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Dale N Gerding, Ciaran P Kelly, Galia Rahav, Christine Lee, Erik R Dubberke, Princy N Kumar, Bruce Yacyshyn, Dina Kao, Karen Eves, Misoo C Ellison, Mary E Hanson, Dalya Guris, Mary Beth Dorr
Background: Bezlotoxumab is a human monoclonal antibody against C. difficile toxin B indicated to prevent CDI recurrence (rCDI) in adults at high risk for rCDI. This post-hoc analysis of pooled MODIFY I/II data assessed bezlotoxumab efficacy in participants with characteristics associated with increased risk for rCDI. Methods: The analysis population was the modified Intent-to-Treat population who received bezlotoxumab or placebo (n=1554) by risk factors for rCDI that were prespecified in the statistical analysis plan: age ≥65 years, history of CDI, compromised immunity, severe CDI, and ribotype 027/078/244...
March 10, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Na Jiang, Lei Shi, Jieping Lin, Lifang Zhang, Yanxia Peng, Huiying Sheng, Ping Wu, Qingjun Pan
BACKGROUND: Rotavirus (RV) and enteric adenovirus (AdV) mainly cause infantile infectious gastroenteritis. Several separate test methods for the detection of RV or AdV are currently available, but few tests are able to simultaneously detect both RV and AdV viruses, especially in primary medical institutions. METHODS: The present study was mainly designed to compare the performance of two combined test strips for the detection of RV and AdV: a rotavirus-adenovirus strip with fluorescent microspheres for tracers (FMT); and the CerTest rotavirus-adenovirus blister strip with colored microspheres for tracers (CMT)...
March 13, 2018: Virology Journal
Tuo Chen, Qun Zhou, Dan Zhang, Feng Jiang, Jing Wu, Jin-Yong Zhou, Xiao Zheng, Yu-Gen Chen
Background: Evidence concerning the effect of faecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) in Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) has not been firmly established. Therefore, we performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate FMT treatment outcomes in patients with IBD treated for CDI. Methods: An electronic search of four databases was conducted until November 1st, 2017. Cohort studies of FMT efficacy and safety in CDI patients with IBD were included...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Crohn's & Colitis
Magdy El-Salhy, Tarek Mazzawi
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a widespread gastrointestinal disorder affecting 11.2% of the world adult population. The intestinal microbiome is thought to play a pivotal role in the pathophysiology of IBS. The composition of the fecal microbiome in IBS patients differs from that in healthy individuals, but the exact bacteria species involved in the development of IBS remain to be determined. There is also an imbalance between useful and harmful bacteria (dysbiosis) in the intestinal microbiome in patients with IBS...
March 1, 2018: Expert Review of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
Iain Dickson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 28, 2018: Nature Reviews. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
Aurélien Dinh, Hafedh Fessi, Clara Duran, Rui Batista, Hugues Michelon, Frédérique Bouchand, Raphaël Lepeule, Daniel Vittecoq, Lelia Escaut, Iradj Sobhani, Christine Lawrence, François Chast, Pierre Ronco, Benjamin Davido
BACKGROUND: Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) and Vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) carriage is increasing worldwide. Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) appears to be an attractive option for decolonization. We aimed to evaluate CRE versus VRE clearance by FMT among carriers. METHODS: We performed a multicentre trial on patients with CRE or VRE digestive tract colonization who received FMT between January 2015 and April 2017. Adult patients with CRE or VRE colonization were included; confirmed by three consecutive rectal swabs at weekly intervals, including one in the week prior to FMT...
February 22, 2018: Journal of Hospital Infection
Enrico Borrelli, Marcela Lonngi, Siva Balasubramanian, Tudor C Tepelus, Elmira Baghdasaryan, Nicholas A Iafe, Stacy L Pineles, Federico G Velez, David Sarraf, SriniVas R Sadda, Irena Tsui
PURPOSE: To report optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) values in healthy pediatric eyes and to identify factors that may modify these values. METHODS: In this prospective observational cross-sectional study, macular OCTA images were acquired from healthy pediatric patients. Main outcome measures were 1) foveal avascular zone (FAZ) area at the level of the superficial retinal capillary plexus (SCP); 2) SCP and deep retinal capillary plexus (DCP) perfusion density (based on the area of vessels); 3) SCP and DCP vessel density (based on a map with vessels of 1-pixel width); and 4) CC perfusion density...
