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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645708/identification-of-major-routes-of-hiv-transmission-throughout-mesoamerica
#1
Antoine Chaillon, Santiago Avila-Ríos, Joel O Wertheim, Ann Dennis, Claudia García-Morales, Daniela Tapia-Trejo, Carlos Mejía-Villatoro, Juan M Pascale, Guillermo Porras-Cortés, Carlos J Quant-Durán, Ivette Lorenzana, Rita I Meza, Elsa Y Palou, Marvin Manzanero, Rolando A Cedillos, Gustavo Reyes-Terán, Sanjay R Mehta
BACKGROUND: Migration and travel are major drivers of the spread of infectious diseases. Geographic proximity and a common language facilitate travel and migration in Mesoamerica, which in turn could affect the spread of HIV in the region. METHODS: 6092 HIV-1 subtype B partial pol sequences sampled from unique antiretroviral treatment-naïve individuals from Mexico (40.7%), Guatemala (24.4%), Honduras (19%), Panama (8.2%), Nicaragua (5.5%), Belize (1.4%), and El Salvador (0...
June 20, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643572/distinctive-barriers-to-antiretroviral-therapy-adherence-among-non-adherent-adolescents-living-with-hiv-in-botswana
#2
Elizabeth Yang, Seipone Mphele, Neo Moshashane, Boineelo Bula, Jennifer Chapman, Harriet Okatch, Ed Pettitt, Ontibile Tshume, Tafireyi Marukutira, Gabriel Anabwani, Elizabeth Lowenthal
Levels of adherence to HIV treatment are lower among adolescents compared with older and younger individuals receiving similar therapies. We purposely sampled the most and least adherent adolescents from a 300-adolescent longitudinal HIV treatment adherence study in Gaborone, Botswana. Multiple objective and subjective measures of adherence were available and study participants were selected based on sustained patterns of either excellent or poor adherence over a one-year period. Focus group discussions (FGD) and in-depth interviews (IDI) were conducted with the adolescents and a subset of their caregivers with the goal of revealing barriers and facilitators of adherence...
June 23, 2017: AIDS Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642818/nivolumab-as-salvage-treatment-in-a-patient-with-hiv-related-relapsed-refractory-hodgkin-lymphoma-and-liver-failure-with-encephalopathy
#3
Jose D Sandoval-Sus, Francis Mogollon-Duffo, Ankita Patel, Nathan Visweshwar, Damian A Laber, Richard Kim, Michael V Jagal
BACKGROUND: We report the first case to our knowledge of a patient with relapsed/refractory classical hodgkin lymphoma and liver failure with encephalopathy along with human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome infection, successfully treated with nivolumab without major side effects and encouraging prolonged disease control. CASE PRESENTATION: In December 2015, at the time of the patient's progression from his Hodgkin lymphoma after fourth line treatment, he developed persistent fevers, abdominal distension, jaundice and worsening of his liver function tests...
2017: Journal for Immunotherapy of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641798/hiv-1-associated-atherosclerosis-unraveling-the-missing-link
#4
REVIEW
Alison Kearns, Jennifer Gordon, Tricia H Burdo, Xuebin Qin
Cardiovascular disease, including atherosclerosis and atherosclerosis-associated complications, is an increasing cause of morbidity and mortality in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) patients in the post-antiretroviral therapy era. HIV alone accelerates atherosclerosis. Antiretroviral therapy; HIV-associated comorbidities, such as dyslipidemia, drug abuse, and opportunistic infections; and lifestyle are risk factors for HIV-associated atherosclerosis. However, our current understanding of HIV-associated atherogenesis is very limited and has largely been obtained from clinical observation...
June 27, 2017: Journal of the American College of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641722/novel-findings-in-hiv-immune-reconstitution-disease-and-strongyloides-stercoralis-infection
#5
Roberto G Aru, Benjamin M Chilcutt, Saira Butt, Richard D deShazo
We report the successful treatment of an HIV-infected patient with progressive strongyloidiasis as a component of immune reconstitution disease and a review of the literature on this topic. In our experience, pre- and post-antiretroviral therapy intestinal biopsies support a novel mechanism of immune reconstitution disease to Strongyloides stercoralis. We conclude that extended, dual antihelminthic therapy and temporary discontinuation of antiretroviral therapy may be effective in similar patients.
