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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775816/understanding-the-role-of-hydrogen-bonding-in-the-aggregation-of-fumed-silica-particles-in-triglyceride-solvents
#1
Catherine P Whitby, Melinda Krebsz, Samuel J Booty
HYPOTHESIS: Fumed silica particles are thought to thicken organic solvents into gels by aggregating to form networks. Hydrogen bonding between silanol groups on different particle surfaces causes the aggregation. The gel structure and hence flow behaviour is altered by varying the proportion of silanol groups on the particle surfaces. However, characterising the gel using rheology measurements alone is not sufficient to optimise the aggregation. We have used confocal microscopy to characterise the changes in the network microstructure caused by altering the particle surface chemistry...
May 12, 2018: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775376/bound-electron-nonlinearity-beyond-the-ionization-threshold
#2
J K Wahlstrand, S Zahedpour, A Bahl, M Kolesik, H M Milchberg
We present absolute space- and time-resolved measurements of the ultrafast laser-driven nonlinear polarizability in argon, krypton, xenon, nitrogen, and oxygen up to ionization fractions of a few percent. These measurements enable determination of the strongly nonperturbative bound-electron nonlinear polarizability well beyond the ionization threshold, where it is found to remain approximately quadratic in the laser field, a result normally expected at much lower intensities where perturbation theory applies...
May 4, 2018: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773384/thermal-conformational-and-rheological-properties-of-%C3%AE%C2%BA-carrageenan-sodium-stearoyl-lactylate-gels-and-solutions
#3
M C Ortiz-Tafoya, Agnès Rolland-Sabaté, Catherine Garnier, Josefina Valadez-García, Alberto Tecante
Polysaccharide-surfactant blends are widely used in foods. However, their possible mutual interactions have not been extensively studied. The purpose of this work was to examine how the anionic surfactant sodium stearoyl lactylate (SSL) affects different properties of κ-carrageenan solutions and gels. Rheometry, differential scanning calorimetry, asymmetrical flow field-flow fractionation coupled with multiangle laser light scattering, among others, were used to determine the flow and viscoelastic behavior, thermal transitions, and conformation changes, respectively...
August 1, 2018: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764244/kinetics-and-tissue-repair-process-following-fractional-bipolar-radiofrequency-treatment
#4
G Kokolakis, L von Eichel, M Ulrich, J Lademann, T Zuberbier, M A Hofmann
INTRODUCTION: Fractionated radiofrequency (RF) tissue tightening is an alternative method to fractionated laser treatment of skin wrinkling, laxity and acne scars, with reduced risk of scarring or persistent pigmentation. The aim of this study was to evaluate and quantify the wound healing process after RF treatment. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 12 patients were treated with a 64-pin fractional bipolar RF device with 60 mJ/pin applied energy. Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) examination was performed on day 1, day 2, day 7 and day 14 after treatment...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Cosmetic and Laser Therapy: Official Publication of the European Society for Laser Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762623/nanowire-lasers-as-intracellular-probes
#5
Xiaoqin Wu, Qiushu Chen, Peizhen Xu, Yu-Cheng Chen, Biming Wu, Rhima M Coleman, Limin Tong, Xudong Fan
We investigate a cadmium sulfide (CdS) nanowire (NW) laser that is spontaneously internalized into a single cell to serve as a stand-alone intracellular probe. By pumping with nano-joule light pulses, green laser emission (500-520 nm) can be observed inside cells with a peak linewidth as narrow as 0.5 nm. Due to the sub-micron diameter (∼200 nm), the NW has an appreciable fraction of the evanescent field outside, facilitating a sensitive detection of cellular environmental changes. By monitoring the lasing peak wavelength shift in response to the intracellular refractive index change, our NW laser probe shows a sensitivity of 55 nm per RIU (refractive index units) and a figure of merit of approximately 98...
May 15, 2018: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762601/demonstration-of-a-highly-stable-10-ghz-optical-frequency-comb-with-low-timing-jitter-from-a-scowa-based-harmonically-mode-locked-nested-cavity-laser
#6
Kristina Bagnell, Anthony Klee, Peter J Delfyett, Jason J Plant, Paul W Juodawlkis
An optical frequency comb with mode spacing of 10 GHz operating in the c-band is produced from a harmonically mode-locked laser using a slab-coupled optical waveguide amplifier device with a fiber-coupled external cavity. An intracavity Fabry-Perot etalon serves as a high finesse optical filter for supermode suppression and as the reference for cavity length stabilization using a multi-combline Pound-Drever-Hall setup. The Allan deviation of a single optical combline near 193.4 THz is measured via a heterodyne beat with a cavity stabilized cw laser and reaches a minimum fractional frequency deviation of 3×10-13 at τ=30  ms...
May 15, 2018: Optics Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762594/flexible-binary-phase-photon-sieves-on-polyimide-substrates-by-laser-ablation
#7
Matthew N Julian, David G MacDonnell, Mool C Gupta
A binary phase diffractive optical element photon sieve is fabricated by direct laser ablation of a thin, flexible polyimide substrate with a nanosecond-pulsed ultraviolet laser. The binary phase photon sieve operates at 633 nm and was designed with 19 rings and a focal length of 400 mm. The total time to fabricate the photon sieves was tens of seconds. The surface properties of the laser-processed areas are examined, and the optical performance of the photon sieve is characterized and compared to FDTD simulations...
