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chromium diabetes

Swarupa Kancherla, William J Kohler, Yolandi van der Merwe, Kevin C Chan
Visual function has been shown to deteriorate prior to the onset of retinopathy in some diabetic patients and experimental animal models. This suggests the involvement of the brain's visual system in the early stages of diabetes. In this study, we tested this hypothesis by examining the integrity of the visual pathway in a diabetic rat model using in vivo multi-modal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Ten-week-old Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into an experimental diabetic group by intraperitoneal injection of 65 mg/kg streptozotocin in 0...
2016: PloS One
Amalia E Yanni, Nikoleta S Stamataki, Panagiotis Konstantopoulos, Maria Stoupaki, Athanasios Abeliatis, Irene Nikolakea, Despoina Perrea, Vaios T Karathanos, Nikolaos Tentolouris
PURPOSE: Chromium (Cr)-enriched yeast supplementation to whole wheat bread (WWCrB) has been shown to ameliorate postprandial glycemic response in healthy subjects. The present study investigates the long-term benefit of WWCrB consumption for patients with type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). METHODS: Thirty patients with T2DM were randomly assigned to a group receiving WWCrB or the plain whole wheat bread (WWB) group. Plasma glucose, insulin, glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) and insulin resistance were determined, and oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was performed at the beginning and the end of the dietary intervention, which lasted for 12 weeks...
October 12, 2016: European Journal of Nutrition
L Dioni, S Sucato, V Motta, S Iodice, L Angelici, C Favero, T Cavalleri, L Vigna, B Albetti, S Fustinoni, P Bertazzi, A Pesatori, V Bollati
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Epidemiological studies suggest a link between chromium (Cr) status and cardiovascular disease. Increased urinary excretion of Cr was reported in subjects with diabetes compared with non-diabetic controls and those with non-diabetic insulin resistance. Epigenetic alterations have been linked to the presence of Cr, and microRNA (miRNA) expression has been implicated in the pathogenesis of metabolic diseases and cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). We investigated the association between Cr excretion and miRNA expression in leukocytes from obese subjects...
October 12, 2016: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Muhammad Dzafir Ismail, Wan Azman Wan Ahmad, Matthias Leschke, Matthias Waliszewski, Michael Boxberger, Imran Zainal Abidin, Ahmad Syadi Mahmood Zuhdi
BACKGROUND: Percutaneous coronary interventions (PCI) in coronary artery disease (CAD) with very small vessel diameters remains controversial and challenging. These lesions are usually more diffuse, calcified and tortuous. The usage of thin strut bare metal stents (BMS) with excellent crossing profiles in a very small caliber coronary lesions has increased the likelihood of procedural success. OBJECTIVES: This observational study assessed the 9-month clinical outcomes in an 'all-comers' population with very small caliber CAD after implantation of thin strut cobalt chromium BMS...
2016: SpringerPlus
Zainulabedin M Saiyed, James P Lugo
BACKGROUND: Chromium dinicocysteinate (CDNC) is a unique chromium complex consisting of chromium, niacin, and L-cysteine. Previous preclinical and clinical studies support the safety and efficacy of CDNC in modulating oxidative stress, vascular inflammation, and glycemia in type 2 diabetes. OBJECTIVE: Herein, we report the results of several exploratory analyses conducted on type 2 diabetic subjects who previously participated in a 3-month randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial and were treated with only metformin as standard diabetic care in addition to receiving the test supplementations...
2016: Food & Nutrition Research
O Tsave, M P Yavropoulou, M Kafantari, C Gabriel, J G Yovos, A Salifoglou
Insulin resistance is identified through numerous pathophysiological conditions, such as Diabetes mellitus II, obesity, hypertension and other metabolic syndromes. Enhancement of insulin action and\or its complete replacement by insulin-enhancing or insulin-mimetic agents seems to improve treatment of metabolic diseases. Over the last decades, intensive research has targeted the investigation of such agents, with chromium emerging as an important inorganic cofactor involved in the requisite metabolic chemistry...
July 27, 2016: Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry
Moamen S Refat, Samy M El-Megharbel, M A Hussien, Reham Z Hamza, Mohamed A Al-Omar, Ahmed M Naglah, Walid M Afifi, Mohamed I Kobeasy
New binuclear chromium (III) niacinamide compound with chemical formula [Cr2(Nic)(Cl)6(H2O)4]·H2O was obtained upon the reaction of chromium (III) chloride with niacinamide (Nic) in methanol solvent at 60°C. The proposed structure was discussed with the help of microanalytical analyses, conductivity, spectroscopic (FT-IR and UV-vis.), magnetic calculations, thermogravimetric analyses (TG/TGA), and morphological studies (X-ray of solid powder and scan electron microscopy. The infrared spectrum of free niacinamide in comparison with its chromium (III) compound indicated that the chelation mode occurs via both nitrogen atoms of pyridine ring and primary -NH2 group...
