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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100640/outpatient-parents-views-on-shared-decision-making-at-an-italian-children-s-hospital
#1
Paola Rosati, Viviana Di Salvo, Roberto D'Amico, Sara Balduzzi, Rosaria Giampaolo, Mercedes Rita Marina Mazziotta, Cesare Guerra, Giovanna Menichella, Stefania P Cosentino, Cecilia Carlino, Vincenzo Di Ciommo
Information is lacking on what parents in southern European countries know and how they view clinical shared-decision-making (SDM) for their children. This survey assesses general parental views on SDM and patient-physician SDM relationships in an Italian paediatric outpatients' clinic. In a 3-month cross-sectional survey, we enrolled 458 consecutive native and foreign Italian-speaking parents bringing their children to our public hospital for various reasons. Parents completed an anonymous questionnaire exploring their general views on SDM, including what doctor-patient relationship predominates today, and what approach reassures them most...
January 17, 2017: Health Promotion International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100278/prevalence-and-risk-factors-of-undernutrition-among-schoolchildren-in-the-plateau-central-and-centre-ouest-regions-of-burkina-faso
#2
Séverine Erismann, Astrid M Knoblauch, Serge Diagbouga, Peter Odermatt, Jana Gerold, Akina Shrestha, Grissoum Tarnagda, Boubacar Savadogo, Christian Schindler, Jürg Utzinger, Guéladio Cissé
BACKGROUND: Multiple factors determine children's nutritional status, including energy and nutrient intake, recurrent infectious diseases, access (or lack thereof) to clean water and improved sanitation, and hygiene practices, among others. The "Vegetables go to School: improving nutrition through agricultural diversification" (VgtS) project implements an integrated school garden programme in five countries, including Burkina Faso. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of undernutrition and its risk factors among schoolchildren in Burkina Faso before the start of the project...
January 19, 2017: Infectious Diseases of Poverty
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100238/chronic-physical-conditions-multimorbidity-and-physical-activity-across-46-low-and-middle-income-countries
#3
Davy Vancampfort, Ai Koyanagi, Philip B Ward, Simon Rosenbaum, Felipe B Schuch, James Mugisha, Justin Richards, Joseph Firth, Brendon Stubbs
BACKGROUND: There are no nationally representative population-based studies investigating the relationship between physical activity, chronic conditions and multimorbidity (i.e., two or more chronic conditions) in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), and studies on a multi-national level are lacking. This is an important research gap, given the rapid increase in the prevalence of chronic diseases associated with lifestyle changes in these countries. This cross-sectional study aimed to assess the association between chronic conditions, multimorbidity and low physical activity (PA) among community-dwelling adults in 46 LMICs, and explore the mediators of these relationships...
January 18, 2017: International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100196/exposure-to-hepatitis-c-virus-in-homeless-men-in-central-brazil-a-cross-sectional-study
#4
Priscilla Martins Ferreira, Rafael Alves Guimarães, Christiane Moreira Souza, Lara Cristina da Cunha Guimarães, Cleiciane Vieira de Lima Barros, Karlla Antonieta Amorim Caetano, Giovanni Rezza, Lila Spadoni, Sandra Maria Brunini
BACKGROUND: Homeless men are highly vulnerable to acquisition of the hepatitis C virus (HCV) compared to the general population. In Brazil, a country of continental dimensions, the extent of HCV infection in this population remains unknown. The objective of this study is to investigate the epidemiological profile of exposure to HCV in homeless men in Central Brazil. METHODS: A Cross-sectional study was conducted in 481 men aged over 18 years attending therapeutic communities specialized in the recovery and reintegration of homeless people...
January 18, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099696/reaching-vulnerable-women-through-maternity-waiting-homes-in-malawi
#5
Kavita Singh, Ilene Speizer, Eunsoo Timothy Kim, Clara Lemani, Ann Phoya
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether two maternity waiting homes (MWHs) supported by the Safe Motherhood Initiative are reaching vulnerable women during the early phase of their implementation. METHODS: A cross-sectional interview-based study was conducted among women who attended two centers in Malawi with attached MWHs (Area 25 Health Centre, Lilongwe; and Kasungu District Hospital, Kasungu). Between April and June 2015, exit interviews were conducted among MWH users and non-users...