June 2017: American Journal of the Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641707/analysis-of-transmitted-hiv-drug-resistance-from-2005-to-2015-in-victoria-australia-a-comparison-of-the-old-and-the-new
#6
Jodie D'Costa, Megan Gooey, Nicole Richards, Rizmina Sameer, Elaine Lee, Doris Chibo
Background: Baseline genotyping is part of standard-of-care treatment. It reveals that transmitted drug resistance (TDR) continues to be important for the management of HIV infection. Attention is typically focused on determining whether resistance to the protease inhibitors (PI) and reverse transcriptase inhibitors (RTI) occurs. However, the increasing use of integrase inhibitors (INIs) raises a concern that TDR to this class of antiretroviral drug may also occur. Methods: PI and RTI drug resistance genotyping was performed on blood samples collected between 2005 and 2015 from 772 treatment-naïve Victorian patients infected with HIV within the previous 12 months...
June 23, 2017: Sexual Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640661/attrition-from-antiretroviral-treatment-services-among-pregnant-and-non-pregnant-patients-following-adoption-of-option-b-in-haiti
#7
Jean Wysler Domercant, Nancy Puttkammer, Paul Young, Krista Yuhas, Kesner François, Reynold Grand'Pierre, David Lowrance, Michelle Adler
BACKGROUND: Access to antiretroviral therapy (ART) has expanded in Haiti because of the adoption of Option B+ and the revision of treatment guidelines. Retention in care and treatment varies greatly and few studies have examined retention rates, particularly among women enrolled in Option B+. OBJECTIVE: To assess attrition among pregnant and non-pregnant patients initiating ART following adoption of Option B+ in Haiti. METHODS: Longitudinal data of adult patients initiated on ART from October 2012 through August 2014 at 73 health facilities across Haiti were analyzed using a survival analysis framework to determine levels of attrition...
2017: Global Health Action
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639469/barriers-and-facilitators-of-antiretroviral-therapy-adherence-in-rural-eastern-province-zambia-the-role-of-household-economic-status
#8
Rainier Masa, Gina Chowa, Victor Nyirenda
In Zambia, more people living with HIV now have access to lifesaving antiretroviral therapy than ever before. However, progress in HIV treatment and care has not always resulted in lower mortality. Adherence remains a critical barrier to treatment success. The objective of this study was to examine the barriers and facilitators of antiretroviral therapy adherence, particularly the role of household economic status. The study included a cross-sectional sample of 101 people living with HIV (PLHIV) in two rural communities in eastern Zambia...
June 22, 2017: African Journal of AIDS Research: AJAR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638104/anti-proliferative-therapy-for-hiv-cure-a-compound-interest-approach
#9
Daniel B Reeves, Elizabeth R Duke, Sean M Hughes, Martin Prlic, Florian Hladik, Joshua T Schiffer
In the era of antiretroviral therapy (ART), HIV-1 infection is no longer tantamount to early death. Yet the benefits of treatment are available only to those who can access, afford, and tolerate taking daily pills. True cure is challenged by HIV latency, the ability of chromosomally integrated virus to persist within memory CD4(+) T cells in a non-replicative state and activate when ART is discontinued. Using a mathematical model of HIV dynamics, we demonstrate that treatment strategies offering modest but continual enhancement of reservoir clearance rates result in faster cure than abrupt, one-time reductions in reservoir size...
June 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637726/interventions-for-preventing-mother-to-child-hiv-transmission-protocol-of-an-overview-of-systematic-reviews
#10
Windy Mariane Virenia Wariki, Erika Ota, Rintaro Mori, Charles S Wiysonge, Hacsi Horvath, Jennifer S Read
INTRODUCTION: Various interventions to prevent mother-to-child-transmission (MTCT) of HIV have been investigated and implemented. A number of systematic reviews assessing the efficacy of interventions for the prevention of MTCT of HIV reported antiretroviral prophylaxis, caesarean section before labour and before ruptured membranes, and complete avoidance of breastfeeding were efficacious for preventing MTCT of HIV. Recent WHO guidelines recommend lifelong antiretroviral therapy for all pregnant women for treatment of the woman's own HIV infection and for prevention of MTCT of HIV...
