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Multi drug resistant bacteria

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634713/characterization-and-in-vitro-antibacterial-activity-of-saponin-conjugated-silver-nanoparticles-against-bacteria-that-cause-burn-wound-infection
#1
Anbarasan Muniyan, Kalaiselvi Ravi, Udayamathi Mohan, Rajasekar Panchamoorthy
Saponins are glycosides, which destabilize the membrane by altering the membrane permeability. Thus, the present study was aimed to fabricate the silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using fenugreek derived saponin (SN) against multi-drug resistant bacteria. This study has optimized the concentration of SN (240 mg/mL) for the synthesis of an effective AgNPs against the test organism Escherichia coli. The SN reduced AgNPs produced a reddish-brown colour and displayed UV absorption at 416 nm. The bio-reducing efficiency of SN (62...
July 2017: World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630204/a-low-molecular-weight-alginate-oligosaccharide-disrupts-pseudomonal-microcolony-formation-and-enhances-antibiotic-effectiveness
#2
Manon F Pritchard, Lydia C Powell, Alison A Jack, Kate Powell, Konrad Beck, Hannah Florance, Julian Forton, Philip D Rye, Arne Dessen, Katja E Hill, David W Thomas
In chronic respiratory disease the formation of dense, 3-dimensional 'micro colonies' by Pseudomonas aeruginosa within the airway plays an important role in contributing to resistance to treatment. An in vitro biofilm model of pseudomonal microcolony formation using artificial sputum (AS) medium was established to study the effects of low molecular weight alginate oligomers (OligoG CF-5/20) on pseudomonal growth, microcolony formation and the efficacy of colistin. The studies employed clinical cystic fibrosis (CF) isolates (n=3) and reference non-mucoid and mucoid multi-drug resistant (MDR) CF isolates (n=7)...
June 19, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630199/genome-wide-analysis-of-the-antimicrobial-peptides-in-python-bivittatus-and-characterization-of-cathelicidins-with-potent-antimicrobial-activity-and-low-cytotoxicity
#3
Dayeong Kim, Nagasundarapandian Soundrarajan, Juyeon Lee, Hye-Sun Cho, Minkyeung Choi, Se-Yeoun Cha, Byeongyong Ahn, Hyoim Jeon, Minh Thong Le, Hyuk Song, Jin-Hoi Kim, Chankyu Park
In this study, we sought to identify novel antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) in Python bivittatus through bioinformatic analyses of publicly available genome information and experimental validation. In our analysis of the python genome, we identified 29 AMP-related candidate sequences. Of these, we selected five cathelicidin-like sequences and subjected them to further in silico analyses. The results showed that these sequences likely have antimicrobial activity. The sequences were named Pb-CATH1-Pb-CATH5 according to their sequence similarity to previously reported snake cathelicidins...
June 19, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628170/recent-advances-and-perspectives-in-the-design-and-development-of-polymyxins
#4
REVIEW
Francesc Rabanal, Yolanda Cajal
Covering: 1947-early 2017, particularly from 2005-early 2017The rise of bacterial pathogens with acquired resistance to almost all available antibiotics is becoming a serious public health issue. Polymyxins, antibiotics that were mostly abandoned a few decades ago because of toxicity concerns, are ultimately considered as a last-line therapy to treat infections caused by multi-drug resistant Gram-negative bacteria. This review surveys the progress in understanding polymyxin structure, and their chemistry, mechanisms of antibacterial activity and nephrotoxicity, biomarkers, synergy and combination with other antimicrobial agents and antibiofilm properties...
June 19, 2017: Natural Product Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625995/novel-antibiotic-resistance-determinants-from-agricultural-soil-exposed-to-antibiotics-widely-used-in-human-medicine-and-animal-farming
#5
Calvin Ho-Fung Lau, Kalene van Engelen, Stephen Gordon, Justin Renaud, Edward Topp
Antibiotic resistance has emerged globally as one of the biggest threats to human and animal health. Although the excessive use of antibiotics is recognized for accelerating the selection for resistance, there is a growing body of evidence suggesting that natural environments are "hotspots" for the development of both ancient and contemporary resistance mechanisms. Given that pharmaceuticals can be entrained onto agricultural land through anthropogenic activities, this could be a potential driver for the emergence and dissemination of resistance in soil bacteria...