August 30, 2016: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
Zera Yilmaz, Fawad Piracha, Leeann Anderson, Nissa Mazzola
The primary approach to controlling diabetes involves diet and lifestyle modification combined with pharmacologic interventions. Patients who are interested in exploring dietary supplements in the management of diabetes may have questions about which supplement to choose and whether any issues will arise with their current medication regimen. After reading this review, the pharmacist should be able to identify supplements that may provide benefit to improve diabetes management, understand what potential harm to the patient may occur, and be able to assist the patient in choosing high-quality supplements...
September 11, 2016: Journal of Pharmacy Practice
Ge Deng, Samantha L Dyroff, Molly Lockart, Michael K Bowman, John B Vincent
Chromium (III) has been shown to act as a pharmacological agent improving insulin sensitivity in rodent models of obesity, insulin resistance, and diabetes. To act in beneficial fashion, chromium must reach insulin-sensitive tissues. Chromium is transported from the bloodstream to the tissues by the iron-transport protein transferrin. When blood concentrations of glucose are high (as in a diabetic subject), transferrin can be glycated, modifying its ability to bind and transport iron. However, the effects of glycation of transferrin on its ability to bind and transport Cr have not been examined previously...
August 25, 2016: Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry
Adriana González-Villalva, Laura Colín-Barenque, Patricia Bizarro-Nevares, Marcela Rojas-Lemus, Vianey Rodríguez-Lara, Isabel García-Pelaez, Martha Ustarroz-Cano, Nelly López-Valdez, Juan Carlos Albarrán-Alonso, Teresa I Fortoul
There are evidences of environmental pollution and health effects. Metals are pollutants implicated in systemic toxicity. One of the least studied effects, but which is currently becoming more important, is the effect of metals on glycemic control. Metals have been implicated as causes of chronic inflammation and oxidative stress and are associated to obesity, hyperglycemia and even diabetes. Arsenic, iron, mercury, lead, cadmium and nickel have been studied as a risk factor for hyperglycemia and diabetes. There is another group of metals that causes hypoglycemia such as vanadium, chromium, zinc and magnesium by different mechanisms...
September 2016: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
Saeed Kolahian, Hassan Sadri, Amir Larijani, Gholamreza Hamidian, Afshin Davasaz
The objective was to study whether leucine, zinc, and chromium supplementations influence function and histological structure of testes in a rat model of type 2 diabetes. Seventy seven adult male rats were categorized into 11 groups of 7 animals each: (1) nondiabetic (negative control); (2) non-treated (positive control); (3) treated with insulin; (4) treated with glibenclamide; (5) treated with leucine; (6) treated with zinc; (7) treated with chromium; (8) treated with leucine + zinc; (9) treated with leucine + chromium; (10) treated with zinc + chromium; (11) treated with leucine + zinc + chromium...
July 5, 2016: International Journal for Vitamin and Nutrition Research. Journal International de Vitaminologie et de Nutrition
Yu-Mi Lee, Petra Wolf, Hans Hauner, Thomas Skurk
BACKGROUND: For the increasing development of type 2 diabetes dietary habits play an important role. In this regard, dietary supplements are of growing interest to influence the progression of this disease. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of a cascade-fermented dietary supplement based on fruits, nuts, and vegetables fortified with chromium and zinc on metabolic control in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. METHODS: This was a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, intervention study under free-living conditions using a cross-over design...
2016: Food & Nutrition Research
Adnan Tutic, Srecko Novakovic, Mitar Lutovac, Rade Biocanin, Sonja Ketin, Nusret Omerovic
The metal is a chemical element that conducts electricity well and heat, and the nonferrous metals builds cations and ionic bonds. Heavy metals include metals whose density is higher than 5 g/cm(3). The whole range of the metal is in the form of essential trace elements, essential for a number of functions in the human body, and its deficiency results in a lack of occurrence of a serious symptom. The best examples are anemia lack of iron, lack of chromium in diabetes, growth problems in lack of nickel. Other elements such as lead, cadmium, mercury, arsenic and molybdenum have been shown to exhibit large quantities of toxic effects...
