-of-care-in-the-bahamas-in-2014
#3
Nikkiah Forbes, Glenise Johnson, Arvis Mortimer, Indira Martin, Morton Frankson, Kathryn Johnston, Tamara Thompson, Sharon Weissman
Objective: The HIV cascade of care describes the spectrum of engagement in HIV care from diagnosis to viral suppression (VS). The study objective was to develop a baseline HIV cascade of care for new HIV diagnoses in the Bahamas in 2014. Methods: Individuals who were newly diagnosed with HIV in 2014 and known to be alive within a year of that diagnosis were included in the cascade of care (n = 250). Individuals with one CD4 or HIV viral load (VL) measure in 2014 were considered linked to care...
December 2016: Revista Panamericana de Salud Pública, Pan American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717981/effects-of-counselling-on-adherence-to-antiretroviral-treatment-among-people-with-hiv-in-estonia-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#4
Anneli Uusküla, Kaja-Triin Laisaar, Mait Raag, Liis Lemsalu, Liilia Lõhmus, Kristi Rüütel, K Rivet Amico
To assess the efficacy of an education- and strengths-based counselling programme to promote antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence in a cohort of HIV-infected individuals with high prevalence of injection drug use in Estonia. Parallel-group randomized (1:1) controlled trial (RCT). Adults receiving ART in two clinics were followed for 12 months. The trial compared: (i) an intervention (three sessions) incorporated into routine clinic visits, providing education about HIV, ART, the role of adherence, and tailoring regimen to daily routines using problem-solving skills to address adherence barriers versus (ii) usual care (control)...
July 17, 2017: AIDS and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717763/burkitt-s-lymphoma-and-b-cell-lymphoma-unclassifiable-with-features-intermediate-between-diffuse-large-b-cell-lymphoma-and-burkitt-s-lymphoma-in-patients-with-hiv-outcomes-in-a-south-african-public-hospital
#5
Gerhard Sissolak, Matthew Seftel, Thomas S Uldrick, Tonya M Esterhuizen, Nooroudien Mohamed, Danie Kotze
PURPOSE: Burkitt's lymphoma (BL) is a common HIV-associated lymphoma in South Africa. B-cell lymphoma unclassifiable with features intermediate between diffuse large B-cell lymphoma and Burkitt's lymphoma (BL/DLBCL) also occurs in HIV infection. Outcomes of HIV-infected patients with BL or BL/DLBCL in a resource-constrained setting are not defined. METHODS: We performed a retrospective study of HIV-positive patients with BL or BL/DLBCL treated from 2004 to 2012 with curative intent at a publically funded academic medical center in South Africa...
June 2017: Journal of Global Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717723/cervical-abnormalities-in-south-african-women-living-with-hiv-with-high-screening-and-referral-rates
#6
Ingrid T Katz, Lisa M Butler, Tamaryn L Crankshaw, Alexi A Wright, Karen Bramhill, Dominick A Leone, Janet Giddy, Sean Mould
PURPOSE: To determine the prevalence of screening, cervical dysplasia, and malignancy on the basis of histologic diagnoses from colposcopy and large loop excision of the transformation zone among women living with HIV (WLWH) who attended an urban antiretroviral treatment (ART) clinic in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed a retrospective cohort study to examine a random sample of 462 WLWH during a 5-year period from 2004 to 2009. Women on ART for < 3 months were excluded...
December 2016: Journal of Global Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717714/phenotype-and-treatment-of-breast-cancer-in-hiv-positive-and-negative-women-in-cape-town-south-africa
#7
Lizanne Langenhoven, Pieter Barnardt, Alfred I Neugut, Judith S Jacobson
PURPOSE: An estimated 5.9 million people in South Africa are infected with HIV. Because antiretroviral therapy has made infection with HIV a treatable, chronic condition, HIV-infected individuals are now surviving to middle and older age. We investigated the implications of HIV status for breast cancer in South Africa. METHODS: We compared clinical and demographic characteristics of women newly diagnosed with a first primary breast cancer at Tygerberg Hospital, Cape Town, South Africa, from January 2010 to December 2011 by HIV status...