February 22, 2018: Retina
Meng-Fei Sun, Ying-Li Zhu, Zhi-Lan Zhou, Xue-Bing Jia, Yi-Da Xu, Qin Yang, Chun Cui, Yan-Qin Shen
Parkinson's disease (PD) patients display alterations in gut microbiota composition. However, mechanism between gut microbial dysbiosis and pathogenesis of PD remains unexplored, and no recognized therapies are available to halt or slow progression of PD. Here we identified that gut microbiota from PD mice induced motor impairment and striatal neurotransmitter decrease on normal mice. Sequencing of 16S rRNA revealed that phylum Firmicutes and order Clostridiales decreased, while phylum Proteobacteria, order Turicibacterales and Enterobacteriales increased in fecal samples of PD mice, along with increased fecal short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs)...
February 19, 2018: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
Danielle Barnes, Katharine Ng, Sam Smits, Justin Sonnenburg, Zain Kassam, K T Park
In this prospective cohort study, we examine the feasibility of a protocol to optimize microbiota for fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT). Donor stool metrics generally accepted as markers of gut health were used to select a stool donor based on superior microbial diversity, balanced constitution of Bacteroidetes versus Firmicutes and high concentration of fecal butyrate. Selected donor microbiota was then administered via FMT. A total of 10 patients with median age of 12 years with recurrent Clostridium difficile infection (rCDI) received the intervention...
February 21, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
Phuc Le, Van T Nghiem, Patricia Dolan Mullen, Abhishek Deshpande
BACKGROUND Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) presents a substantial economic burden and is associated with significant morbidity. While multiple treatment strategies have been evaluated, a cost-effective management strategy remains unclear. OBJECTIVE We conducted a systematic review to assess cost-effectiveness analyses of CDI treatment and to summarize key issues for clinicians and policy makers to consider. METHODS We searched PubMed and 5 other databases from inception to August 2016. These searches were not limited by study design or language of publication...
February 21, 2018: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
Giorgio Q Pereira, Lucas A Gomes, Iago S Santos, Alice F Alfieri, J S Weese, Marcio C Costa
BACKGROUND: Diarrhea associated with parvovirus infection is common in dogs. Supportive care is the mainstay of treatment, but recovery may be prolonged and mortality rate can be high. Modification of the intestinal bacterial microbiota has been promising in human and veterinary medicine as an adjunctive treatment of various enteric diseases. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the safety and efficacy of fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) on the clinical recovery of puppies with acute hemorrhagic diarrhea syndrome...
February 20, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine
Da-Ke Li, Feng-Tao Liu, Kui Chen, Lu-Lu Bu, Ke Yang, Chen Chen, Zhen-Yang Liu, Yi-Lin Tang, Jue Zhao, Yi-Min Sun, Jian Wang, Jian-Jun Wu
Depressive symptoms and sensory dysfunction, such as reduction in visual and olfactory function, are common in Parkinson's disease (PD). Previous studies have suggested that depressive symptoms are associated with visual impairments and potentially with hyposmia in several types of mood disorders. However, the relationship between depressive symptoms and sensory dysfunction remains unclear in PD. To examine the association of depressive symptoms with color vision and olfactory function in PD, the authors conducted a cross-sectional study in 159 patients with PD...
February 20, 2018: Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
Simon D Goldenberg, Rahul Batra, Ian Beales, Jonathan Leith Digby-Bell, Peter Miles Irving, Lee Kellingray, Arjan Narbad, Ngozi Franslem-Elumogo
Fecal microbiota transplant (FMT) has emerged as a highly efficacious treatment for difficult cases of refractory and/or recurrent Clostridium difficile infection (CDI). There have been many well-conducted randomized controlled trials and thousands of patients reported in case series that describe success rates of approximately 90% following one or more FMT. Although the exact mechanisms of FMT have yet to be fully elucidated, replacement or restoration of a 'normal' microbiota (or at least a microbiota resembling those who have never had CDI) appears to have a positive effect on the gut dysbiosis that is thought to exist in these patients...
