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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730918/clinical-and-economic-implications-of-urinary-tract-infections
#1
Samantha N Steiger, Rachel R Comito, David P Nicolau
Urinary tract infections represent one of the most frequent reasons for hospitalization. As a result of their prevalence from community-based origins as well as those which develop in hospital setting, this constellation of infections represents a tremendous burden to the global healthcare system. Areas Covered: Over the last several decades the management of these infections has become more complicated due to the underlying comorbid conditions of the patients as well as escalating antimicrobial resistance to many of the most frequently used oral and parenteral agents...
July 21, 2017: Expert Review of Pharmacoeconomics & Outcomes Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719657/isolation-and-in-vitro-evaluation-of-bacteriophages-against-mdr-bacterial-isolates-from-septic-wound-infections
#2
Roja Rani Pallavali, Vijaya Lakshmi Degati, Dakshayani Lomada, Madhava C Reddy, Vijaya Raghava Prasad Durbaka
Multi-drug resistance has become a major problem for the treatment of pathogenic bacterial infections. The use of bacteriophages is an attractive approach to overcome the problem of drug resistance in several pathogens that cause fatal diseases. Our study aimed to isolate multi drug resistant bacteria from patients with septic wounds and then isolate and apply bacteriophages in vitro as alternative therapeutic agents. Pus samples were aseptically collected from Rajiv Gandhi Institute of Medical Science (RIMS), Kadapa, A...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719354/thymol-and-carvacrol-strongly-inhibit-biofilm-formation-and-growth-of-carbapenemase-producing-gram-negative-bacilli
#3
P Raei, T Pourlak, M Y Memar, N Alizadeh, M Aghamali, E Zeinalzadeh, M Asgharzadeh, H S Kafil
Discovery of novel drugs with new mechanisms of action and without cross-reaction with current therapeutic agents is crucial in the management of infections caused by multi-drug resistant (MDR) bacteria. The aim of the present study was to investigate effects of carvacrol and thymol on biofilm formation and antimicrobial activity against different carbapenemase-producing Gram negative bacilli. The antimicrobial and antibiofilm effect of thymol and carvacrol was investigated against strains harboring different genes related to carbapenemase resistance...
May 20, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717038/a-human-biofilm-disrupting-monoclonal-antibody-potentiates-antibiotic-efficacy-in-rodent-models-of-both-staphylococcus-aureus-and-acinetobacter-baumannii-infections
#4
Yan Q Xiong, Angeles Estellés, L Li, W Abdelhady, R Gonzales, Arnold S Bayer, Edgar Tenorio, Anton Leighton, Stefan Ryser, Lawrence M Kauvar
Many serious bacterial infections are antibiotic-refractory due to biofilm formation. A key structural component of biofilm is extracellular DNA which is stabilized by bacterial proteins, including those from the DNABII family. TRL1068 is a high affinity human monoclonal antibody against a DNABII epitope conserved across both gram-positive and gram-negative bacterial species. In the current study, the efficacy of TRL1068 for disruption of biofilm was demonstrated in vitro in the absence of antibiotics by scanning electron microscopy...
July 17, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716567/moving-the-goalposts-a-comparison-of-different-definitions-for-primary-external-ventricular-drain-infection-and-its-risk-factors-a-multi-center-study-of-2575-patients
#5
Peter Y M Woo, Hoi-Tung Wong, Jenny K S Pu, Wai-Kei Wong, Larry Y W Wong, Michael W Y Lee, Kwong-Yui Yam, Wai-Man Lui, Wai-Sang Poon
External ventricular drainage is the most common procedure performed in daily neurosurgical practice. One devastating complication is ventriculostomy-associated infection, but the establishment of evidence-based management guidelines has been hindered by the lack of an universal definition. There is also limited data with regard to the utility of comorbidity health indices and surgery-related factors in predicting infection. This study aims to compare the incidence of infection according to five commonly used definitions and to identify risk factors for this complication...
