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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628918/bifidobacterium-rich-fecal-donor-may-be-a-positive-predictor-for-successful-fecal-microbiota-transplantation-in-patients-with-irritable-bowel-syndrome
#1
Shinta Mizuno, Tatsuhiro Masaoka, Makoto Naganuma, Taishiro Kishimoto, Momoko Kitazawa, Shunya Kurokawa, Moeko Nakashima, Kozue Takeshita, Wataru Suda, Masaru Mimura, Masahira Hattori, Takanori Kanai
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Dysbiosis is associated with various systemic disorders including irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) might restore intestinal microbial balance. The study aimed to determine the safety and efficacy of FMT in IBS patients, as well as also positive predictors for FMT. METHODS: This was a single-arm, open-label study. Eligible patients were diagnosed based on Rome III Diagnostic Criteria. Fecal materials were administered to the patient via colonoscopy...
June 21, 2017: Digestion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626876/optical-molecular-imaging-guided-radiation-therapy-part-2-integrated-x-ray-and-fluorescence-molecular-tomography
#2
Junwei Shi, Thirupandiyur S Udayakumar, Zhiqun Wang, Nesrin Dogan, Alan Pollack, Yidong Yang
PURPOSE: Differentiating tumor from its surrounding soft tissues is challenging for x-ray computed tomography (CT). Fluorescence molecular tomography (FMT) can directly localize the internal tumors targeted with specific fluorescent probes. A FMT system was developed and integrated onto a CT guided irradiator to improve tumor localization for image guided radiation. METHODS: The FMT system was aligned orthogonal to the cone beam CT onboard our previously developed image guided small animal arc radiation treatment system (iSMAART)...
June 19, 2017: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612983/systematic-review-with-meta-analysis-faecal-microbiota-transplantation-for-the-induction-of-remission-for-active-ulcerative-colitis
#3
REVIEW
S P Costello, W Soo, R V Bryant, V Jairath, A L Hart, J M Andrews
BACKGROUND: Faecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is emerging as a novel therapy for ulcerative colitis (UC). Interpretation of efficacy of FMT for UC is complicated by differences among studies in blinding, FMT administration procedures, intensity of therapy and donor stool processing methods. AIM: To determine whether FMT is effective and safe for the induction of remission in active UC. METHODS: Medline (Ovid), Embase and the Cochrane Library were searched from inception through February 2017...
June 14, 2017: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611478/therapy-bacteriophages-important-for-fmt-efficacy
#4
Iain Dickson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 14, 2017: Nature Reviews. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28609252/fecal-microbiota-transplantation-in-metabolic-syndrome-history-present-and-future
#5
P F de Groot, M N Frissen, N C de Clercq, M Nieuwdorp
The history of fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) dates back even to ancient China. Recently, scientific studies have been looking into FMT as a promising treatment of various diseases, while in the process teaching us about the interaction between the human host and its resident microbial communities. Current research focuses mainly on Clostridium difficile infections, however interest is rising in other areas such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and the metabolic syndrome. With regard to the latter, the intestinal microbiota might be causally related to the progression of insulin resistance and diabetes...
May 4, 2017: Gut Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28609251/intestinal-microbiota-fecal-microbiota-transplantation-and-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#6
Alexa R Weingarden, Byron P Vaughn
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a complex set of diseases that lead to chronic inflammation in the gastrointestinal tract. Although the etiology of IBD is not fully understood, it is well-known that the intestinal microbiota is associated with the development and maintenance of IBD. Manipulation of the gut microbiota, therefore, may represent a target for IBD therapy. Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT), where fecal microbiota from a healthy donor is transplanted into a patient's GI tract, is already a successful therapy for Clostridium difficile infection...
May 4, 2017: Gut Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602517/is-frozen-fecal-microbiota-transplantation-as-effective-as-fresh-fecal-microbiota-transplantation-in-patients-with-recurrent-or-refractory-clostridium-difficile-infection-a-meta-analysis
#7
REVIEW
Guihua Tang, Wen Yin, Wenen Liu
Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is a remarkably efficacious therapy for recurrent or refractory Clostridium difficile infection (CDI), but not standardized. This work is to determine whether frozen FMT is as effective as fresh FMT. Meta-analysis showed that frozen FMT was as effective as fresh FMT, both pooled first effective rate (65.0% (95% CI 57.0-73.0%) vs. 65.0% (95% CI 57.0-73.0%), P=0.962) and pooled second effective rate (95.0% (95% CI 91.0-99.0%) vs. 95.0% (95% CI 92.0-99.0%), P=0.880). In conclusion, among patients with recurrent or refractory CDI, frozen FMT is as effective as fresh FMT...