February 15, 2018: Infectious Diseases and Therapy
Christopher S Smillie, Jenny Sauk, Dirk Gevers, Jonathan Friedman, Jaeyun Sung, Ilan Youngster, Elizabeth L Hohmann, Christopher Staley, Alexander Khoruts, Michael J Sadowsky, Jessica R Allegretti, Mark B Smith, Ramnik J Xavier, Eric J Alm
Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) from healthy donor to patient is a treatment for microbiome-associated diseases. Although the success of FMT requires donor bacteria to engraft in the patient's gut, the forces governing engraftment in humans are unknown. Here we use an ongoing clinical experiment, the treatment of recurrent Clostridium difficile infection, to uncover the rules of engraftment in humans. We built a statistical model that predicts which bacterial species will engraft in a given host, and developed Strain Finder, a method to infer strain genotypes and track them over time...
February 14, 2018: Cell Host & Microbe
Michael H Woodworth, Colleen S Kraft, Erika J Meredith, Aneesh K Mehta, Tiffany Wang, Yafet T Mamo, Tanvi Dhere, Kaitlin L Sitchenko, Rachel E Patzer, Rachel J Friedman-Moraco
Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is increasingly being performed for Clostridium difficile infection in solid organ transplant patients; however, little is known about the potential pharmacokinetic or pharmacomicrobial effects this may have on tacrolimus levels. We reviewed the medical records of 10 solid organ transplant patients from September 2012 - December 2016 who were taking tacrolimus at time of FMT for recurrent Clostridium difficile infection. We compared the differences in tacrolimus concentration / dose ratio (C/D ratio) three months prior to FMT vs three months after FMT...
February 15, 2018: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
Xueying Zhang, Hongliang Tian, Lili Gu, Yongzhan Nie, Chao Ding, Xiaolong Ge, Bo Yang, Jianfeng Gong, Ning Li
As some studies have reported that strategies targeting the gut microbiota such as fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) with or without other microecological therapy might have efficacy in treating slow transit constipation (STC), we conducted a single-center, open-label trial to study the long-term effect of FMT combined with soluble dietary fiber (pectin) on STC. Thirty-one adult patients with STC were enrolled into the trial. Patients received 6-day FMT procedures repeatedly for the first 3 months and soluble dietary fiber (pectin) daily during the follow-up...
February 6, 2018: Science China. Life Sciences
Jie Zheng, Lingqi Yu, Wen Chen, Xiaoyan Lu, Xiaohui Fan
The toxicological mechanisms of liver injury caused by most traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) remain largely unknown. Due to the unique features, exosomal microRNAs (miRNAs) are currently attracting major interests to provide further insights into toxicological mechanisms. Thus, taking Fructus Meliae Toosendan as an example of hepatoxic TCM, this study aimed to elucidate its hepatotoxicity mechanisms through profiling miRNAs in circulating exosomes of Fructus Meliae Toosendan water extract (FMT)-exposed mice...
February 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
Stephen A McClave, Jayshil Patel, Neal Bhutiani
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Maintaining gut barrier defenses, modulating immune responses, and supporting the role of commensal microbiota are major factors influencing outcome in critical illness. Of these, maintaining a commensal 'lifestyle' and preventing the emergence of a virulent pathobiome may be most important in reducing risk of infection and multiple organ failure. RECENT FINDINGS: The polymeric formulas utilized for enteral nutrition in the ICU are absorbed high in the gastrointestinal tract and may not reach the microbial burden in the cecum where their effect is most needed...
April 2018: Current Opinion in Critical Care
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2018: Drug and Therapeutics Bulletin
Kosaku Nanki, Shinta Mizuno, Katsuyoshi Matsuoka, Keiko Ono, Shinya Sugimoto, Hiroki Kiyohara, Mari Arai, Moeko Nakashima, Kozue Takeshita, Keiichiro Saigusa, Mitsutoshi Senoh, Tadashi Fukuda, Makoto Naganuma, Haru Kato, Wataru Suda, Masahira Hattori, Takanori Kanai
Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) has been reported as a safe and effective therapy in patients with refractory and recurrent Clostridium difficile infection (CDI). FMT has also been reported as a promising therapy in patients with ulcerative colitis (UC). Both, CDI and UC, are believed to be caused by dysbiosis, such as altered compositions or decreased diversity of the intestinal microbiota. This report describes a patient with UC in remission with a second recurrent episode of CDI, who was treated with FMT...
January 2018: Intestinal Research
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