July 14, 2017: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711629/randomized-comparison-of-3-high-level-disinfection-and-sterilization-procedures-for-duodenoscopes
#6
Graham M Snyder, Sharon B Wright, Anne Smithey, Meir Mizrahi, Michelle Sheppard, Elizabeth B Hirsch, Ram Chuttani, Riley Heroux, David S Yassa, Lovisa B Olafsdottir, Roger B Davis, Anastasiou Jiannis, Vijay Bapat, Kiran Bidari, Douglas K Pleskow, Daniel Leffler, Benjamin Lane, Alice Chen, Howard S Gold, Anthony Bartley, Aleah D King, Mandeep S Sawhney
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Duodenoscopes have been implicated in the transmission of multi-drug resistant bacteria (MDRO). We compared the frequency of duodenoscope contamination with MDRO or any other bacteria after disinfection or sterilization by 3 different methods. METHODS: We performed a single-center prospective randomized study in which duodenoscopes were randomly reprocessed by standard high-level disinfection (sHLD), double high-level disinfection (dHLD), or standard high-level disinfection followed by ethylene oxide gas sterilization (HLD/ETO)...
July 12, 2017: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706515/more-pathogenicity-or-just-more-pathogens-on-the-interpretation-problem-of-multiple-pathogen-detections-with-diagnostic-multiplex-assays
#7
REVIEW
Andreas E Zautner, Uwe Groß, Matthias F Emele, Ralf M Hagen, Hagen Frickmann
Modern molecular diagnostic approaches in the diagnostic microbiological laboratory like real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) have led to a considerable increase of diagnostic sensitivity. They usually outperform the diagnostic sensitivity of culture-based approaches. Culture-based diagnostics were found to be insufficiently sensitive for the assessment of the composition of biofilms in chronic wounds and poorly standardized for screenings for enteric colonization with multi-drug resistant bacteria...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704651/synergy-between-the-host-immune-system-and-bacteriophage-is-essential-for-successful-phage-therapy-against-an-acute-respiratory-pathogen
#8
Dwayne R Roach, Chung Yin Leung, Marine Henry, Eric Morello, Devika Singh, James P Di Santo, Joshua S Weitz, Laurent Debarbieux
The rise of multi-drug-resistant (MDR) bacteria has spurred renewed interest in the use of bacteriophages in therapy. However, mechanisms contributing to phage-mediated bacterial clearance in an animal host remain unclear. We investigated the effects of host immunity on the efficacy of phage therapy for acute pneumonia caused by MDR Pseudomonas aeruginosa in a mouse model. Comparing efficacies of phage-curative and prophylactic treatments in healthy immunocompetent, MyD88-deficient, lymphocyte-deficient, and neutrophil-depleted murine hosts revealed that neutrophil-phage synergy is essential for the resolution of pneumonia...
July 12, 2017: Cell Host & Microbe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704546/epidemiology-of-staphylococcus-aureus-in-a-burn-unit-of-a-tertiary-care-center-in-ghana
#9
Nana Ama Amissah, Lieke van Dam, Anthony Ablordey, Opoku-Ware Ampomah, Isaac Prah, Caitlin S Tetteh, Tjip S van der Werf, Alexander W Friedrich, John W Rossen, Jan Maarten van Dijl, Ymkje Stienstra
BACKGROUND: In developing countries, hospitalized burn victims are at high risk of nosocomial infections caused by Staphylococcus aureus. Risk factors include poor infection control practices, prolonged hospitalisation and limited capacity for laboratory microbiological analyses. These problems are compounded by widespread use of antibiotics that drives the spread of multi-drug resistant bacteria. METHODS: During the study period (November 2014-June 2015), nasal and invasive S...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700049/molecular-detection-of-%C3%AE-lactamase-and-integron-genes-in-clinical-strains-of-klebsiella-pneumoniae-by-multiplex-polymerase-chain-reaction
#10
Mansour Sedighi, Masoumeh Halajzadeh, Rashid Ramazanzadeh, Noor Amirmozafari, Mohsen Heidary, Serve Pirouzi
INTRODUCTION: Infections caused by β-lactamase-producing gram-negative bacteria, such as Klebsiella pneumoniae, are increasing globally with high morbidity and mortality. The aim of the current study was to determine antimicrobial susceptibility patterns and the prevalence of antibiotic resistance genes (β-lactamase and integron genes) using multiplex PCR. METHODS: One-hundred K. pneumoniae isolates were collected from different clinical samples. Antibiotic susceptibility testing was performed with thirteen different antibiotics...