June 15, 2015: Open Access Macedonian Journal of Medical Sciences
Rebecca B Costello, Johanna T Dwyer, Regan L Bailey
Some adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) believe that chromium-containing supplements will help control their disease, but the evidence is mixed. This narrative review examines the efficacy of chromium supplements for improving glycemic control as measured by decreases in fasting plasma glucose (FPG) or hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c). Using systematic search criteria, 20 randomized controlled trials of chromium supplementation in T2DM patients were identified. Clinically meaningful treatment goals were defined as an FPG of ≤7...
July 2016: Nutrition Reviews
Marília Mendonça Guimarães, Ana Clara Martins Silva Carvalho, Maria Sebastiana Silva
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of chromium supplementation on the glucose homeostasis and anthropometry of type 2 diabetic patients. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Fifty-six individuals with type 2 Diabetes were randomized on a double blind clinical trial into three groups: placebo (NC0), 50μg (NC50) and 200μg (NC200) of chromium nicotinate. Glucose homeostasis, anthropometry and physical activity intensity were evaluated at the beginning, at day 45 and at day 90. Energy intake was evaluated at the beginning, between the beginning and 45 days, and between days 45 and 90 of the study...
July 2016: Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology
Simona Silenzi, Pierfrancesco Grossi, Luca Mariani, Chiara Fraccaro, Fabio Vagnarelli, Luciano Moretti
OBJECTIVES: To prospectively compare the impact of ultrathin-strut cobalt-chromium (Cro-Co) bare metal stent (BMS) versus thin-strut stainless steel (SS) BMS on clinically driven target lesion revascularization (TLR). BACKGROUND: Stent characteristics are an important determinant of restenosis. Thinner strut Cro-Co BMS is associated with a reduction of neointimal formation compared to SS BMS. The advantages of Cro-Co BMS in a real-world population is not clear. METHODS: Patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) with BMS for any reason were enrolled...
June 2016: Journal of Interventional Cardiology
Z Adam, A Turley, J M Mason, A S Kasim, D Newby, N Mills, G Padfield, L Thompson, R Morley, J A Hall, R A Wright, D F Muir, A G C Sutton, N Swanson, J Carter, R Bilous, S Jones, M A de Belder
BACKGROUND: Stent design and technological modifications to allow for anti-proliferative drug elution influence restenosis rates following percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). We aimed to investigate whether peri-procedural administration of corticosteroids or the use of thinner strut cobalt alloy stents would reduce rates of binary angiographic restenosis (BAR) after PCI. METHODS: This was a two centre, mixed single and double blinded, randomised controlled trial using a factorial design...
August 1, 2016: International Journal of Cardiology
Huiyu Wu, Weiwei Feng, Guanghua Mao, Ting Zhao, Xiangyang Wu, Songmei Wang, Yanmin Zou, Liuqing Yang, Liang Wang
Our previous study showed that chromium malate improved the composition of intestinal flora, glycometabolism, glycometabolism-related enzymes, and lipid metabolism in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) rats. The present study was designed to evaluate the effect of chromium malate with long-term supplementation on short chain fatty acid (SCFA) content in Sprague-Dawley rats. The samples were analyzed by gas chromatography with high linearity (R (2) ≥ 0.9995), low quantification limit (0.011-0.070 mM), and satisfactory recoveries...
April 2, 2016: Biological Trace Element Research
Roberto Iacone, Clelia Scanzano, Lidia Santarpia, Anna D'Isanto, Franco Contaldo, Fabrizio Pasanisi
BACKGROUND: The micronutrient content in standard enteral mixtures should be closer to the dietary reference values for a healthy population since standard enteral diets are formulated for subjects with no special nutritional needs. This study compares the micronutrient content of the most common enteral nutrition (EN) formulas with European dietary reference values (DRVs) for healthy population. FINDINGS: Sixty-two nutritionally complete enteral formulas were considered...
2016: Nutrition Journal
Ismael San Mauro-Martin, Ana María Ruiz-León, María Alicia Camina-Martín, Elena Garicano-Vilar, Luis Collado-Yurrita, Beatriz de Mateo-Silleras, María De Paz Redondo Del Río
INTRODUCTION: Chromium is an essential trace mineral for carbohydrate and lipid metabolism, which is currently prescribed to control diabetes mellitus. Results of previous systematic reviews and meta-analyses of chromium supplementation and metabolic profiles in diabetes have been inconsistent. AIM: The objective of this meta-analysis was to assess the effects on metabolic profiles and safety of chromium supplementation in type 2 diabetes mellitus and cholesterol...
February 16, 2016: Nutrición Hospitalaria: Organo Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Nutrición Parenteral y Enteral
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