January 2017: International Journal of Gynaecology and Obstetrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097722/antimicrobial-utilization-in-an-iraqi-province-a-comprehensive-evaluation-of-antibiotic-source-and-cost
#6
Ali A Al-Jumaili, Ahmed H Hussein, Mohammed D Al-Rekabi, Saba A Raheem, Erika J Ernst
PURPOSE: The aims were to calculate total systemic antibiotic consumption and cost in both public and private sectors in all care settings in Al-Najaf province, Iraq, during 2012, recognize the percentage of each pharmacological class for the dispensed antibiotics and identify oral and parenteral antibiotic percentages dispensed and the portions manufactured nationally and imported. METHODS: Cross-sectional study was conducted in Al-Najaf to calculate the total cost and quantities of antibiotics consumed during 2012 using World Health Organization Guidelines for Defined Daily Dose (DDD)...
February 2017: International Journal of Pharmacy Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097699/maternal-red-blood-cell-alloantibodies-identified-in-blood-samples-obtained-from-iranian-pregnant-women-the-first-population-study-in-iran
#7
Ehsan Shahverdi, Mostafa Moghaddam, Fateme Gorzin
BACKGROUND: The objective was to determine the frequency of occurrence of alloantibodies among pregnant women in Iran. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: This was a prospective cross-sectional study, which was carried out in the immunohematology reference laboratory of the Iranian Blood Transfusion Organization in Tehran, Iran, in 2008 to 2015. Screening and identification of red blood cell (RBC) alloantibodies was done on the sera of 7340 pregnant females using the standard tube method and gel column agglutination technique...
January 2017: Transfusion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096109/financial-ties-of-principal-investigators-and-randomized-controlled-trial-outcomes-cross-sectional-study
#8
Rosa Ahn, Alexandra Woodbridge, Ann Abraham, Susan Saba, Deborah Korenstein, Erin Madden, W John Boscardin, Salomeh Keyhani
OBJECTIVE:  To examine the association between the presence of individual principal investigators' financial ties to the manufacturer of the study drug and the trial's outcomes after accounting for source of research funding. DESIGN:  Cross sectional study of randomized controlled trials (RCTs). SETTING:  Studies published in "core clinical" journals, as identified by Medline, between 1 January 2013 and 31 December 2013. PARTICIPANTS:  Random sample of RCTs focused on drug efficacy...
January 17, 2017: BMJ: British Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095908/limiting-treatment-and-shortening-of-life-data-from-a-cross-sectional-survey-in-germany-on-frequencies-determinants-and-patients-involvement
#9
Birte Malena Dahmen, Jochen Vollmann, Stephan Nadolny, Jan Schildmann
BACKGROUND: Limiting treatment forms part of practice in many fields of medicine. There is a scarcity of robust data from Germany. Therefore, in this paper, we report results of a survey among German physicians with a focus on frequencies, aspects of decision making and determinants of limiting treatment with expected or intended shortening of life. METHODS: Postal survey among a random sample of physicians working in the area of five German state chambers of physicians using a modified version of the questionnaire of the EURELD Consortium...
January 17, 2017: BMC Palliative Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095838/communication-with-families-regarding-organ-and-tissue-donation-after-death-in-intensive-care-comfort-protocol-for-an-intervention-study
#10
Julie E Potter, Robert G Herkes, Lin Perry, Rosalind M Elliott, Anders Aneman, Jorge L Brieva, Elena Cavazzoni, Andrew T H Cheng, Michael J O'Leary, Ian M Seppelt, Val Gebski
BACKGROUND: Discussing deceased organ donation can be difficult not only for families but for health professionals who initiate and manage the conversations. It is well recognised that the methods of communication and communication skills of health professionals are key influences on decisions made by families regarding organ donation. METHODS: This multicentre study is being performed in nine intensive care units with follow-up conducted by the Organ and Tissue Donation Service in New South Wales (NSW) Australia...
