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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29347067/isotropic-nematic-transition-for-hard-rods-on-a-three-dimensional-cubic-lattice
#1
A Gschwind, M Klopotek, Y Ai, M Oettel
Using grand-canonical Monte Carlo (GCMC) simulations, we investigate the isotropic-nematic phase transition for hard rods of size L×1×1 on a three-dimensional cubic lattice. We observe such a transition for L≥6. For L=6, the nematic state has a negative order parameter, reflecting the co-occurrence of two dominating orientations. For L≥7, the nematic state has a positive order parameter, corresponding to the dominance of one orientation. We investigate rod lengths up to L=25 and find evidence for a very weakly first-order isotropic-nematic transition, while we cannot completely rule out a second-order transition...
July 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336929/economic-burden-and-cost-effective-management-of-clostridium-difficile-infections
#2
REVIEW
S M Heimann, M R Cruz Aguilar, S Mellinghof, M J G T Vehreschild
Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is the most important cause of healthcare-associated infectious diarrhea in industrialized countries. We performed a literature review of the overall economic burden of initial and recurrent CDI as well as of the cost-effectiveness of the various treatment strategies applied in these settings. Even though analysis of health economic data is complicated by the limited comparability of results, our review identified several internationally consistent results. Authors from different countries have shown that recurrent CDI disproportionally contributes to the overall economic burden of CDI and therefore offers considerable saving potential...
January 11, 2018: Médecine et Maladies Infectieuses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311138/bacterial-outer-membrane-vesicles-from-dextran-sulfate-sodium-induced-colitis-differentially-regulate-intestinal-udp-glucuronosyltransferase-1a1-partially-through-tlr4-mapk-pi3k-pathway
#3
Xuejiao Gao, Ting Li, Bin Wei, Zhixiang Yan, Nan Hu, Yanjuan Huang, Beilei Han, Tai-Seng Wai, Wei Yang, Ru Yan
UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1A1 (UGT1A1) constitutes an important part of intestinal epithelial barrier and catalyzes glucuronidation of many endogenous compounds and drugs. Down-regulation of UGT1A1 in inflammation has been reported, while the association with gut dysbiosis is poorly defined. This study verified the involvement of gut microbiota in intestinal UGT1A1 regulation using dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced rat colitis model plus fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT). Generally, both DSS induction and colitis-to-normal FMT suppressed mRNA and protein expressions of UGT1A1 and nuclear xenobiotic receptors (NRs) in colon, but enhanced mRNA and decreased protein of rUGT1A1/rNRs in small intestine...
January 8, 2018: Drug Metabolism and Disposition: the Biological Fate of Chemicals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29309934/update-of-treatment-algorithms-for-clostridium-difficile-infection
#4
REVIEW
R E Ooijevaar, Y H van Beurden, E M Terveer, A Goorhuis, M P Bauer, J J Keller, C J J Mulder, E J Kuijper
BACKGROUND: Clostridium difficile is the leading cause of antibiotic-associated diarrhea, both in healthcare facilities and the community. The recurrence rate of C. difficile infection (CDI) remains high, up to 20%. Since the publication of the ESCMID guidance document on CDI treatment in 2014, new therapeutic approaches have been developed and tested to achieve higher sustained clinical cure in CDI. AIM: To review novel treatments and approaches for CDI, except probiotics and vaccines...
January 5, 2018: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29300048/therapy-oral-capsule-fmt-effective-for-c-difficile-infection
#5
Iain Dickson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 4, 2018: Nature Reviews. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29280116/-efficacy-observation-of-periodic-fecal-microbiota-transplantation-in-the-treatment-of-refractory-constipation
#6
Xuelei Zhang, Hongliang Tian, Chunlian Ma, Bo Yang, Yue Hua, Yifan Zhu, Lili Gu, Ning Li
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy of periodic fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) for refractory constipation. METHODS: Clinical data of 49 patients with refractory constipation undergoing FMT through standard transplantation path of nasojejunal tube between April 2015 and April 2016 in Intestinal Microenvironment Treatment Centre of Nanjing General Hospital were analyzed retrospectively. Of 49 patients, 25 received single FMT for only 6 days (single group), and 24 received periodic FMT with another 6 days FMT 1 month after the first 6 days FMT (periodic group)...