May 15, 2018: Optics Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751625/analysis-of-soot-propensity-in-combustion-processes-using-optical-sensors-and-video-magnification
#8
Hugo O Garcés, Andrés Fuentes, Pedro Reszka, Gonzalo Carvajal
Industrial combustion processes are an important source of particulate matter, causing significant pollution problems that affect human health, and are a major contributor to global warming. The most common method for analyzing the soot emission propensity in flames is the Smoke Point Height (SPH) analysis, which relates the fuel flow rate to a critical flame height at which soot particles begin to leave the reactive zone through the tip of the flame. The SPH and is marked by morphological changes on the flame tip...
May 11, 2018: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746426/a-comparison-study-of-the-nonablative-fractional-1565-nm-er-glass-and-the-picosecond-fractional-1064-532-nm-nd-yag-lasers-in-the-treatment-of-striae-alba-a-split-body-double-blinded-trial
#9
Lisa A Zaleski-Larsen, Isabela T Jones, Isabella Guiha, Douglas C Wu, Mitchel P Goldman
BACKGROUND: Few effective treatments exist for striae alba, which are the mature stage of stretch marks. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy of the nonablative fractional 1,565-nm Er:glass and the picosecond fractional 1,064/532-nm Nd:YAG lasers in the treatment of striae alba. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty subjects with striae alba on the bilateral abdomen were treated with either the nonablative fractional 1565-nm Er:glass or the picosecond fractional 1,064/532-nm Nd:YAG laser, with a total of 3 treatments 3 weeks apart...
May 9, 2018: Dermatologic Surgery: Official Publication for American Society for Dermatologic Surgery [et Al.]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29744784/acne-scarring-management-systematic-review-and-evaluation-of-the-evidence
#10
REVIEW
Shashank Bhargava, Paulo R Cunha, Jennifer Lee, George Kroumpouzos
BACKGROUND: Modalities for atrophic acne scarring can be classified depending upon the needs they satisfy; that is, resurfacing, lifting/volumization, tightening, or surgical removal/movement of tissue that is required for correction. A plethora of treatment options have resulted from the need to treat various acne scar types, variability of responses noted in various skin types, and increasing popularity of minimally invasive modalities. Still, there is a lack of consensus guidelines on treatment or combination therapies for various clinical scenarios...
May 9, 2018: American Journal of Clinical Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29744598/denaturation-and-aggregation-of-interferon-%C3%AF-in-aqueous-solution
#11
Ryan R Manning, Glenn A Wilson, Ryan E Holcomb, Nathaniel J Zbacnik, Auria A Tellechea, Chelsey L Gilley-Dunn, Ryan J Krammes, Nathan S Krammes, Gabriel J Evans, Charles S Henry, Mark Cornell Manning, Brian M Murphy, Robert W Payne, Derrick S Katayama
PURPOSE: To evaluate the different degrees of residual structure in the unfolded state of interferon-τ using chemical denaturation as a function of temperature by both urea and guanidinium hydrochloride. METHODS: Asymmetrical flow field-flow fractionation (AF4) using both UV and multi-angle laser light scattering (MALLS). Flow Microscopy. All subvisible particle imaging measurements were made using a FlowCAM flow imaging system. RESULTS: The two different denaturants provided different estimates of the conformational stability of the protein when extrapolated back to zero denaturant concentration...
May 9, 2018: Pharmaceutical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29737892/unconventional-use-of-fractional-ablative-co-2-laser-in-necrobiosis-lipoidica
#12
Anissa Zaouak, Ehsen Ben Brahim, Fatma Daoued, Wafa Koubaa, Houda Hammami, Samy Fenniche
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 8, 2018: Journal of Cosmetic and Laser Therapy: Official Publication of the European Society for Laser Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29737215/needle-free-cutaneous-delivery-of-living-human-cells-by-er-yag-fractional-laser-ablation
#13
Jing Yu, Sachin Dubey, Yogeshvar N Kalia
BACKGROUND: Dermatological diseases, including most skin cancers and rare genetic conditions frequently originate in the epidermis. Targeted, topical cell-based therapy is a promising therapeutic strategy. Here, we present the first report demonstrating that fractional laser ablation enables local "needle-free" intraepidermal delivery of living human cells. METHODS: The cells penetrated porcine ear skin via microchannels created by Er:YAG fractional laser ablation; cell delivery was quantified using a haemocytometer...
May 8, 2018: Expert Opinion on Drug Delivery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29733110/parameters-in-fractional-laser-assisted-delivery-of-topical-anesthetics-role-of-laser-type-and-laser-settings
#14
Arne A Meesters, Marilin J Nieboer, Sanja Kezic, Menno A de Rie, Albert Wolkerstorfer
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Efficacy of topical anesthetics can be enhanced by pretreatment of the skin with ablative fractional lasers. However, little is known about the role of parameters such as laser modality and laser density settings in this technique. Aims of this study were to compare the efficacy of pretreatment with two different ablative fractional laser modalities, a CO2 laser and an Er:YAG laser, and to assess the role of laser density in ablative fractional laser assisted topical anesthesia...