June 21, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636669/exploring-factors-associated-with-art-adherence-and-retention-in-care-under-option-b-strategy-in-malawi-a-qualitative-study
#11
Salem Gugsa, Katy Potter, Hannock Tweya, Sam Phiri, Odala Sande, Pascal Sikwese, Janet Chikonda, Gabrielle O'Malley
Although several studies have documented challenges related to inadequate adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) and high loss to follow-up (LTFU) among Option B+ women, there is limited understanding of why these challenges occur and how to address them. This qualitative study examines women's experiences with ART adherence and retention in care. Between July and October 2015, in-depth interviews were conducted with 39 pregnant and lactating women who initiated ART at Bwaila Hospital in Lilongwe, Malawi...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636433/immunogenicity-of-ags-004-dendritic-cell-therapy-in-patients-treated-during-acute-hiv-infection
#12
Cynthia L Gay, Mark A DeBenedette, Irina Y Tcherepanova, Alicia Gamble, Whitney E Lewis, Anna B Cope, JoAnn D Kuruc, Kara S McGee, Mary F Kearney, John M Coffin, Nancie M Archin, Charles B Hicks, Joseph J Eron, Charles A Nicolette, David M Margolis
AGS-004 consists of matured autologous dendritic cells co-electroporated with in vitro transcribed RNA encoding autologous HIV antigens. In an open-label, single arm sub-study of AGS-004-003, AGS-004 was administered monthly to suppressed participants who started antiretroviral therapy (ART) during acute HIV infection. HIV-1 specific T cell responses were measured by multicolor flow cytometry after 3-4 doses. The frequency of resting CD4(+) T-cell infection (RCI) was measured by quantitative viral outgrowth assay...
June 21, 2017: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633331/does-timing-of-antiretroviral-treatment-influence-treatment-outcomes-of-visceral-leishmaniasis-in-northwest-ethiopia
#13
Endashaw M Aderie, Ermias Diro, Rony Zachariah, Marcio Silveira da Fonseca, Charles Abongomera, Bethabile L Dolamo, Koert Ritmeijer
Background: Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) patients with HIV co-infection should receive antiretroviral treatment (ART). However, the best timing for initiation of ART is not known. Among such individuals, we assessed the influence of ART timing on VL outcomes. Methods: A retrospective cohort study was conducted in Northwest Ethiopia among VL patients starting ART between 2008 and 2015. VL outcomes were assessed by the twelfth month of starting ART, within 4 weeks of VL diagnosis or thereafter...
March 1, 2017: Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632481/trends-in-cd4-cell-count-response-to-first-line-antiretroviral-treatment-in-hiv-positive-patients-from-asia-2003-2013-treat-asia-hiv-observational-database-low-intensity-transfer
#14
Nicole L De La Mata, Penh S Ly, Oon T Ng, Kinh V Nguyen, Tuti P Merati, Thuy T Pham, Man P Lee, Jun Y Choi, Annette H Sohn, Matthew G Law, Nagalingeswaran Kumarasamy
Antiretroviral treatment (ART) guidelines have changed over the past decade, recommending earlier initiation and more tolerable regimens. The study objective was to examine the CD4 response to ART, depending on the year of ART initiation, in HIV-positive patients in the Asia-Pacific. We included HIV-positive adult patients who initiated ART between 2003 and 2013 in our regional cohort from eight urban referral centres in seven countries within Asia. We used mixed-effects linear regression models to evaluate differences in CD4 response by year of ART initiation during 36 months of follow-up, adjusted a priori for other covariates...
January 1, 2017: International Journal of STD & AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632477/antiretroviral-therapy-adherence-and-self-efficacy-among-people-living-with-hiv-and-a-history-of-drug-use-in-vietnam
#15
Li Li, Chunqing Lin, Sung-Jae Lee, Le Anh Tuan, Nan Feng, Nguyen Anh Tuan
People living with HIV with a history of drug use face additional psychosocial challenges that could compromise their adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART). This study examined ART treatment adherence and adherence self-efficacy among people living with HIV with a history of drug use in Vietnam. We used cross-sectional baseline data collected between October 2014 and February 2015 from a randomized controlled trial in Vietnam. Of the 900 persons with a history of drug use in the trial, a sample of 109 people living with HIV currently on ART were included in the study...