May 18, 2017: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596693/fecal-microbiota-transplantation-cured-epilepsy-in-a-case-with-crohn-s-disease-the-first-report
#8
Zhi He, Bo-Ta Cui, Ting Zhang, Pan Li, Chu-Yan Long, Guo-Zhong Ji, Fa-Ming Zhang
Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is a promising strategy that involves reconstruction of gut microbiota. Recently, it has been considered as a treatment of Crohn's disease (CD) and certain neurological diseases. Here, to the best of our knowledge, we report the first case that used FMT to achieve remission of intestinal and neurological symptoms in a girl with CD and a 17-year history of epilepsy. During the 20 mo of follow-up, FMT has proved its efficacy in preventing relapse of seizures after withdrawing the antiepileptic drugs...
May 21, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596634/a-three-step-reconstruction-method-for-fluorescence-molecular-tomography-based-on-compressive-sensing
#9
Yansong Zhu, Abhinav K Jha, Jakob K Dreyer, Hanh N D Le, Jin U Kang, Per E Roland, Dean F Wong, Arman Rahmim
Fluorescence molecular tomography (FMT) is a promising tool for real time in vivo quantification of neurotransmission (NT) as we pursue in our BRAIN initiative effort. However, the acquired image data are noisy and the reconstruction problem is ill-posed. Further, while spatial sparsity of the NT effects could be exploited, traditional compressive-sensing methods cannot be directly applied as the system matrix in FMT is highly coherent. To overcome these issues, we propose and assess a three-step reconstruction method...
January 28, 2017: Proceedings of SPIE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592766/fecal-microbiota-transplantation-for-acute-graft-versus-host-disease-of-the-gut
#10
Kazuhiko Kakihana
Advances in microbial analysis have provided new insights into the complex interactions between the host and gut microbiota. An imbalance in the gut microbiota (dysbiosis) is associated with various disorders and their pathogenesis. Furthermore, in allogeneic stem cell transplantation, increasing evidence indicates that the gut microbiota is closely associated with acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) and transplant outcomes, suggesting that its manipulation could be a new treatment strategy for this acute condition...
2017: [Rinshō Ketsueki] the Japanese Journal of Clinical Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28589214/-individualized-treatment-strategies-for-clostridium-difficile-infections
#11
REVIEW
P Solbach, P Dersch, O Bachmann
Upon hospitalization, up to 15.5% of patients are already colonized with a toxigenic Clostridium difficile strain (TCD). The rate of asymptomatic colonization is 0-3% in healthy adults and up to 20-40% in hospitalized patients. The incidence and mortality of C. difficile infection (CDI) has significantly increased during recent years. Mortality lies between 3 and 14%. CDI is generally caused by intestinal dysbiosis, which can be triggered by various factors, including antibiotics or immune suppressants. If CDI occurs, ongoing antibiotic therapy should be discontinued...
June 6, 2017: Der Internist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28586116/fecal-microbiota-transplant-from-a-rational-stool-donor-improves-hepatic-encephalopathy-a-randomized-clinical-trial
#12
Jasmohan S Bajaj, Zain Kassam, Andrew Fagan, Edith A Gavis, Eric Liu, I Jane Cox, Raffi Kheradman, Douglas Heuman, Jessica Wang, Thomas Gurry, Roger Williams, Masoumeh Sikaroodi, Michael Fuchs, Eric Alm, Binu John, Leroy R Thacker, Antonio Riva, Mark Smith, Simon D Taylor-Robinson, Patrick M Gillevet
Recurrent hepatic encephalopathy (HE) is a leading cause of readmission despite standard of care (SOC) associated with microbial dysbiosis. Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) may improve dysbiosis; however, it has not been studied in HE. We aimed to define whether FMT using a rationally-derived stool donor is safe in recurrent HE compared to SOC alone. An open-label, randomized clinical trial with a 5 month follow-up in outpatient cirrhotic men with recurrent HE on SOC was conducted with 1:1 randomization...
June 6, 2017: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28584976/sparse-reconstruction-of-fluorescence-molecular-tomography-using-variable-splitting-and-alternating-direction-scheme
#13
Jinzuo Ye, Yang Du, Yu An, Yamin Mao, Shixin Jiang, Wenting Shang, Kunshan He, Xin Yang, Kun Wang, Chongwei Chi, Jie Tian
PURPOSE: Fluorescence molecular tomography (FMT) is a novel imaging modality for three-dimensional preclinical research and has many potential applications for drug therapy evaluation and tumor diagnosis. However, FMT presents an ill-conditioned and ill-posed inverse problem, which is a challenge for its tomography reconstruction. Due to the importance of FMT reconstruction, it is valuable and necessary to develop further practical reconstruction methods for FMT. PROCEDURES: In this study, an efficient method using variable splitting strategy as well as alternating direction strategy (VSAD) was proposed for FMT reconstruction...
June 5, 2017: Molecular Imaging and Biology: MIB: the Official Publication of the Academy of Molecular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28575220/vancomycin-taper-and-risk-of-failure-of-fecal-microbiota-transplant-in-patients-with-recurrent-clostridium-difficile-infection
#14
Roberto L Patron, Carlos A Hartmann, Sorcha Allen, Cheryl L Griesbach, Heidi E Kosiorek, John K DiBaise, Robert Orenstein
We retrospectively analyzed a cohort of 109 subjects treated for rCDI with FMT at tertiary referral center between 2011 and 2014 to determine risk factors for FMT failure.. In a multivariate analysis, failure to use an oral vancomycin taper preceding FMT was associated with a significant risk of FMT failure (odds ratio [95% CI], 0.15 [0.007-0.40]).
