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macrophage polarization

Kuntal Kanti Goswami, Madhurima Sarkar, Sarbari Ghosh, Akata Saha, Tithi Ghosh, Ipsita Guha, Subhasis Barik, Saptak Banerjee, Soumyabrata Roy, Anamika Bose, Parthasarathi Dasgupta, Rathindranath Baral
Heterogeneous tumor microenvironment (TME), broadly divided into tumor core and peripheral sub-microenvironments, differentially polarize normal macrophages into a different form known as tumor associated M2 macrophages (M2TAMs) to promote tumor growth. In view of the extensive immune-editing role of NLGP, here, we have observed that NLGP is effective to convert M2TAMs (CD11b(+)F4/80(high)) to M1 (CD11b(+)F4/80(low)) more prominently in tumor core, along with downregulation of other M2 associated markers, like, ManR, Ym1, Fizz1...
October 21, 2016: Molecular Immunology
Mohammad Islamuddin, Garima Chouhan, Muzamil Yaqub Want, Hani A Ozbak, Hassan A Hemeg, Farhat Afrin
BACKGROUND: The therapy of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is limited by resistance, toxicity and decreased bioavailability of the existing drugs coupled with dramatic increase in HIV-co-infection, non-availability of vaccines and down regulation of cell-mediated immunity (CMI). Thus, we envisaged combating the problem with plant-derived antileishmanial drug that could concomitantly mitigate the immune suppression of the infected hosts. Several plant-derived compounds have been found to exert leishmanicidal activity via immunomodulation...
October 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Thiago Aparecido da Silva, Maria Cristina Roque-Barreira, Arturo Casadevall, Fausto Almeida
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) released by eukaryotes, archaea, and bacteria contain proteins, lipids, polysaccharides, and other molecules. The cargo analysis of EVs shows that they contain virulence factors suggesting a role in the pathogenesis of infection. The proteome, lipidome, RNA content, and carbohydrate composition of EVs from Paracoccidioides brasiliensis and Paracoccidioides lutzii were characterized. However, the effects of P. brasiliensis EVs on the host immune system have not yet been investigated...
October 24, 2016: Scientific Reports
Jia Sun, Jintang Sun, Bingfeng Song, Lin Zhang, Qianqian Shao, Yanguo Liu, Daoying Yuan, Yun Zhang, Xun Qu
In tumor microenvironment, macrophages as a polarized M2 population promote tumor progression via releasing multiple cytokines and chemokines. A brown seaweed fucose-rich polysaccharide, fucoidan has antitumor activity and immune modulation through affecting tumor cells and lymphocytes. Here, we focused on the effect of fucoidan on macrophages especially M2 subtype. Our results demonstrated that fucoidan down-regulated partial cytokines and chemokines, especially a M2-type chemokine CCL22. Furthermore, fucoidan inhibited tumor cells migration and CD4(+) T lymphocytes, especially Treg cells, recruitment induced by M2 macrophages conditioned medium through suppression of CCL22...
October 24, 2016: Scientific Reports
Sergio Montserrat-de la Paz, M Carmen Naranjo, Sergio Lopez, Rocio Abia, Francisco J Garcia Muriana, Beatriz Bermudez
Niacin is a broad-spectrum lipid-regulating drug used for clinical therapy of chronic high-grade inflammatory diseases. However, the mechanisms by which either niacin or the byproducts of its catabolism ameliorate these inflammatory diseases are not clear yet. Human circulating monocytes and mature macrophages were used to analyze the effects of niacin and its metabolites (NAM, NUA and 2-Pyr) on oxidative stress, plasticity and inflammatory response by using biochemical, flow cytometry, quantitative real-time PCR and Western blot technologies...
October 1, 2016: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
Andrea Doeschl-Wilson, Alison Wilson, Jens Nielsen, Hans Nauwynck, Alan Archibald, Tahar Ait-Ali
BACKGROUND: Macrophages are essential to innate immunity against many pathogens, but some pathogens also target macrophages as routes to infection. The Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome virus (PRRSV) is an RNA virus that infects porcine alveolar macrophages (PAMs) causing devastating impact on global pig production. Identifying the cellular mechanisms that mediate PAM susceptibility to the virus is crucial for developing effective interventions. Previous evidence suggests that the scavenger receptor CD163 is essential for productive infection of PAMs with PRRSV...
October 22, 2016: BMC Systems Biology
Adam C Labonte, Sun-Sang J Sung, Lucas T Jennelle, Aditya P Dandekar, Young S Hahn
: The liver maintains an immunologically tolerant environment as a result of continuous exposure to food and bacterial constituents from the digestive tract. Hepatotropic pathogens can take advantage of this niche and establish lifelong chronic infections causing hepatic fibrosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Macrophages (Mϕ) play a critical role in regulation of immune responses to hepatic infection and regeneration of tissue. However, the factors crucial for Mϕ in limiting hepatic inflammation or resolving liver damage have not been fully understood...
