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Margaret F Riley, Bernat Olle
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2015: Journal of Law and the Biosciences
Yanling Wei, Jun Yang, Jun Wang, Yang Yang, Juan Huang, Hao Gong, Hongli Cui, Dongfeng Chen
BACKGROUND: The dysbiosis of intestinal microbiota plays an important role in the development of gut-derived infections, making it a potential therapeutic target against multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS) after sepsis. However, the effectiveness of fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) in treating this disease has been rarely investigated. METHODS: Two male patients, a 65-year-old and an 84-year-old, were initially diagnosed with cerebellar hemorrhage and cerebral infarction, respectively, after admission...
October 18, 2016: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
Yu Qi Qiao, Chen Wen Cai, Zhi Hua Ran
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients exhibit impaired control of the microbiome in the gut. "Dysbiosis" is commonly observed. A Western diet is a risk factor for the development of IBD but may have different effects on the gut microbiota in IBD and non-IBD individuals. Exclusive enteral nutrition (EEN) can induce remission in pediatric Crohn's disease (CD) with a decrease in gut microbiome diversity after EEN treatment. Although there are some theoretical benefits, the actual treatment effects of prebiotics and probiotics in IBD patients can vary...
October 15, 2016: Journal of Digestive Diseases
Hideki Kumagai, Koji Yokoyama, Tomoyuki Imagawa, Shun Inoue, Janyerkye Tulyeu, Mamoru Tanaka, Takanori Yamagata
Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is a treatment designed to correct gut dysbiosis by administration of feces from a healthy volunteer. It is still unclear whether FMT for children with ulcerative colitis (UC) is effective or hazardous. Here we describe a young patient to have received FMT for UC. A three-year-old girl was admitted to our hospital with severe active UC, and treated with aminosalicylates and various immunosuppressive drugs. As remission was not achieved, we decided to try FMT before colectomy...
September 2016: Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology & Nutrition
Atsushi Nishida, Hirotsugu Imaeda, Masashi Ohno, Osamu Inatomi, Shigeki Bamba, Mitsushige Sugimoto, Akira Andoh
BACKGROUND: The clinical utility of fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) in patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) is still controversial. We investigated the efficacy and safety of single FMT for patients with mild to moderately active UC in a Japanese population. METHODS: Fifty-seven patients were evaluated for eligibility, and 16 patients were excluded. Forty-one patients with UC refractory to standard medical therapy were treated with single FMT by colonoscopic administration...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Gastroenterology
Jonna Jalanka, Eero Mattila, Hanne Jouhten, Jorn Hartman, Willem M de Vos, Perttu Arkkila, Reetta Satokari
BACKGROUND: Faecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is an effective treatment for recurrent Clostridium difficile infection (rCDI). It restores the disrupted intestinal microbiota and subsequently suppresses C. difficile. The long-term stability of the intestinal microbiota and the recovery of mucosal microbiota, both of which have not been previously studied, are assessed herein. Further, the specific bacteria behind the treatment efficacy are also investigated. METHODS: We performed a high-throughput microbiota profiling using a phylogenetic microarray analysis of 131 faecal and mucosal samples from 14 rCDI patients pre- and post-FMT during a 1-year follow-up and 23 samples from the three universal donors over the same period...
October 11, 2016: BMC Medicine
Bo Zhu, Yumei Chen, Xiaolu Shen, Xishi Liu, Sun-Wei Guo
BACKGROUND: Recently emerging evidence indicates that endometriotic lesions are wounds undergoing repeated tissue injury and repair (ReTIAR), and platelets induce epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), fibroblast-to-myofibroblast transdifferentiation (FMT), leading ultimately to fibrosis. Due to the commonality of cyclic bleeding as in endometriosis, adenomyotic lesions are also wounds that undergo ReTIAR, and we have recently provided evidence corroborating platelet-induced EMT, FMT and fibrogenesis in adenomyosis...
October 10, 2016: Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology: RB&E
Christian Carlucci, Elaine O Petrof, Emma Allen-Vercoe
The human gut microbiome is a complex ecosystem of fundamental importance to human health. Our increased understanding of gut microbial composition and functional interactions in health and disease states has spurred research efforts examining the gut microbiome as a valuable target for therapeutic intervention. This review provides updated insight into the state of the gut microbiome in recurrent Clostridium difficile infection (CDI), ulcerative colitis (UC), and obesity while addressing the rationale for the modulation of the gut microbiome using fecal microbiota transplant (FMT)-based therapies...
October 1, 2016: EBioMedicine
Avnish Kumar Seth, Pawan Rawal, Ruchika Bagga, Priti Jain
Forty-four-year-old male with ulcerative colitis (UC) for 11 years reported frequent relapse despite daily sulfasalazine 4 g, azathioprine 125 mg, and rectal 5-aminosalicylic acid. Repeated use of corticosteroids led to cataract. At enrollment, he was passing eight stools a day with blood with a Mayo score of 9 (3+1+3+2). Stool was negative for ova/cysts/acid fast bacilli and Clostridium difficile toxin assay. Rectal biopsy showed cryptitis, crypt abscess, and crypt distortion with no inclusion bodies, and cytomegalovirus DNA was negative...
September 2016: Indian Journal of Gastroenterology: Official Journal of the Indian Society of Gastroenterology
Amene Hermi, Wafa Achour
Introduction Item analysis is the process of collecting, summarizing and using information from students' responses to assess test items' quality. This study used this approach to evaluate the quality of items and examinations given in the Faculty of Medicine of Tunis (FMT).    Methods This study concerned the examinations of 2012-2013 (principal session). It analyzed 3138 items from 66 examinations, of which, 46 were multidisciplinary (187 disciplines). A total of 2515 students took the examinations. "AnItem...