June 16, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625984/indole-induced-reversion-of-intrinsic-multi-antibiotic-resistance-in-lysobacter-enzymogenes
#6
Yong Han, Yan Wang, Yameng Yu, Haotong Chen, Yuemao Shen, Liangcheng Du
Lysobacter are a group of environmental bacteria that are emerging as a new source of antibiotics. One characteristic of Lysobacter is intrinsic resistance to multiple antibiotics, which had not been studied. To understand the resistant mechanism, we tested the effect of blocking two-component regulator systems (TCS) on antibiotic resistance of L. enzymogenes, a prolific producer of antibiotics. Upon treatment with LED209, an inhibitor of the widespread TCS QseC/QseB, L. enzymogenes produced a large amount of an unknown metabolite that was barely detectable in the untreated culture...
June 16, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623719/the-crispr-cas-app-goes-viral
#7
REVIEW
Marie-Laurence Lemay, Philippe Horvath, Sylvain Moineau
If biology laboratories were smartphones, CRISPR-Cas would be the leading app. Nowadays, technology users rely on apps to communicate, get directions, entertain, and more. Likewise, many life scientists now rely on CRISPR-Cas systems to study the interactions between microbes and their viruses, to track strains as well as to modify and modulate genomes. Considering their high level of polymorphism, CRISPR arrays can increase the resolution of a microbial typing scheme. As dynamic systems, they allow the identification and the tracking of specific sequences, which is highly valuable for epidemiological studies...
June 14, 2017: Current Opinion in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623298/constraint-based-modeling-identifies-new-putative-targets-to-fight-colistin-resistant-a-baumannii-infections
#8
Luana Presta, Emanuele Bosi, Leila Mansouri, Lenie Dijkshoorn, Renato Fani, Marco Fondi
Acinetobacter baumannii is a clinical threat to human health, causing major infection outbreaks worldwide. As new drugs against Gram-negative bacteria do not seem to be forthcoming, and due to the microbial capability of acquiring multi-resistance, there is an urgent need for novel therapeutic targets. Here we have derived a list of new potential targets by means of metabolic reconstruction and modelling of A. baumannii ATCC 19606. By integrating constraint-based modelling with gene expression data, we simulated microbial growth in normal and stressful conditions (i...
June 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621642/spectrum-and-antibiotic-resistance-of-uropathogens-between-2004-and-2015-in-a-tertiary-care-hospital-in-hungary
#9
András Magyar, Béla Köves, Károly Nagy, András Dobák, Vinodh Kumar Adithyaa Arthanareeswaran, Péter Bálint, Florian Wagenlehner, Péter Tenke
PURPOSE: Surveillance of the bacterial spectrum and antibiotic-resistance patterns of locally occurring uropathogens is essential to serve as a basis for empirical treatment of urinary tract infections (UTIs), as antibiotic-resistance rates may vary geographically with significant differences between countries and regions, and with time. METHODOLOGY: We retrospectively analysed all urine samples taken in the department of urology in a tertiary care hospital in Hungary from January 2004 to December 2015...
June 2017: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611374/efficacy-and-safety-of-mycobacterium-indicus-pranii-as-an-adjunct-therapy-in-category-ii-pulmonary-tuberculosis-in-a-randomized-trial
#10
Surendra K Sharma, Kiran Katoch, Rohit Sarin, Raman Balambal, Nirmal Kumar Jain, Naresh Patel, Kolluri J R Murthy, Neeta Singla, P K Saha, Ashwani Khanna, Urvashi Singh, Sanjiv Kumar, A Sengupta, J N Banavaliker, D S Chauhan, Shailendra Sachan, Mohammad Wasim, Sanjay Tripathi, Nilesh Dutt, Nitin Jain, Nalin Joshi, Sita Ram Raju Penmesta, Sumanlatha Gaddam, Sanjay Gupta, Bakulesh Khamar, Bindu Dey, Dipendra K Mitra, Sunil K Arora, Sangeeta Bhaskar, Rajni Rani
Prolonged treatment of tuberculosis (TB) often leads to poor compliance, default and relapse, converting primary TB patients into category II TB (Cat IITB) cases, many of whom may convert to multi-drug resistant TB (MDR-TB). We have evaluated the immunotherapeutic potential of Mycobacterium indicus pranii (MIP) as an adjunct to Anti-Tubercular Treatment (ATT) in Cat II pulmonary TB (PTB) patients in a prospective, randomized, double blind, placebo controlled, multicentric clinical trial. 890 sputum smear positive Cat II PTB patients were randomized to receive either six intra-dermal injections (2 + 4) of heat-killed MIP at a dose of 5 × 10(8) bacilli or placebo once in 2 weeks for 2 months...