January 17, 2017: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095422/high-throughput-carbon-substrate-profiling-of-mycobacterium-ulcerans-suggests-potential-environmental-reservoirs
#11
Dezemon Zingue, Amar Bouam, Muriel Militello, Michel Drancourt
BACKGROUND: Mycobacterium ulcerans is a close derivative of Mycobacterium marinum and the agent of Buruli ulcer in some tropical countries. Epidemiological and environmental studies pointed towards stagnant water ecosystems as potential sources of M. ulcerans, yet the ultimate reservoirs remain elusive. We hypothesized that carbon substrate determination may help elucidating the spectrum of potential reservoirs. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In a first step, high-throughput phenotype microarray Biolog was used to profile carbon substrates in one M...
January 17, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095375/disappearing-in-the-night-an-overview-on-trade-and-legislation-of-night-monkeys-in-south-and-central-america
#12
Magdalena S Svensson, Sam Shanee, Noga Shanee, Flavia B Bannister, Laura Cervera, Giuseppe Donati, Maren Huck, Leandro Jerusalinsky, Cecilia P Juarez, Angela M Maldonado, Jesus Martinez Mollinedo, Pedro G Méndez-Carvajal, Miguel A Molina Argandoña, Antonietta D Mollo Vino, K A I Nekaris, Mika Peck, Jennifer Rey-Goyeneche, Denise Spaan, Vincent Nijman
The international trade in night monkeys (Aotus spp.), found throughout Central and South America, has been regulated by the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) since 1975. We present a quantitative analysis of this trade from all 9 range countries, over 4 decades, and compare domestic legislation to CITES regulations. Night monkeys were exported from 8 of the 9 habitat countries, totalling 5,968 live individuals and 7,098 specimens, with trade of live individuals declining over time...
January 18, 2017: Folia Primatologica; International Journal of Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095083/physiological-capacity-and-training-routines-of-elite-cross-country-skiers-approaching-the-upper-limits-of-human-endurance
#13
Øyvind Sandbakk, Hans-Christer Holmberg
Cross-country skiing is one of the most demanding of endurance sports, involving protracted competitions on varying terrain employing a variety of skiing techniques that require upper- and/or lower-body work to different extents. Through more effective training and extensive improvements in equipment and track preparation, the speed of cross-country ski races has increased more than that of any other winter Olympic sport and, in addition, new types of racing events have been introduced. To a certain extent this has altered the optimal physiological capacity required to win and the training routines of successful skiers have evolved accordingly...
January 17, 2017: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095069/the-evolution-of-champion-cross-country-skier-training-from-lumberjacks-to-professional-athletes
#14
Øyvind Sandbakk
Competitive cross-country (XC) skiing has traditions extending back to the mid-19th century, and was included as a men's event in the first Winter Games in 1924. Since then, tremendous improvements in equipment, track preparation, and knowledge about training have prompted greater increases in XC skiing speeds than in any other Olympic sport. In response, this commentary focuses on how the training of successful XC skiers has evolved, with interviews and training data from surviving Norwegian world and Olympic XC champions as primary sources...
January 17, 2017: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094539/genetic-diversity-and-population-structure-of-castor-ricinus-communis-l-germplasm-within-the-us-collection-assessed-with-est-ssr-markers
#15
M L Wang, M Dzievit, Z Chen, J B Morris, J E Norris, N A Barkley, B Tonnis, G A Pederson, J Yu
Castor is an important oilseed crop and although its oil is inedible, it has multiple industrial and pharmaceutical applications. The entire US castor germplasm collection was previously screened for oil content and fatty acid composition, but its genetic diversity and population structure has not been determined. Based on the screening results of oil content, fatty acid composition, and country origins, 574 accessions were selected and genotyped with 22 polymorphic EST-SSR markers. The results from cluster analysis, population structure, and principal component analysis were consistent, and partitioned accessions into four subpopulations...