May 2017: Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697438/assessment-of-the-correlation-among-antibiotic-resistance-adherence-to-abiotic-and-biotic-surfaces-invasion-and-cytotoxicity-of-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-isolated-from-diseased-gilthead-sea-bream
#11
Faouzi Lamari, Ibtissem Chakroun, Sami Rtimi
Improper uses of antibiotics to treat fish disease pose an increase of multidrug resistance in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. In order to escape host antimicrobial agents and induce cytotoxicity, different virulence properties are needed by these bacteria such as, biofilm formation, adhesion and invasion ability. This study was conducted to isolate Pseudomonas aeruginosa from diseased cultured gilthead sea bream. Seventeen isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa were identified by PCR. All of the isolates tested were susceptible to Gentamicin and Ciprofloxacin...
July 1, 2017: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696672/magnetic-extraction-of-acinetobacter-baumannii-using-colistin-functionalized-%C3%AE-fe2o3-au-core-shell-composite-nanoclusters
#12
Charleson S Bell, Raquel Mejias, Sinead Miller, Jasmine Greer, Mark McClain, Timothy L Cover, Todd D Giorgio
Acinetobacter baumannii is a gram-negative bacterium of increasing concern due to its virulence and persistence in combat and healthcare environments. The incidence of both community-acquired and nosocomial A. baumannii infections is on the rise in foreign and domestic healthcare facilities. Treatment options are limited due to the acquisition of multi-drug resistance to the few effective antibiotics. Currently, the most effective pharmaceutically-based treatment for multi-drug-resistant A. baumannii infections is the antibiotic colistin (polymyxin E)...
July 11, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28695731/investigating-the-interaction-of-octapeptin-a3-with-model-bacterial-membranes
#13
Mei-Ling Han, Hsin-Hui Shen, Karl A Hansford, Elena K Schneider, Sivashangarie Sivanesan, Kade D Roberts, Philip E Thompson, Anton P Le Brun, Yan Zhu, Marc-Antoine Sani, Frances Separovic, Mark A T Blaskovich, Mark A Baker, Samuel M Moskowitz, Matthew A Cooper, Jian Li, Tony Velkov
Octapeptins are cyclic lipopeptides with a broader spectrum of activity against fungi and polymyxin-resistant Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. In the present study, we investigated the interaction of octapeptin A3 with asymmetric outer membrane models of Gram-negative pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa using neutron reflectometry, together with fluorimetric and calorimetry methods. For the first time, our neutron reflectometry results reveal that the interaction of octapeptin A3 with the Gram-negative outer membrane involves an initial transient polar interaction with the phospholipid and lipid A headgroups, followed by the penetration of the entire octapeptin molecule into the fatty acyl core of the outer membrane...
July 11, 2017: ACS Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686972/peptide-nucleic-acids-pnas-currently-potential-bactericidal-agents
#14
REVIEW
Hanar Narenji, Pourya Gholizadeh, Mohammad Aghazadeh, Mohammad Ahangarzadeh Rezaee, Mohammad Asgharzadeh, Hossein Samadi Kafil
In recent years, the emergence of ESBL-producing and multi-drug resistant bacteria have been increased and designing novel components is necessary for confrontation these bacteria. Peptide nucleic acids (PNAs) are one of the synthetic components that bind to single strand DNA and RNA. Applications of these components are wide while, and one of the important applications of these components is inhibition of gene expression and knock downing the target gene follow as inhibition of bacterial growth. For PNA targeting gene, peptide-PNAs (PPNA) activity cannot be occurred without sequence homology, at the same time, it has been affected by sequence-based specific target and dose-dependent-based manner...
July 4, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674046/repurposing-thiram-and-disulfiram-as-antibacterial-agents-for-multi-drug-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-infections
#15
Timothy E Long
Thiram and disulfiram were evaluated as antibacterial agents against multidrug resistant Staphylococcus aureus Against a 30 member panel comprised of vancomycin-susceptible (VSSA), vancomycin-intermediate (VISA) and vancomycin-resistant (VRSA) strains, the MIC90 values of the respective test agents were 4 and 16 μg/mL. Additional analyses revealed that thiram and disulfiram are rapid-acting bacteriostatic agents with narrow, Gram-positive bacteria spectrum activity. Synergy studies further determined that disulfiram increases the vancomycin susceptibility of three clinical VRSA strains in vitro, thus establishing a potential use in combination therapy...