June 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608133/frequency-associated-factors-and-outcome-of-multi-drug-resistant-intensive-care-unit-acquired-pneumonia-among-patients-colonized-with-extended-spectrum-%C3%AE-lactamase-producing-enterobacteriaceae
#11
Keyvan Razazi, Armand Mekontso Dessap, Guillaume Carteaux, Chloé Jansen, Jean-Winoc Decousser, Nicolas de Prost, Christian Brun-Buisson
BACKGROUND: We assessed prevalence, associated factors and prognosis of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae pneumonia acquired in intensive care unit (ESBL-PE pneumonia) among carriers. Variables associated with nosocomial pneumonia caused by carbapenem-resistant bacteria (CRB) were also assessed. METHODS: A 6-year prospective study (May 2009-March 2015) in the medical ICU of an 850-bed university-affiliated hospital was conducted. RESULTS: Of the 6303 patients admitted, 843 (13...
December 2017: Annals of Intensive Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592552/colistin-and-polymyxin-b-susceptibility-testing-for-carbapenem-resistant-and-mcr-positive-enterobacteriaceae-comparison-of-sensititre-microscan-vitek-2-and-etest-with-broth-microdilution
#12
Ka Lip Chew, My-Van La, Raymond T P Lin, Jeanette W P Teo
Colistin and polymyxin B remain part of the last line of antibiotics for multi-drug-resistant Gram negative bacteria such as carbapenem-resistant-Enterobacteriaceae Current EUCAST-CLSI joint recommendations are for broth microdilution to be performed for MIC testing of colistin. Commercial susceptibility testing methods were evaluated and compared against reference broth microdilution (BMD), using a susceptible breakpoint of ≤2mg/L for both colistin and polymyxin B. Seventy-six Enterobacteriaceae were included, of which twenty-one were mcr-1 positive...
June 7, 2017: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28581702/universal-coating-from-electrostatic-self-assembly-to-prevent-multi-drug-resistant-bacteria-colonization-on-medical-devices-solid-surfaces
#13
Wenshu Zheng, Yuexiao Jia, Wenwen Chen, Guanlin Wang, Xuefeng Guo, Xingyu Jiang
We provide a facile and scalable strategy to prepare gold nanoparticles (AuNPs)-based antibacterial coating on a variety of surfaces through electrostatic self-assembly. 4,6-diamino-2-pyrimidinethiol (DAPT, itself non-antibiotic)-conjugated AuNPs (AuDAPT) can from highly stable coating on different substrates in one-step, such coating can efficiently eradicate pathogenic gram-negative bacteria and even multidrug resistant (MDR) mutants without causing any side-effect such as cytotoxicity, hemolysis, coagulation and inflammation...
June 5, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28570651/polydim-i-antimicrobial-activity-against-mdr-bacteria-and-its-model-membrane-interaction
#14
Marisa Rangel, Fabíola Fernandes Dos Santos Castro, Lilian Daiene Mota-Lima, Patricia Bianca Clissa, Danubia Batista Martins, Marcia Perez Dos Santos Cabrera, Marcia Renata Mortari
The rapid spread of multi-drug resistant pathogens represents a serious threat to public health, considering factors such as high mortality rates, treatment restrictions and high prevalence of multi-drug resistant bacteria in the hospital environment. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) may exhibit powerful antimicrobial activity against different and diverse microorganisms, also presenting the advantage of absence or low toxicity towards animal cells. In this study, the evaluation of the antimicrobial activity against multi-drug resistant bacteria of a recently described AMP from wasp, Polydim-I, was performed...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28554055/graphene-oxide-as-an-efficient-antimicrobial-nanomaterial-for-eradicating-multi-drug-resistant-bacteria-in-vitro-and-in-vivo
#15
Xu Wu, Shirui Tan, Yuqian Xing, Qinqin Pu, Min Wu, Julia Xiaojun Zhao
Graphene is a novel two-dimensional nanomaterial with a growing number of practical applications across numerous fields. In this work, we explored potential biomedical applications of graphene oxide (GO) by systematically studying antibacterial capacity of GO in both macrophages and animal models. Three types of bacteria, including Klebsiella pneumoniae (Kp), Escherichia coli (E. coli) and P. aeruginosa (Pa) were used for in vitro study. Kp was also selected as a representative multidrug resistant (MDR) bacterium for in vivo study...