January 1, 2017: International Journal of STD & AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632471/lenalidomide-as-a-treatment-for-relapsed-al-amyloidosis-in-an-hiv-positive-patient
#16
Johanna Denman, Kaveh Manavi, Mark Cook
We present a case of an HIV-positive man with systemic immunoglobulin light chain (AL) amyloid with cardiac involvement. At relapse, he was treated with lenalidomide and dexamethasone having previously developed autonomic neuropathy with bortezomib-based chemotherapy. The patient achieved a serological complete response with symptomatic improvement. After 11 cycles, lenalidomide was discontinued due to extensive ischaemia of the gastrointestinal tract. The patient remains symptomatically stable with normal levels of serum-free light chains 11 months after the treatment was discontinued...
January 1, 2017: International Journal of STD & AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631227/frequent-occurrence-of-pain-and-prescription-opioid-use-for-treatment-of-pain-among-women-with-and-at-risk-for-hiv-infection
#17
Anjali Sharma, Donald R Hoover, Qiuhu Shi, Jennie C I Tsao, Christopher Cox, Deborah R Gustafson, Kathleen Weber, Ruth M Greenblatt, Bradley E Aouizerat, Michael W Plankey
Pain is frequent and underreported among HIV+ women. We determined occurrence and severity of pain, and types of pain treatments used among HIV+ and HIV- women. Cross-sectional analyses of pain as measured by the Brief Pain Inventory Short Form, and related pain therapies nested in the Women's Interagency HIV Study (WIHS). Multiple variable linear regression models examined differences by HIV status in pain severity and pain interference in general activity, mood, ability to walk, work, relationships with others, sleep, and enjoyment of life...
June 19, 2017: AIDS and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630490/pyroptosis-superinfection-and-the-maintenance-of-the-latent-reservoir-in-hiv-1-infection
#18
Dominik Wodarz, David N Levy
A long-lived reservoir of latently infected T cells prevents antiretroviral therapy from eliminating HIV-1 infection. Furthering our understanding of the dynamics of latency generation and maintenance is therefore vital to improve treatment outcome. Using mathematical models and experiments, we suggest that the death of latently infected cells brought about by pyroptosis, or to a lesser extent by superinfection, might be key mechanisms to account for the size and composition of the latent reservoir. Pyroptosis is a form of cell death that occurs in a resting (and thus latently infected) T cell when a productively infected cell attempts cell-to-cell transmission of virus...
June 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629459/antiretroviral-therapy-initiation-within-seven-days-of-enrolment-outcomes-and-time-to-undetectable-viral-load-among-children-at-an-urban-hiv-clinic-in-uganda
#19
Rogers Ssebunya, Rhoda K Wanyenze, Heather Lukolyo, Milton Mutto, Grace Kisitu, Pauline Amuge, Albert Maganda, Adeodata Kekitiinwa
BACKGROUND: Viral suppression is a critical indicator of HIV treatment success. In the era of test-and-start, little is known about treatment outcomes and time to undetectable viral loads. This study compares treatment outcomes, median times to achieve undetectable viral loads and its predictors under different antiretroviral (ART) treatment initiation schedules (i.e. within seven days of enrolment or later). METHODS: A retrospective cohort of 367 patients <18 years who enrolled in care between January 2010 and December 2015 with a baseline viral load of >5000 copies/ml were followed up for 60 months...
June 19, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628702/financial-incentives-for-linkage-to-care-and-viral-suppression-among-hiv-positive-patients-a-randomized-clinical-trial-hptn-065
#20
Wafaa M El-Sadr, Deborah Donnell, Geetha Beauchamp, H Irene Hall, Lucia V Torian, Barry Zingman, Garret Lum, Michael Kharfen, Richard Elion, Jason Leider, Fred M Gordin, Vanessa Elharrar, David Burns, Allison Zerbe, Theresa Gamble, Bernard Branson
Importance: Achieving linkage to care and viral suppression in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive patients improves their well-being and prevents new infections. Current gaps in the HIV care continuum substantially limit such benefits. Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness of financial incentives on linkage to care and viral suppression in HIV-positive patients. Design, Setting, and Participants: A large community-based clinical trial that randomized 37 HIV test and 39 HIV care sites in the Bronx, New York, and Washington, DC, to financial incentives or standard of care...
June 19, 2017: JAMA Internal Medicine
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