October 2016: Journal of Global Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716149/transition-into-adult-care-factors-associated-with-level-of-preparedness-among-adolescents-living-with-hiv-in-cambodia
#8
Siyan Yi, Chanrith Ngin, Khuondyla Pal, Vohith Khol, Sovannary Tuot, Sokunmealiny Sau, Pheak Chhoun, Gitau Mburu, Sok Chamreun Choub, Kolab Chhim, Penhsun Ly
BACKGROUND: Preparing adolescents for transition into adult care and supporting their acquisition of self-health care management skills is a critical determinant of their post-transition HIV care outcomes. However, there is a scarcity of research on effective transition strategies. This study explores factors associated with adolescent preparedness for transition into adult care in Cambodia. METHODS: In August 2016, a cross-sectional study was conducted among 223 adolescents living with HIV aged 15-17, randomly selected from 11 antiretroviral therapy clinics, utilizing a structured questionnaire...
July 17, 2017: AIDS Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715160/meeting-the-who-90-target-antiretroviral-treatment-efficacy-in-poland-is-associated-with-baseline-clinical-patient-characteristics
#9
Milosz Parczewski, Ewa Siwak, Magdalena Leszczyszyn-Pynka, Iwona Cielniak, Ewa Burkacka, Piotr Pulik, Adam Witor, Karolina Muller, Ewelina Zasik, Anna Grzeszczuk, Maria Jankowska, Małgorzata Lemańska, Anita Olczak, Edyta Grąbczewska, Aleksandra Szymczak, Jacek Gąsiorowski, Bartosz Szetela, Monika Bociąga-Jasik, Paweł Skwara, Magdalena Witak-Jędra, Elżbieta Jabłonowska, Kamila Wójcik-Cichy, Juliusz Kamerys, Małgorzata Janczarek, Dagny Krankowska, Tomasz Mikuła, Katarzyna Kozieł, Dariusz Bielec, Justyna Stempkowska, Aleksandra Kocbach, Wiesława Błudzin, Andrzej Horban
INTRODUCTION: Modern combined antiretroviral therapies (cART) allow to effectively suppress HIV-1 viral load, with the 90% virologic success rate, meeting the WHO target in most clinical settings. The aim of this study was to analyse antiretroviral treatment efficacy in Poland and to identify variables associated with virologic suppression. M: ethods Cross-sectional data on 5152 (56.92% of the countrywide treated at the time-point of analysis) patients on cART for more than six months with at least one HIV-RNA measurement in 2016 were collected from 14 Polish centres...
July 17, 2017: Journal of the International AIDS Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715065/hypertension-dyslipidemia-and-cardiovascular-risk-in-hiv-infected-adults-in-poland
#10
Magdalena Rogalska-Płońska, Paweł Rogalski, Magdalena Leszczyszyn-Pynka, Justyna Stempkowska, Piotr Kocbach, Aldona Kowalczuk-Kot, Małgorzata Janczarek, Anna Grzeszczuk
BACKGROUND: Prevalence of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) in HIV infected patients increases with aging and duration of the disease. Hypertension (HA), high cholesterol level obesity, diabetes, tobacco exposure and use of alcohol are among the traditional risk factors that contribute to CVD. AIM: was to determinate the incidence of HA, lipid disturbances and CVD risk in dependence on clinical, viral and biochemical factors. METHODS: Four hundred and seventeen HIV infected Caucasian adult patients from the four clinical centers in Poland were enrolled and analyzed on the basis of available medical data from the years 2013-2015...
July 17, 2017: Kardiologia Polska
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712820/routine-cd4-monitoring-in-hiv-patients-with-viral-suppression-is-it-really-necessary-a-portuguese-cohort
#11
Raquel Duro, Nuno Rocha-Pereira, Cristovão Figueiredo, Carmela Piñeiro, Cátia Caldas, Rosário Serrão, António Sarmento
PURPOSE: CD4 cell-count has been regarded as the key surrogate marker for prognostic staging and therapeutic monitoring of HIV-infected individuals. Our purpose was to assess the probability of maintaining a CD4 count >200 cells/μL in patients with continuous viral suppression and CD4 cell counts >200 cells/μL. METHODS: Retrospective cohort study of HIV-infected patients, treatment naïve, who started antiretroviral therapy between 2007 and 2011. We estimated the probability of maintaining CD4 counts >200 cells/μL during continuous viral suppression using the Kaplan-Meier method...