June 1, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28572754/functional-amplification-and-preservation-of-human-gut-microbiota
#15
Nadia Gaci, Prem Prashant Chaudhary, William Tottey, Monique Alric, Jean-François Brugère
Background: The availability of fresh stool samples is a prerequisite in most gut microbiota functional studies. Objective: Strategies for amplification and long-term gut microbiota preservation from fecal samples would favor sample sharing, help comparisons and reproducibility over time and between laboratories, and improve the safety and ethical issues surrounding fecal microbiota transplantations. Design: Taking advantage of in vitro gut-simulating systems, we amplified the microbial repertoire of a fresh fecal sample and assessed the viability and resuscitation of microbes after preservation with some common intracellular and extracellular acting cryoprotective agents (CPAs), alone and in different combinations...
2017: Microbial Ecology in Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28572645/editorial-making-fecal-microbiota-transplantation-easier-to-swallow-freeze-dried-preparation-for-recurrent-clostridium-difficile-infections
#16
Ilan Youngster, Dale N Gerding
Fecal microbiota transplant (FMT) has emerged as an effective and increasingly popular therapy for recurrent Clostridium difficile infections in patients that have failed standard antimicrobial treatment. Patient access to FMT is hampered by the logistics of manufacturing, storing, and delivering the inocula. An observational study describes the development and clinical efficacy of freeze-dried FMT capsules for oral administration. While awaiting the emergence of defined bacterial therapeutics for Clostridium difficile infections, this refinement of FMT is an encouraging step toward simplifying FMT treatment...
June 2017: American Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28569200/faecal-transplantation-for-the-treatment-of-clostridium-difficile-infection-in-a-marmoset
#17
Yumiko Yamazaki, Shinpei Kawarai, Hidetoshi Morita, Takefumi Kikusui, Atsushi Iriki
BACKGROUND: The common marmoset has been used as an experimental animal for various purposes. Because its average weight ranges from 250 to 500 g, weight loss quickly becomes critical for sick animals. Therefore, effective and non-stressful treatment for chronic diseases, including diarrhoea, is essential. CASE PRESENTATION: We report a case in which faecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) led to immediate recovery from chronic and recurrent diarrhoea caused by Clostridium difficile infection...
May 31, 2017: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28569156/how-chinese-clinicians-face-ethical-and-social-challenges-in-fecal-microbiota-transplantation-a-questionnaire-study
#18
Yonghui Ma, Jinqiu Yang, Bota Cui, Hongzhi Xu, Chuanxing Xiao, Faming Zhang
BACKGROUND: Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is reportedly the most effective therapy for relapsing Clostridium Difficile infection (CDI) and a potential therapeutic option for many diseases. It also poses important ethical concerns. This study is an attempt to assess clinicians' perception and attitudes towards ethical and social challenges raised by fecal microbiota transplantation. METHODS: A questionnaire was developed which consisted of 20 items: four items covered general aspects, nine were about ethical aspects such as informed consent and privacy issues, four concerned social and regulatory issues, and three were about an FMT bank...
May 31, 2017: BMC Medical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28566721/a-novel-cxcr4-targeted-near-infrared-nir-fluorescent-probe-peptide-r-nir750-specifically-detects-cxcr4-expressing-tumors
#19
Sara Santagata, Luigi Portella, Maria Napolitano, Adelaide Greco, Crescenzo D'Alterio, Maria Vittoria Barone, Antonio Luciano, Matteo Gramanzini, Luigi Auletta, Claudio Arra, Antonella Zannetti, Stefania Scala
C-X-C chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4) is over-expressed in multiple human cancers and correlates with tumor aggressiveness, poor prognosis and increased risk for distant metastases. Imaging agents for CXCR4 are thus highly desirable. We developed a novel CXCR4-targeted near-infrared (NIR) fluorescent probe (Peptide R-NIR750) conjugating the new developed CXCR4 peptidic antagonist Peptide R with the NIR fluorescent dye VivoTag-S750. Specific CXCR4 binding was obtained in cells overexpressing human CXCR4 (B16-hCXCR4 and human melanoma cells PES43), but not in CXCR4 low expressing cells (FB-1)...
May 31, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546791/fecal-microbiota-transplantation-from-clostridium-difficile-to-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#20
Robert J Gianotti, Alan C Moss
Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) has evolved from a case report in the medical literature to the basis of major innovations in the treatment of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) and, potentially, inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). In the clinical setting, FMT was noted to significantly lower the risk of recurrent CDI, likely by increasing microbial diversity and altering the metabolic environment in the intestinal tract of recipients. In parallel, advances in the ability to quantify and characterize microbial communities in fecal samples led to the association of IBD with a state of intestinal dysbiosis...
April 2017: Gastroenterology & Hepatology
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