April 2016: La Tunisie Médicale
Clarisse A Marotz, Amir Zarrinpar
The worldwide prevalence of metabolic syndrome, which includes obesity and its associated diseases, is rising rapidly. The human gut microbiome is recognized as an independent environmental modulator of host metabolic health and disease. Research in animal models has demonstrated that the gut microbiome has the functional capacity to induce or relieve metabolic syndrome. One way to modify the human gut microbiome is by transplanting fecal matter, which contains an abundance of live microorganisms, from a healthy individual to a diseased one in the hopes of alleviating illness...
September 2016: Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine
Kyung Mok Sohn, Shinhye Cheon, Yeon-Sook Kim
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 3, 2016: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
Asser Mathiassen Oppfeldt, Jens F Dahlerup, Lisbet A Christensen, Christian L Hvas
Faecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is increasingly being used to treat refractory and recurring Clostridium difficile infection (CDI). Although FMT appears to be safe and highly effective in patients with a preserved colon and immunocompetence, its use in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) who are on immunomodulating therapies is controversial. In particular, patients who have undergone colectomy may have different treatment responses to FMT. In this case report, we describe the successful use of FMT in a female patient aged 19 years with Crohn's disease who underwent ileorectal anastomosis following colectomy...
2016: BMJ Case Reports
Stefan Hagel, Andreas Stallmach, Maria Vehreschild
BACKGROUND: The clinical effectiveness of fecal microbiota transplant (FMT) for the treatment of recurrent Clostridium difficile infections (rCDI) has been demonstrated in randomized controlled trials. To assess the current status of FMT in Germany with respect to active centers, local standards, clinical effectiveness and safety, the MicroTrans Registry (NCT02681068) was established. METHODS: In a long-term retrospective multicenter observational study by the German Clinical Microbiome Study Group (GCMSG), primary and secondary cure on day 30 and 90, as well as occurrence of treatment-related adverse events were assessed...
September 5, 2016: Deutsches Ärzteblatt International
Brandon C Chapman, Hunter B Moore, Douglas M Overbey, Alex P Morton, Ben Harnke, Mark E Gerich, Jon D Vogel
BACKGROUND: Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) restores a diverse bacterial profile to the gastrointestinal tract and may effectively treat patients with Clostridium difficile infection (CDI). The objective of this systematic review was to evaluate the effectiveness of FMT in the treatment of CDI. METHODS: Ovid MEDLINE, EMBASE, Web of Science, and Cochrane database were used. The authors searched studies with 10 or more patients examining the resolution of symptoms after FMT in patients with CDI...
October 2016: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
E M Terveer, Y H van Beurden, E J Kuijper, J J Keller
Clostridium difficile infection is caused by a disturbance of the gut microbiota, often resulting from the use of antibiotics. Among a sub group of patients with this disorder, treatment with antibiotics is not effective. They develop a chronic, recurrent infection. Such patients can be treated with a fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT), or fecal transplantation. The crucial steps for safe application of fecal transplantation are central donor selection and screening. To optimise safety and to guarantee the availability of donor feces for fecal transplantation, the Nederlandse Donor Feces Bank (Dutch Donor Feces Bank) was established...
September 2016: Nederlands Tijdschrift Voor Tandheelkunde
David H Kerman
The intestinal microbiome plays an important role in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). We are able to use the microbiome as a therapeutic target with use of fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) for cure of recurrent Clostridium difficile infection. Given our ability to target the dysbiotic state with FMT, its use as therapy in IBD has tremendous potential. This overview discusses the practical considerations of FMT therapy with respect to our current understanding of safety and efficacy in IBD, screening for donors and recipients, specimen handling and storage, methods of delivery, and regulatory considerations...
October 2016: Gastrointestinal Endoscopy Clinics of North America
Antonella Gallo, Giovanna Passaro, Antonio Gasbarrini, Raffaele Landolfi, Massimo Montalto
Alterations of intestinal microflora may significantly contribute to the pathogenesis of different inflammatory and autoimmune disorders. There is emerging interest on the role of selective modulation of microflora in inducing benefits in inflammatory intestinal disorders, by as probiotics, prebiotics, synbiotics, antibiotics, and fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT). To summarize recent evidences on microflora modulation in main intestinal inflammatory disorders, PubMed was searched using terms microbiota, intestinal flora, probiotics, prebiotics, fecal transplantation...
August 28, 2016: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
Ilan Youngster, Jasmin Mahabamunuge, Hannah K Systrom, Jenny Sauk, Hamed Khalili, Joanne Levin, Jess L Kaplan, Elizabeth L Hohmann
BACKGROUND: Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) has been shown to be safe and effective in treating refractory or relapsing C. difficile infection (CDI), but its use has been limited by practical barriers. We recently reported a small preliminary feasibility study using orally administered frozen fecal capsules. Following these early results, we now report our clinical experience in a large cohort with structured follow-up. METHODS: We prospectively followed a cohort of patients with recurrent or refractory CDI who were treated with frozen, encapsulated FMT at our institution...
2016: BMC Medicine
Dong Ho Shin, Ki Woong Seong, Sunil Puria, Kyu-Yup Lee, Jin-Ho Cho
A number of methods to drive the round window (RW) using a floating mass transducer (FMT) have been reported. This method has attracted attention because the FMT is relatively easy to implant in the RW niche. However, the use of an FMT to drive the RW has been proven to produce low outputs at frequencies below approximately 1 kHz. In this study, a new tri-coil bellows-type transducer (TCBT), which has excellent low frequency output and is easy to implant, is proposed. To design the frequency characteristics of the TCBT, mechanical and electrical simulations were performed, and then a comparative analysis was conducted between a floating mass type transducer (like the FMT) and a fixed type transducer (like the TCBT)...
September 2, 2016: Hearing Research
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