May 17, 2017: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551912/-bacteria-without-borders-a-high-carriage-rate-of-antibiotic-resistant-bacteria-among-syrian-children-hospitalized-in-galilee-medical-center
#16
Diana Faour Kassem, Naama Shahar, Smadar Ocampo, Tarif Bader, Zeev Zonis, Daniel Glikman
INTRODUCTION: As the civil war in Syria enters its fifth year, the Israeli government continues to provide humanitarian aid to Syrian civilians in Israeli hospitals. Many wounded Syrian children are treated at the Galilee Medical Center (GMC). Due to the patients' incomplete medical history and increasing infection rates in Syria, contact isolation and screening cultures for multi-drug resistant bacteria (MDR's) are conducted upon admission for all Syrian children. AIMS: To describe the rate of MDR carriage in Syrian children and compare it to hospitalized Israeli children...
May 2017: Harefuah
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545327/designing-of-inhibitors-against-ctx-m-15-type-%C3%AE-lactamase-potential-drug-candidate-against-%C3%AE-lactamases-producing-multi-drug-resistant-bacteria
#17
Abid Ali, Danishuddin, Lubna Maryam, Gaurava Srivastava, Ashok Sharma, Asad U Khan
CTX-M-15 are the most prevalent types of β-lactamases that hydrolyze almost all antibiotics of β-lactam group lead to multiple-antibiotic resistance in bacteria. Three β-lactam inhibitors are available for use in combination with different antibiotics of cephalosporine group against the CTX-M-15-producing strains. Therefore, strategies to identify novel anti β-lactamase agents with specific mechanisms of action are the need of an hour. In this study, we screened three novel non-β-lactam inhibitors against CTX-M-15 by multi-step virtual screening approach...
June 8, 2017: Journal of Biomolecular Structure & Dynamics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544183/clinical-outcomes-of-intestinal-transplant-recipients-colonized-with-multi-drug-resistant-organisms-a-retrospective-study
#18
Jacques Simkins, Michele I Morris, Jose F Camargo, Rodrigo Vianna, Thiago Beduschi, Lilian M Abbo
Rates of multi-drug resistant organisms (MDRO) colonization among intestinal transplant (ITx) recipients have not been reported. Colonization rates with vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE), carbapenem-resistant gram-negative bacteria (CR-GNB) and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) were obtained retrospectively in adults undergoing ITx (isolated or multi-visceral) from 1/2009-12/2015. We assessed for VRE, CR-GNB and MRSA bacteremia during the first year post-transplant for patients colonized with VRE, CR-GNB and MRSA respectively and for those who were not colonized...
May 19, 2017: Transplant International: Official Journal of the European Society for Organ Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536862/mechanisms-of-hepatotoxicity-associated-with-the-monocyclic-%C3%AE-lactam-antibiotic-bal30072
#19
Franziska Paech, Simon Messner, Jochen Spickermann, Mathias Wind, Anne-Hortense Schmitt-Hoffmann, Anne Therese Witschi, Brett A Howell, Rachel J Church, Jeff Woodhead, Marc Engelhardt, Stephan Krähenbühl, Martina Maurer
BAL30072 is a new monocyclic β-lactam antibiotic under development which provides a therapeutic option for the treatment of severe infections caused by multi-drug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria. Despite the absence of liver toxicity in preclinical studies in rats and marmosets and in single dose clinical studies in humans, increased transaminase activities were observed in healthy subjects in multiple-dose clinical studies. We, therefore, initiated a comprehensive program to find out the mechanisms leading to hepatocellular injury using HepG2 cells (human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line), HepaRG cells (inducible hepatocytes derived from a human hepatic progenitor cell line), and human liver microtissue preparations...
May 23, 2017: Archives of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532074/highly-effective-cu-zn-carbon-micro-nanofiber-polymer-nanocomposite-based-wound-dressing-biomaterial-against-the-p-aeruginosa-multi-and-extensively-drug-resistant-strains
#20
Mohammad Ashfaq, Nishith Verma, Suphiya Khan
Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) is the most prevalent bacteria in the infections caused by burn, surgery, and traumatic injuries. Emergence of the P. aeruginosa bacterial resistance against various clinical drugs for wound treatment is the major concern nowadays. The present study describes the synthesis of the polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and cellulose acetate phthalate (CAP) polymeric composite film (~0.2mm thickness) reinforced with the Cu/Zn bimetal-dispersed activated carbon micro/nanofiber (ACF/CNF), as a wound dressing material...
August 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
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