July 3, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28669749/extracellular-vesicles-in-gastrointestinal-cancer-in-conjunction-with-microbiota-on-the-border-of-kingdoms
#16
REVIEW
Natasha S Barteneva, Yeldar Baiken, Elizaveta Fasler-Kan, Kenneth Alibek, Sheng Wang, Natalia Maltsev, Eugeny D Ponomarev, Zarina Sautbayeva, Sholpan Kauanova, Anna Moore, Christoph Beglinger, Ivan A Vorobjev
Extracellular vesicle (EV) production is a universal feature of metazoan cells as well as prokaryotes (bMVs - bacterial microvesicls). They are small vesicles with phospholipid membrane carrying proteins, DNA and different classes of RNAs and are heavily involved in intercellular communication acting as vectors of information to target cells. For the last decade, the interest in EV research has exponentially increased though thorough studies of their roles in various pathologies that was not previously possible due to technical limitations...
June 29, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28660459/plant-derived-antimicrobials-to-fight-against-multi-drug-resistant-human-pathogens
#17
REVIEW
Ramesh Subramani, Mathivanan Narayanasamy, Klaus-D Feussner
Antibiotic resistance is becoming a pivotal concern for public health that has accelerated the search for new antimicrobial molecules from nature. Numbers of human pathogens have inevitably evolved to become resistant to various currently available drugs causing considerable mortality and morbidity worldwide. It is apparent that novel antibiotics are urgently warranted to combat these life-threatening pathogens. In recent years, there have been an increasing number of studies to discover new bioactive compounds from plant origin with the hope to control antibiotic-resistant bacteria...
July 2017: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28659548/pathogenicity-of-enterococci
#18
Yasuyoshi Ike
Enterococci belong to the group of lactic acid bacteria (LAB), and inhabit the gastrointestinal tracts of a wide variety of animals from insects and to human, and the commensal organism in humans and animals. The commensal/probiotic role of enterococci has evolved through thousands of years in mutual coexistence. Enterococcus have many favorable traits that have been appreciated in food fermentation and preservation, and many serve as probiotics to promote health. While lactobacillus have been shown to confer numerous benefits on and often regarded as health bringing organisms, enterococci have become more recognized as emerging human pathogens in recent years...
2017: Nihon Saikingaku Zasshi. Japanese Journal of Bacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28657722/hydrolyzable-poly-poly-ethylene-glycol-methyl-ether-acrylate-colistin-prodrugs-through-copper-mediated-photoinduced-living-radical-polymerization
#19
Chongyu Zhu, Elena K Schneider, Vasiliki Nikolaou, Tobias Klein, Jian Li, Thomas P Davis, Michael R Whittaker, Paul Wilson, Kristian Kempe, Tony Velkov, David M Haddleton
Through the recently developed copper-mediated photoinduced living radical polymerization (CP-LRP), a novel and well-defined polymeric prodrug of the antimicrobial lipopeptide colistin has been developed. A colistin initiator (Boc5-col-Br2) was synthesized through the modification of colistin on both of its threonine residues using a cleavable initiator linker, 2-(2-bromo-2-methylpropanoyloxy) acetic acid (BMPAA), and used for the polymerization of acrylates via CP-LRP. Polymerization proceeds from both sites of the colistin initiator, and through the polymerization of poly(ethylene glycol) methyl ether acrylate (PEGA480), three water-soluble polymer-colistin conjugates (col-PPEGA, having degrees of polymerization of 5, 10, and 20) were achieved with high yield (conversion of ≥93%) and narrow dispersities (Đ < 1...
July 7, 2017: Bioconjugate Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28652197/emergence-of-drug-resistant-bacteria-at-the-hajj-a-systematic-review
#20
REVIEW
Thongpan Leangapichart, Jean-Marc Rolain, Ziad A Memish, Jaffar A Al-Tawfiq, Philippe Gautret
BACKGROUND: Hajj is the annual mass gathering of Muslims, and is a reservoir and potential source of bacterial transmission. The emergence of bacterial transmission, including multi-drug resistance (MDR) bacteria, during Hajj has not been systematically assessed. METHODS: Articles in Pubmed, Scopus, and Google scholar were identified using controlled words relating to antibiotic resistance (AR) at the Hajj from January 2002 to January 2017. Eligible studies were identified by two researchers...
June 23, 2017: Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease
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