October 22, 2016: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
Wang-Dong Zhang, Wen-Hui Wang, Shu-Xian Li, Shuai Jia, Xue-Feng Zhang, Ting-Ting Cao
BACKGROUND: The neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn) plays a crucial role in transporting IgG and associated antigens across polarized epithelial barriers in mucosal immunity. However, it was not clear that FcRn expression in aggregated lymphoid nodules area (ALNA) in abomasum, a unique and important mucosal immune structure discovered only in Bactrian camels. In the present study, 27 Alashan Bactrian camels were divided into the following five age groups: fetus (10-13 months of gestation), young (1-2 years), pubertal (3-5 years), middle-aged (6-16 years) and old (17-20 years)...
October 20, 2016: BMC Veterinary Research
Al Shaimaa Hasan, Lan Luo, Chen Yan, Tian-Xia Zhang, Yoshishige Urata, Shinji Goto, Safwat A Mangoura, Mahmoud H Abdel-Raheem, Shouhua Zhang, Tao-Sheng Li
Cardiosphere-derived cells (CDCs), one of the promising stem cell sources for myocardial repair, have been tested in clinical trials and resulted in beneficial effects; however, the relevant mechanisms are not fully understood. In this study, we examined the hypothesis that CDCs favor heart repair by switching the macrophages from a pro-inflammatory phenotype (M1) into a regulatory anti-inflammatory phenotype (M2). Macrophages from mice were cultured with CDCs-conditioned medium or with fibroblasts-conditioned medium as a control...
2016: PloS One
Sofia Sousa, Jorma Määttä
This overview addresses the recent research developments in the role of tumour-associated macrophages (TAM) in bone metastasis biology and management of breast and prostate cancer as well as in primary and lung metastatic osteosarcoma. Immunosuppressive M2-type TAMs have been shown to associate with poor prognosis. Throughout their life cycle, macrophages (Macs) can adapt to environmental cues and influence the surroundings by secreting different cytokines and enzymes crucial to matrix remodelling, infection fighting, immune regulation and/or inflammation...
September 2016: Journal of Bone Oncology
Su-Min Lim, Hyun Sik Choi, Jin-Ju Jeong, Seung-Won Han, Dong-Hyun Kim
We investigated the effect of DWac on the gut microbiota composition in mice with 2,3,6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid- (TNBS-) induced colitis. Treatment with DWac restored TNBS-disturbed gut microbiota composition and attenuated TNBS-induced colitis. Moreover, we examined the effect of DWac in mice with mesalazine-resistant colitis (MRC). Intrarectal injection of TNBS in MRC mice caused severe colitis, as well as colon shortening, edema, and increased myeloperoxidase activity. Treatment with mesalazine (30 mg/kg) did not attenuate TNBS-induced colitis in MRC mice, whereas treatment with DWac (30 mg/kg) significantly attenuated TNBS-induced colitis...
2016: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
Daniel Hachim, Samuel T LoPresti, Cecelia C Yates, Bryan N Brown
The present study tests the hypothesis that transient, early-stage shifts in macrophage polarization at the tissue-implant interface from a pro-inflammatory (M1) to an anti-inflammatory/regulatory (M2) phenotype mitigates the host inflammatory reaction against a non-degradable polypropylene mesh material and improves implant integration downstream. To address this hypothesis, a nanometer-thickness coating capable of releasing IL-4 (an M2 polarizing cytokine) from an implant surface at early stages of the host response has been developed...
October 11, 2016: Biomaterials
Xingwei Jiang, Tingting Zhou, Yan Xiao, Jiahui Yu, Shuaijie Dou, Guojiang Chen, Renxi Wang, He Xiao, Chunmei Hou, Wei Wang, Qingzhu Shi, Jiannan Feng, Yuanfang Ma, Beifen Shen, Yan Li, Gencheng Han
T cell Ig mucin-3 (Tim-3), an immune checkpoint inhibitor, shows therapeutic potential. However, the molecular mechanism by which Tim-3 regulates immune responses remains to be determined. In particular, very little is known about how Tim-3 works in innate immune cells. Here, we demonstrated that Tim-3 is involved in the development of tumor-promoting M2 macrophages in colon cancer. Manipulation of the Tim-3 pathway significantly affected the polarization status of intestinal macrophages and the progression of colon cancer...
2016: Oncoimmunology
Adam R Wolfe, Nicholaus J Trenton, Bisrat G Debeb, Richard Larson, Brian Ruffell, Khoi Chu, Walter Hittelman, Michael Diehl, Jim M Reuben, Naoto T Ueno, Wendy A Woodward
Inflammatory breast cancer (IBC) is a unique and deadly disease with unknown drivers. We hypothesized the inflammatory environment contributes to the IBC phenotype. We used an in vitro co-culture system to investigate interactions between normal and polarized macrophages (RAW 264.7 cell line), bone-marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), and IBC cells (SUM 149 and MDA-IBC3). We used an in vivo model that reproduces the IBC phenotype by co-injecting IBC cells with MSCs into the mammary fat pad. Mice were then treated with a macrophage recruitment inhibitor, anti-CSF1...