December 25, 2017: Zhonghua Wei Chang Wai Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29279843/image-restoration-for-fluorescence-planar-imaging-with-diffusion-model
#7
Xuanxuan Zhang, Yuzhu Gong, Yang Li, Xu Cao, Shouping Zhu
Fluorescence planar imaging (FPI) is failure to capture high resolution images of deep fluorochromes due to photon diffusion. This paper presents an image restoration method to deal with this kind of blurring. The scheme of this method is conceived based on a reconstruction method in fluorescence molecular tomography (FMT) with diffusion model. A new unknown parameter is defined through introducing the first mean value theorem for definite integrals. System matrix converting this unknown parameter to the blurry image is constructed with the elements of depth conversion matrices related to a chosen plane named focal plane...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29278509/gut-microbiota-and-obesity-implications-for-fecal-microbiota-transplantation-therapy
#8
REVIEW
Yongbo Kang, Yue Cai
Obesity is a major public health issue as it is causally associated with several chronic disorders, including type-2 diabetes, cerebrovascular disease (CVD), and cancer. In the United States and other countries worldwide, the obesity epidemic has drastically impacted the status of health of millions as well as healthcare costs. Aside from poor diet, hygiene, and genetics, there are many other factors thought to play an important role in the emergence of obesity. Nowadays, accumulating evidence is elucidating the relation of dysbiosis of intestinal bacteria with obesity and metabolic disorders...
July 2017: Hormones: International Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29261736/randomized-clinical-trial-to-evaluate-the-effect-of-fecal-microbiota-transplant-for-initial-clostridium-difficile-infection-in-intestinal-microbiome
#9
Adrián Camacho-Ortiz, Eva María Gutiérrez-Delgado, Jose F Garcia-Mazcorro, Soraya Mendoza-Olazarán, Adrián Martínez-Meléndez, Laura Palau-Davila, Simon D Baines, Héctor Maldonado-Garza, Elvira Garza-González
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of fecal donor-unrelated donor mix (FMT-FURM) transplantation as first-line therapy for C. difficile infection (CDI) in intestinal microbiome. METHODS: We designed an open, two-arm pilot study with oral vancomycin (250mg every 6 h for 10-14 days) or FMT-FURM as treatments for the first CDI episode in hospitalized adult patients in Hospital Universitario "Dr. Jose Eleuterio Gonzalez". Patients were randomized by a closed envelope method in a 1: 1 ratio to either oral vancomycin or FMT-FURM...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244780/a-practical-method-for-the-preparation-of-18f-labeled-aromatic-amino-acids-from-nucleophilic-18f-fluoride-and-stannyl-precursors-for-electrophilic-radiohalogenation
#10
Fadi Zarrad, Boris D Zlatopolskiy, Philipp Krapf, Johannes Zischler, Bernd Neumaier
In a recent contribution of Scott et al., the substrate scope of Cu-mediated nucleophilic radiofluorination with [18F]KF for the preparation of 18F-labeled arenes was extended to aryl- and vinylstannanes. Based on these findings, the potential of this reaction for the production of clinically relevant positron emission tomography (PET) tracers was investigated. To this end, Cu-mediated radiofluorodestannylation using trimethyl(phenyl)tin as a model substrate was re-evaluated with respect to different reaction parameters...