October 14, 2016: Genome Génome / Conseil National de Recherches Canada
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094114/the-quality-of-oncology-nursing-care-a-cross-sectional-survey-in-three-countries-in-europe
#16
Andreas Charalambous, Theodoula Adamakidou, Constantina Cloconi, Melanie Charalambous, Theologia Tsitsi, Lucie Vondráčková, Radka Bužgová
PURPOSE: The increase in patients diagnosed with and living with cancer calls for the provision of quality nursing care within this paradigm, one that can reflect the complex needs of the patient that cancer and its treatments induce. The study aimed to evaluate the quality of oncology nursing care, as perceived, by hospitalized cancer patients in three European countries. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional descriptive study. In-patients diagnosed with cancer were selected based on explicit inclusion and exclusion criteria...
January 13, 2017: European Journal of Oncology Nursing: the Official Journal of European Oncology Nursing Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093729/knowledge-about-attitude-toward-and-practice-of-skin-lightening-products-use-and-its-social-correlates-among-university-students-in-five-association-of-southeast-asian-nations-asean-countries
#17
Karl Peltzer, Supa Pengpid
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to investigate the knowledge about, attitude toward, and use of skin lightening products (SLP) and its social and psychological correlates among university students from five Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) countries. METHODS: In a cross sectional survey, 3259 undergraduate university students (Mean age = 20.5 years, SD = 1.6) from five ASEAN countries responded to an anonymous questionnaire. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to identify associations between sociodemographic characteristics, knowledge, attitude, poor mental health, and SLP use...
January 17, 2017: International Journal of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093440/cross-sectional-descriptive-study-of-chagas-disease-among-citizens-of-bolivian-origin-living-in-munich-germany
#18
Miriam Navarro, Nicole Berens-Riha, Stefan Hohnerlein, Peter Seiringer, Charlotte von Saldern, Sarah Garcia, Teresa Blasco-Hernández, Bárbara Navaza, Jonathan Shock, Gisela Bretzel, Michael Hoelscher, Thomas Löscher, Pedro Albajar-Viñas, Michael Pritsch
PURPOSE: Chagas disease (CD) has become a global health issue mainly due to migration. Germany lacks surveillance data and is home to a large Latin American immigrant population. Recognising that Bolivia is the country with the highest CD prevalence in Latin America, this cross-sectional, descriptive pilot study investigated CD and associated factors among citizens of Bolivian origin living in Munich, Germany. METHODS: Participants completed a questionnaire in order to collect socioeconomic and health-related data...
January 16, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093208/selective-reporting-of-antibiotic-susceptibility-test-results-in-european-countries-an-escmid-cross-sectional-survey
#19
Céline Pulcini, Gianpiero Tebano, Nico T Mutters, Evelina Tacconelli, Emmanuelle Cambau, Gunnar Kahlmeter, Vincent Jarlier
Selective reporting of antibiotic susceptibility test (AST) results is one possible laboratory-based antibiotic stewardship intervention. The primary aim of this study was to identify where and how selective reporting of AST results is implemented in Europe both in inpatient and in outpatient settings. An ESCMID cross-sectional, self-administered, internet-based survey was conducted among all EUCIC (European Committee on Infection Control) or EUCAST (European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing) national representatives in Europe and Israel...
January 10, 2017: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092985/plague-and-war-political-breakdown-and-the-spread-of-hiv
#20
Nathan A Paxton
This exploratory data analysis finds a negative relationship between some types of war and HIV prevalence (i.e. as the former increases in intensity, the latter decreases). The study uses a longer time-frame and broader range of countries than similar studies, with explicit differentiation between sub-Saharan African and other developing countries. The study uses a variety of methods for analyzing time-series-cross-section data. These methods serve as both a robustness check for the results as well as a real-world demonstration of common suggestions for TSCS data...
January 16, 2017: Medicine, Conflict, and Survival
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