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Multi drug resistant bacteria

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342972/the-effect-of-combining-natural-terpenes-and-antituberculous-agents-against-reference-and-clinical-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-strains
#1
Elwira Sieniawska, Rafal Sawicki, Marta Swatko-Ossor, Agnieszka Napiorkowska, Agata Przekora, Grazyna Ginalska, Ewa Augustynowicz-Kopec
Background: On account of emergence of multi- and extensively drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) strains, combinations of drugs with natural compounds were tested to search for antibiotic activity enhancers. In this work we studied terpenes (α-pinene, bisabolol, β-elemene, (R)-limonene, (S)-limonene, myrcene, sabinene), which are the main constituents of essential oil obtained from Mutellina purpurea L., a plant with described antitubercular activity, to investigate their interactions with antibiotics against reference Mtb strains and multidrug-resistant clinical isolates...
January 15, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342216/in-vitro-activity-of-novel-glycopolymer-against-clinical-isolates-of-multidrug-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus
#2
Vidya P Narayanaswamy, Scott A Giatpaiboon, John Uhrig, Paul Orwin, William Wiesmann, Shenda M Baker, Stacy M Townsend
The incidence of multidrug-resistant (MDR) organisms, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), is a serious threat to public health. Progress in developing new therapeutics is being outpaced by antibiotic resistance development, and alternative agents that rapidly permeabilize bacteria hold tremendous potential for treating MDR infections. A new class of glycopolymers includes polycationic poly-N (acetyl, arginyl) glucosamine (PAAG) is under development as an alternative to traditional antibiotic strategies to treat MRSA infections...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339082/water-mediated-interactions-enable-smooth-substrate-transport-in-a-bacterial-efflux-pump
#3
Attilio Vittorio Vargiu, Venkata Krishnan Ramaswamy, Ivana Malvacio, Giuliano Malloci, Ulrich Kleinekathöfer, Paolo Ruggerone
BACKGROUND: Efflux pumps of the Resistance-Nodulation-cell Division superfamily confer multi-drug resistance to Gram-negative bacteria. The most-studied polyspecific transporter belonging to this class is the inner-membrane trimeric antiporter AcrB of Escherichia coli. In previous studies, a functional rotation mechanism was proposed for its functioning, according to which the three monomers undergo concerted conformational changes facilitating the extrusion of substrates. However, the molecular determinants and the energetics of this mechanism still remain unknown, so its feasibility must be proven mechanistically...
January 12, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337198/comparison-of-untagged-and-his-tagged-dihydrodipicolinate-synthase-from-the-enteric-pathogen-vibrio-cholerae
#4
Ruchi Gupta, Tatiana P Soares da Costa, Pierre Faou, Con Dogovski, Matthew A Perugini
Given the emergence of multi drug resistant Vibrio cholerae strains, there is an urgent need to characterize new anti-cholera targets. One such target is the enzyme dihydrodipicolinate synthase (DHDPS; EC 4.3.3.7), which catalyzes the first committed step in the diaminopimelate pathway. This pathway is responsible for the production of two key metabolites in bacteria and plants, namely meso-2,6-diaminopimelate and L-lysine. Here, we report the cloning, expression and purification of untagged and His-tagged recombinant DHDPS from V...
January 11, 2018: Protein Expression and Purification
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336894/preoperative-surveillance-rectal-swab-is-associated-with-an-increased-risk-of-infectious-complications-in-pancreaticoduodenectomy-and-directs-antimicrobial-prophylaxis-an-antibiotic-stewardship-strategy
#5
Matteo De Pastena, Salvatore Paiella, Anna M Azzini, Giovanni Marchegiani, Giuseppe Malleo, Debora Ciprani, Annarita Mazzariol, Erica Secchettin, Deborah Bonamini, Clizia Gasparini, Ercole Concia, Claudio Bassi, Roberto Salvia
BACKGROUND: Despite improvements in the perioperative care, the morbidity rate after pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD) is still higher than 50%. The aim of this study was twofold: first, to assess the correlation between preoperative rectal swab (RS) and intraoperative bile cultures; to examine the impact of RS isolates on postoperative course after PD. METHODS: An observational study was conducted analyzing all consecutive PD performed from January 2015 to July 2016...