December 15, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239198/faecal-microbiota-transplantation-for-clostridium-difficile-infection-using-a-lyophilized-inoculum-from-non-related-donors-a-case-series-involving-19-patients
#11
Szabolcs Vigvári, Dávid Sipos, Jenő Solt, Áron Vincze, Béla Kocsis, Zsuzsanna Nemes, Ágnes Kappéter, Zsófia Feiszt, Beáta Kovács, Zoltán Péterfi
Faecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) has been reported to be effective in treating relapsing of refractory Clostridium difficile infections, although some practical barriers are limiting its widespread use. In this study, our objective was to evaluate the rate of resolution of diarrhea following administration of lyophilized and resolved FMT via a nasogastric (NG) tube. We recruited 19 patients suffered from laboratory-confirmed C. difficile infection. Each of them was treated by lyophilized and resolved inoculum through a NG tube...
December 14, 2017: Acta Microbiologica et Immunologica Hungarica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226561/the-long-term-effects-of-faecal-microbiota-transplantation-for-gastrointestinal-symptoms-and-general-health-in-patients-with-recurrent-clostridium-difficile-infection
#12
J Jalanka, A Hillamaa, R Satokari, E Mattila, V-J Anttila, P Arkkila
BACKGROUND: Faecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is an effective treatment for recurrent Clostridium difficile infection. In short-term the treatment has been shown to be safe, however, there are no large, long-term follow-up studies looking into the potential adverse effects. AIM: To analyse the long-term effect of FMT treatment in patients with recurrent C. difficile infection and to compare the outcome to antibiotic treated patients. METHODS: Altogether 84 patients of which 45 received a FMT treatment and 39 served as controls receiving antibiotics for the infection were followed on average for 3...
December 11, 2017: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29213506/symptoms-of-depression-in-patients-with-mild-cognitive-impairment-in-parkinson-s-disease
#13
Ana Lara Soares Blum Malak, Luiz Felipe Vasconcellos, João Santos Pereira, Denise Vieira Greca, Manuela Cruz, Heloisa Veiga Dias Alves, Mariana Sptiz, Helenice Charchat-Fichman
Objective: To investigate the most frequent depressive symptoms and their association with cognition in Parkinson's disease (PD) patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Methods: 48 patients with PD and 44 controls (CG), aged between 50 and 80 years and with at least 4 years of formal education, all with MCI and none diagnosed with depression, were assessed. Patients and controls were matched for age, education, and Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) score...
April 2017: Dementia & Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29204952/-therapeutic-modulation-of-intestinal-microbiota-in-irritable-bowel-syndrome-from-probiotics-to-fecal-microbiota-therapy
#14
P C Konturek, Yurdagül Zopf
BACKGROUND: An abnormal intestinal microbiota (dysbiosis) plays a central role in the pathogenesis of the irritable bowel syndrome. METHOD: An overview of four current options for the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome, which are characterized by modulation of intestinal microbiota, is given. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: Probiotics have very different effects on the individual symptoms of the irritable bowel. The choice of the appropriate preparation should therefore be based on the clinical symptomatology...
December 2017: MMW Fortschritte der Medizin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198534/an-intragastric-fecal-microbiota-transplantation-program-for-treatment-of-recurrent-clostridium-difficile-in-children-is-efficacious-safe-and-inexpensive
#15
David E Brumbaugh, Edwin F De Zoeten, Amy Pyo-Twist, Sara Fidanza, Shannon Hughes, Susan A Dolan, Jason Child, Samuel R Dominguez
OBJECTIVE: To assess the safety, efficacy, and relative expense of a nurse-led fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) program for the treatment of recurrent Clostridium difficile infection (CDI). STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study design in children aged 1-18 years with recurrent CDI. The intervention was an intragastric FMT with stool derived from a donor stool bank. Primary outcome was resolution of diarrhea at 3 months post-transplantation. A secondary analysis compared charge data associated with FMT by intragastric delivery vs administration by colonoscopy or nasoduodenal tube...