June 22, 2017: Journal of Microbiology, Immunology, and Infection, Wei Mian Yu Gan Ran za Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712385/pregnant-with-hiv-before-age-25-data-from-a-large-national-study-in-italy-2001-2016
#12
M Floridia, G Masuelli, E Tamburrini, I Cetin, G Liuzzi, P Martinelli, G Guaraldi, A Spinillo, A Vimercati, G Maso, C Pinnetti, V Frisina, S Dalzero, M Ravizza
Young pregnant women with HIV may be at significant risk of unplanned pregnancy, lower treatment coverage, and other adverse pregnancy outcomes. In a large cohort of pregnant women with HIV in Italy, among 2979 pregnancies followed in 2001-2016, 9·0% were in women <25 years, with a significant increase over time (2001-2005: 7·0%; 2006-2010: 9·1%; 2011-2016: 12·2%, P < 0·001). Younger women had a lower rate of planned pregnancy (23·2% vs. 37·7%, odds ratio (OR) 0·50, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0·36-0·69), were more frequently diagnosed with HIV in pregnancy (46·5% vs...
August 2017: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712113/nutritional-status-is-the-major-factor-affecting-grip-strength-of-african-hiv-patients-before-and-during-antiretroviral-treatment
#13
Suzanne Filteau, G PrayGod, S L Woodd, Henrik Friis, D C Heimburger, J R Koethe, P Kelly, L Kasonka, Andrea M Rehman
OBJECTIVES: Low grip strength is a marker of frailty and a risk factor for mortality among HIV patients and other populations. We investigated factors associated with grip strength in malnourished HIV patients at referral to ART, and at 12 weeks and 2-3 years after starting ART. METHODS: The study involved HIV-infected Zambian and Tanzanian participants recruited to the NUSTART trial when malnourished (body mass index <18.5 kg/m(2) ) and requiring ART. The relationship of grip strength to nutritional, infectious and demographic factors was assessed by multivariable linear regression at referral for ART (n=1742) and after 12 weeks (n=778) and 2-3 years of ART (n=273)...
July 16, 2017: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711526/xpert-hiv-1-point-of-care-test-for-neonatal-diagnosis-of-hiv-in-the-birth-testing-programme-of-a-maternity-hospital-a-field-evaluation-study
#14
Karl-Günter Technau, Louise Kuhn, Ashraf Coovadia, Pamela M Murnane, Gayle Sherman
BACKGROUND: Point-of-care testing (POCT) among HIV-exposed infants might improve linkage to care relative to laboratory-based testing (LABT). We evaluated HIV-1 POCT at birth in the context of universal LABT in a maternity hospital and describe our implementation experience. METHODS: We did a field evaluation study between Oct 1, 2014, and April 30, 2016, at the urban Rahima Moosa Mother and Child Hospital (RMMCH), Johannesburg, South Africa. We aimed to sample consecutive neonates at birth with POCT (Cepheid Xpert HIV-1 Qualitative test) and compared results with those of LABT (Roche COBAS TaqMan HIV-1 Qualitative test) with respect to performance in terms of sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV), and Cohen's κ coefficient, result return, antiretroviral treatment (ART) initiation, and coverage...
July 12, 2017: Lancet HIV
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708863/negative-modulation-of-suppressive-hiv-specific-regulatory-t-cells-by-il-2-adjuvanted-therapeutic-vaccine
#15
Vedran Brezar, Lylia Hani, Mathieu Surenaud, Audrey Hubert, Christine Lacabaratz, Jean-Daniel Lelièvre, Yves Levy, Nabila Seddiki
The potential benefit in using IL-2 in immunotherapy for cancer and autoimmunity has been linked to the modulation of immune responses, which partly relies on a direct effect on Tregs populations. Here, we revisited the role of IL-2 in HIV infection and investigated whether its use as an adjuvant with therapeutic vaccination, impacts on HIV-specific responses. Antiretroviral therapy treated-patients were randomized to receive 4 boosts of vaccination (ALVACHIV/Lipo-6T, weeks 0/4/8/12) followed by 3 cycles of IL-2 (weeks 16/24/32) before treatment interruption (TI) at week40...
July 14, 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708809/gender-differences-in-outcomes-of-antiretroviral-treatment-among-hiv-infected-patients-in-china-a-retrospective-cohort-study-2010-2015
#16
Meiling Chen, Zhihui Dou, Liming Wang, Yasong Wu, Decai Zhao, Xiumin Gan, Hu Ran, Ye Ma, Zhang Fujie
BACKGROUD: Women now account for about half of all people living with HIV worldwide, but researchers lack clear information and large population-based study about gender differences in treatment outcomes. METHODS: A nationwide retrospective observational cohort study with data from the China National Free Antiretroviral Treatment Program was carried out. Antiretroviral-naïve patients older than 18 years initiating standard antiretroviral therapy between January 1, 2010 and December 31, 2011 were included and followed up to Dec 31, 2015...