May 7, 2018: Lasers in Surgery and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29733104/fractional-co-2-laser-treatment-for-vaginal-laxity-a-preclinical-study
#15
Tae-Rin Kwon, Jong Hwan Kim, Joon Seok, Jae Min Kim, Dong-Ho Bak, Mi-Ji Choi, Seok Kyun Mun, Chan Woong Kim, Seungwon Ahn, Beom Joon Kim
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Various studies have investigated treatment for vaginal laxity with microablative fractional carbon dioxide CO2 laser in humans; however, this treatment has not yet been studied in an animal model. Herein, we evaluate the therapeutic effects of fractional CO2 laser for tissue remodeling of vaginal mucosa using a porcine model, with the aim of improving vaginal laxity. STUDY DESIGN/MATERIALS AND METHODS: The fractional CO2 laser enables minimally invasive and non-incisional procedures...
May 7, 2018: Lasers in Surgery and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29731588/resurfacing-of-facial-acne-scars-with-a-new-variable-pulsed-er-yag-laser-in-fitzpatrick-skin-types-iv-and-v
#16
Namitha Chathra, Venkataram Mysore
Introduction: The Er:YAG laser, considered to be less effective than CO2 laser in its traditional form, in its new modulated version has variable pulse technology that is claimed to be superior to the earlier versions of the laser. Aim: The aim of the study was to check efficacy and safety of the new variable square pulse (VSP) Er:YAG laser in the management of acne scar in patients with Fitzpatrick skin types IV and V. Materials and Methods: This retrospective study consisted of 80 patients (Fitzpatrick skin types IV and V) with atrophic and hypertrophic facial acne scars...
January 2018: Journal of Cutaneous and Aesthetic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29729339/investigation-of-antioxidant-and-anticancer-potential-of-fucoidan-from-sargassum-polycystum
#17
Subramanian Palanisamy, Manoharan Vinosha, Muthushanmugam Manikandakrishnan, Ravichandran Anjali, Periyannan Rajasekar, Thangapandi Marudhupandi, Ramar Manikandan, Baskaralingam Vaseeharan, Narayanan Marimuthu Prabhu
The present study was aimed to evaluate the antioxidant and anticancer potential of fucoidan isolated from Sargassum polycystum. The isolated fucoidan was successfully purified by DEAE cellulose-ion exchange chromatography and dialysis process. Totally four active fractions (F1-F4) were collected and explored its chemical constitution by calorimetric assays. Among them, fraction 2 (F2) showed the higher yield percentage, fucose and sulphate content. Further, monosaccharide composition, structural and functional properties of the F2 fraction was analyzed by HPLC, FTIR and NMR...
May 2, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29728585/depletion-of-potassium-and-sodium-in-mantles-of-mars-moon-and-vesta-by-core-formation
#18
E S Steenstra, N Agmon, J Berndt, S Klemme, S Matveev, W van Westrenen
The depletions of potassium (K) and sodium (Na) in samples from planetary interiors have long been considered as primary evidence for their volatile behavior during planetary formation processes. Here, we use high-pressure experiments combined with laser ablation analyses to measure the sulfide-silicate and metal-silicate partitioning of K and Na at high pressure (P) - temperature (T) and find that their partitioning into metal strongly increases with temperature. Results indicate that the observed Vestan and Martian mantle K and Na depletions can reflect sequestration into their sulfur-rich cores in addition to their volatility during formation of Mars and Vesta...
May 4, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29726916/treatment-to-external-labia-and-vaginal-canal-with-co2-laser-for-symptoms-of-vulvovaginal-atrophy-in-postmenopausal-women
#19
Julene B Samuels, Martin A Garcia
Background: Increasingly, women have sought alternatives to traditional options (lubricants, estrogen products, and hormone replacement therapy) for unwelcome vaginal changes of menopause. Objectives: This study evaluated whether a series of three monthly fractional CO2 laser treatments significantly improves and maintains vaginal health indices of elasticity, fluid volume, pH level, epithelial integrity, and moisture. Self-reported symptoms of vaginal atrophy were also measured...
April 13, 2018: Aesthetic Surgery Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29726527/measurement-of-the-effective-optical-path-length-of-diffusing-integrating-cavities-using-time-resolved-spectroscopy
#20
Xue Zhou, Jia Yu, Lin Wang, Zhiguo Zhang
A method to measure the effective optical path length (EOPL) of a diffusing cavity using time-resolved spectroscopy is presented. A 710 nm short-pulsed laser was employed as the light source with a FWHM of 0.7 ns. From the temporal response curves, the time to establish a uniform optical field was obtained as approximately 4 ns for this cavity. Correspondingly, light was scattered 5-6 times by the inner coating. EOPLs with different port fractions were obtained by the selection of an appropriate initial time...
May 1, 2018: Applied Optics
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