October 15, 2016: Oncotarget
Irfan Ahmad, Syed Fazle Rouf, Lei Sun, Annika Cimdins, Sulman Shafeeq, Soazig Le Guyon, Marco Schottkowski, Mikael Rhen, Ute Römling
BACKGROUND: Cellulose, a 1,4 beta-glucan polysaccharide, is produced by a variety of organisms including bacteria. Although the production of cellulose has a high biological, ecological and economical impact, regulatory mechanisms of cellulose biosynthesis are mostly unknown. Family eight cellulases are regularly associated with cellulose biosynthesis operons in bacteria; however, their function is poorly characterized. In this study, we analysed the role of the cellulase BcsZ encoded by the bcsABZC cellulose biosynthesis operon of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S...
October 19, 2016: Microbial Cell Factories
Matthias Holzlechner, Katharina Strasser, Elitsa Zareva, Luise Steinhaeuser, Hanna Birnleitner, Andrea Beer, Michael Bergmann, Rudolf Oehler, Martina Marchetti-Deschmann
Tissue-resident immune cells differ from the corresponding blood cells in many functional aspects. Although the proteome of blood immune cells is well investigated there are almost no data on tissue-resident immune cells. Here we explored the potential of MALDI-TOF-MS imaging (MSI) to investigate these cells in colon tissue, which exhibits a strong immune infiltration. MSI identified several proteinaceous markers that colocalized with specific structures of the colon such as mucosa or muscularis mucosae in six patients...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Proteome Research
Lien M Dos Santos, Tatiane M da Silva, Juliana H Azambuja, Priscila T Ramos, Pathise S Oliveira, Elita F da Silveira, Nathalia S Pedra, Kennia Galdino, Carlus A T do Couto, Mayara S P Soares, Rejane G Tavares, Roselia M Spanevello, Francieli M Stefanello, Elizandra Braganhol
Methionine is an essential amino acid involved in critical metabolic process, and regulation of methionine flux through metabolism is important to supply this amino acid for cell needs. Elevation in plasma methionine commonly occurs due to mutations in methionine-metabolizing enzymes, such as methionine adenosyltransferase. Hypermethioninemic patients exhibit clinical manifestations, including neuronal and liver disorders involving inflammation and tissue injury, which pathophysiology is not completely established...
October 17, 2016: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
Sunhee Kang, Young Mi Kim, Ryang Yeo Kim, Min Jung Seo, Zaesung No, Kiyean Nam, Sanghee Kim, Jaeseung Kim
The anti-tubercular activity of 6-chloro-2-ethyl-N-(4-(4-(4-(trifluoromethoxy)phenyl)piperidin-1-yl)benzyl)imidazo [1,2-a]pyridine-3-carboxamide (Q203) is modified by varying its side chain. In this study, we synthesized Q203 analogues with different side chains and studied their effects on anti-tubercular activity. Many analogues showed good potency against M. tuberculosis replicating in liquid broth culture medium (extracellular activity) regardless of chain length and conformational changes. However, a polar character in the side chain region was unfavorable for anti-tubercular activity...
September 28, 2016: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Min Zhang, Zhongqi Zhou, Jinguang Wang, Shufa Li
Inflammatory pathways play an important role in impaired glucose metabolism and insulin production. Adipose tissue inflammation is characterized by infiltration and expansion of macrophages, leading to type 2 diabetes (T2D). Macrophage polarization contributes to various inflammatory responses and cytokine production profiles. MiR-130b is involved in regulating immune response and metabolism. However, the specific role in macrophage polarization and glucose metabolism of T2D has not been reported. In this study, C57BL/6 mice were fed a high-fat diet to induce T2D mice model...
October 13, 2016: Immunology Letters
Ming-Zhi Zhang, Xin Wang, Yinqiu Wang, Aolei Niu, Suwan Wang, Chenhang Zou, Raymond C Harris
Cytokines IL-4 and IL-13 play important roles in polarization of macrophages/dendritic cells to an M2 phenotype, which is important for recovery from acute kidney injury. Both IL-4 and IL-13 activate JAK3/STAT6 signaling. In mice with diphtheria toxin receptor expression in proximal tubules (selective injury model), a relatively selective JAK3 inhibitor, tofacitinib, led to more severe kidney injury, delayed recovery from acute kidney injury, increased inflammatory M1 phenotype markers and decreased reparative M2 phenotype markers of macrophages/dendritic cells, and development of more severe renal fibrosis after diphtheria toxin administration...
October 10, 2016: Kidney International
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