July 8, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706996/south-african-breast-cancer-and-hiv-outcomes-study-methods-and-baseline-assessment
#17
Herbert Cubasch, Paul Ruff, Maureen Joffe, Shane Norris, Tobias Chirwa, Sarah Nietz, Vinay Sharma, Raquel Duarte, Ines Buccimazza, Sharon Čačala, Laura W Stopforth, Wei-Yann Tsai, Eliezer Stavsky, Katherine D Crew, Judith S Jacobson, Alfred I Neugut
PURPOSE: In low- and middle-income, HIV-endemic regions of sub-Saharan Africa, morbidity and mortality from the common epithelial cancers of the developed world are rising. Even among HIV-infected individuals, access to antiretroviral therapy has enhanced life expectancy, shifting the distribution of cancer diagnoses toward non-AIDS-defining malignancies, including breast cancer. Building on our prior research, we recently initiated the South African Breast Cancer and HIV Outcomes study...
April 2017: Journal of Global Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705213/the-therapeutic-landscape-of-hiv-1-via-genome-editing
#18
REVIEW
Alexander Kwarteng, Samuel Terkper Ahuno, Godwin Kwakye-Nuako
Current treatment for HIV-1 largely relies on chemotherapy through the administration of antiretroviral drugs. While the search for anti-HIV-1 vaccine remain elusive, the use of highly active antiretroviral therapies (HAART) have been far-reaching and has changed HIV-1 into a manageable chronic infection. There is compelling evidence, including several side-effects of ARTs, suggesting that eradication of HIV-1 cannot depend solely on antiretrovirals. Gene therapy, an expanding treatment strategy, using RNA interference (RNAi) and programmable nucleases such as meganuclease, zinc finger nuclease (ZFN), transcription activator-like effector nuclease (TALEN), and clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats/CRISPR-associated proteins (CRISPR-Cas9) are transforming the therapeutic landscape of HIV-1...
July 14, 2017: AIDS Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705204/delay-along-the-care-seeking-journey-of-patients-with-ocular-surface-squamous-neoplasia-in-kenya
#19
Stephen Gichuhi, Joy Kabiru, Alain M'bongo Zindamoyen, Hillary Rono, Ernest Ollando, Joseph Wachira, Rhoda Munene, Timothy Onyuma, Mandeep S Sagoo, David Macleod, Helen A Weiss, Matthew J Burton
BACKGROUND: In Africa, accessing eye health services is a major challenge. Ocular surface squamous neoplasia (OSSN) is a substantial ocular health problem in Africa related to solar UV light exposure and HIV infection among other risk factors. The disease causes visual loss and even death in advanced cases. This study was conducted to assess referral pathway and treatment delay for patients with OSSN in Kenya. METHODS: Adults with conjunctival lesions presenting to four eye centres were asked about their occupations, when they noticed the growth, health facilities visited in seeking care, cost of consultation, surgery, medicines and histopathology and dates at each step...
July 14, 2017: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705181/the-impact-of-antiretroviral-therapy-on-symptom-burden-among-hiv-outpatients-with-low-cd4-count-in-rural-uganda-nested-longitudinal-cohort-study
#20
Katie Wakeham, Richard Harding, Jonathan Levin, Rosalind Parkes-Ratanshi, Anatoli Kamali, David G Lalloo
BACKGROUND: Individuals with HIV have a high prevalence of physical and psychological symptoms throughout their disease course. Despite the clinical and public health implications of unresolved pain and symptoms, little is known about the effect of anti-retroviral therapy (ART) on these outcomes. This study aimed to assess the impact on symptom burden for the year after ART initiation in individuals with a CD4 count <200 cells/uL in Uganda. METHODS: HIV-infected, ART-naıve adults referred from voluntary testing and counseling services in rural Uganda for enrollment into a randomized controlled trial to test fluconazole as primary prophylaxis against cryptococcal disease were invited to complete the Memorial Symptom Assessment Scale-Short Form (MSAS-SF) prior to commencing ART and at two subsequent follow up visits...
July 13, 2017: BMC Palliative Care
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