November 30, 2017: Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29197276/one-pot-radiosynthesis-of-o-18f-fluoromethyl-d-tyrosine-via-intra-molecular-nucleophilic-18f-fluorination-with-1-2-3-triazolium-triflate-salt-precursor
#16
Ho Young Kim, Chansoo Park, Ji Youn Lee, Dae Yoon Chi, Yun-Sang Lee, Jae Min Jeong
A radiolabeled amino acid O-[18F]fluoromethyl-D-tyrosine (D-[18F]FMT) has been reported to show high tumor uptake. However, introduction of [18F]fluoromethyl group was difficult and was an issue to be solved. We solved it by using a precursor containing 1,2,3-triazolium salt. D-[18F]FMT was synthesized from (R)-1-((4-(2-((tert-butoxycarbonyl)amino)-3-((3,4-dimethylbenzyl)oxy)-3-oxopropyl)phenoxy)methyl)-3-methyl-4-phenyl-1H-1,2,3-triazol-3-ium trifluoromethanesulfonate via intra-molecular 18F-fluorination and subsequent removal of the protecting groups...
February 2018: Applied Radiation and Isotopes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29189354/probiotics-for-prevention-of-clostridium-difficile-infection
#17
John P Mills, Krishna Rao, Vincent B Young
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Probiotics may prevent Clostridium difficile infection (CDI), a leading healthcare-associated infection in the United States. However, prior studies were limited by heterogeneity in products and patient populations. Recent clinical evidence and new approaches to probiotic development are reviewed. RECENT FINDINGS: Probiotic use may reduce incident CDI in high-risk populations by as much as 50%, though prior clinical trials have yielded conflicting results...
November 17, 2017: Current Opinion in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29188472/small-intestinal-bacterial-overgrowth-should-screening-be-included-in-the-pre-fecal-microbiota-transplantation-evaluation
#18
Jessica R Allegretti, Zain Kassam, Walter W Chan
BACKGROUND: Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is safe and effective for recurrent Clostridium difficile infection (rCDI) and often involves terminal ileal (TI) stool infusion. Patients report gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms post-FMT despite rCDI resolution. Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) screening is not routinely performed pre-FMT. The effect of donor/recipient SIBO status on FMT outcomes and post-FMT GI symptoms is unclear. We aim to evaluate the value of pre-FMT SIBO screening on post-FMT outcomes and symptoms...
November 29, 2017: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29183720/contemporary-applications-of-fecal-microbiota-transplantation-to-treat-intestinal-diseases-in-humans
#19
REVIEW
Christopher Staley, Alexander Khoruts, Michael J Sadowsky
The intestinal microbiota comprise an important organ that plays a vital role in host digestion, development, energy maintenance, hemostasis, and immunity. Disruption of the gut microbial community due to diet, lifestyle, or antibiotic exposure increases susceptibility to chronic infection and disease. Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) involves the transfer of gut microbiota from a healthy donor to a patient in order to restore normal diversity and function of the microbial community. This method has become a well established alternative therapy for the treatment of recurrent Clostridium difficile infection...
November 25, 2017: Archives of Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29183074/effect-of-oral-capsule-vs-colonoscopy-delivered-fecal-microbiota-transplantation-on-recurrent-clostridium-difficile-infection-a-randomized-clinical-trial
#20
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Dina Kao, Brandi Roach, Marisela Silva, Paul Beck, Kevin Rioux, Gilaad G Kaplan, Hsiu-Ju Chang, Stephanie Coward, Karen J Goodman, Huiping Xu, Karen Madsen, Andrew Mason, Gane Ka-Shu Wong, Juan Jovel, Jordan Patterson, Thomas Louie
Importance: Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is effective in preventing recurrent Clostridium difficile infection (RCDI). However, it is not known whether clinical efficacy differs by route of delivery. Objective: To determine whether FMT by oral capsule is noninferior to colonoscopy delivery in efficacy. Design, Setting, and Participants: Noninferiority, unblinded, randomized trial conducted in 3 academic centers in Alberta, Canada...
November 28, 2017: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
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