January 11, 2018: HPB: the Official Journal of the International Hepato Pancreato Biliary Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334931/in-vitro-antibacterial-and-antibiotic-modifying-activity-of-crude-extract-fractions-and-3-4-7-trihydroxyflavone-from-myristica-fragrans-houtt-against-mdr-gram-negative-enteric-bacteria
#6
Joachim K Dzotam, Ingrid Konga Simo, Gabin Bitchagno, Ilhami Celik, Louis P Sandjo, Pierre Tane, Victor Kuete
BACKGROUND: Nutmeg is the seed kernel inside the fruit of Myristica fragrans Houtt. (Myristicaceae). It possesses various pharmacological activities but is used in Cameroon only for its flavor in making cakes. The present study thus aimed to investigate the in vitro antibacterial activity and antibiotic modifying activities of crude seed kernel methanol extract (MFS), fractions (MFSa-e) as well as 3',4',7-trihydroxyflavone from Myristica fragrans against a panel of multi-drug resistant (MDR) Gram-negative bacteria...
January 15, 2018: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331783/comparative-study-of-novel-in-situ-decorated-porous-chitosan-selenium-scaffolds-and-porous-chitosan-silver-scaffolds-towards-antimicrobial-wound-dressing-application
#7
Dhee P Biswas, Neil M O'Brien-Simpson, Eric C Reynolds, Andrea J O'Connor, Phong A Tran
Dermal defects caused by trauma or disease are challenging to treat due to difficult-to-treat infections that impair wound healing. Due to the widespread emergence of drug-resistant bacteria and dwindling discoveries of new antibiotics, there is currently an urgent need to introduce novel antimicrobials effective against antibiotic-resistant bacteria without causing damage to host tissues. As selenium (Se) and silver (Ag) are known for their antimicrobial properties, we investigated the separate loading of these materials into porous chitosan/PVA (CS) scaffolds through a simple in situ deposition method to create two distinct wound dressing materials (CS-Se and CS-Ag)...
January 5, 2018: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29319784/the-effect-of-isabelin-a-sesquiterpene-lactone-from-ambrosiaartemisiifolia-on-soil-microorganisms-and-human-pathogens
#8
Francesco Molinaro, Olaf Tyc, Jules Beekwilder, Katarina Cankar, Cinzia Margherita Bertea, Michèle Negre, Paolina Garbeva
Ambrosia artemisiifolia L. (common ragweed) is an invasive weed, well-known for the strong allergenic effect of its pollen, as well as for its invasiveness and impact in crop fields (e.g. causing yield losses). This species produces a broad range of sesquiterpenoids. In recent years, new bioactive molecules have been discovered in this plant, e.g. isabelin, a sesquiterpene dilactone. The bioactivity of isabelin has been already demonstrated on allergy-related receptors and its inhibitory effect on seeds of various plant species...
January 8, 2018: FEMS Microbiology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305512/molecular-epidemiology-of-dairy-cattle-associated-escherichia-coli-carrying-blactx-m-genes-in-washington-state
#9
Josephine A Afema, Sara Ahmed, Thomas E Besser, Lisa P Jones, William M Sischo, Margaret A Davis
An increase in prevalence of commensal Escherichia coli carrying blaCTX-M genes among dairy cattle was observed between 2008 and 2012 in Washington State. To study the molecular epidemiology of this change, we selected 126 blaCTX-M-positive and 126 blaCTX-M-negative isolates for multi-locus sequence typing (MLST) and antibiotic resistance phenotyping from E. coli obtained during a previous study. For 99 isolates we also determined the blaCTX-M alleles using PCR and sequencing and identified the replicon types of blaCTX-M carrying plasmids...
January 5, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29304069/naso-and-oropharyngeal-bacterial-carriage-in-nursing-home-residents-impact-of-multimorbidity-and-functional-impairment
#10
Anja Kwetkat, Wolfgang Pfister, Diana Pansow, Mathias W Pletz, Cornel C Sieber, Heike Hoyer
OBJECTIVE: From April 2013 to February 2014 we performed a multicentre prospective cross-sectional study in 541 German nursing home residents. We determined pharyngeal carriage of Streptococcus pneumoniae (primary objective) and other bacteria (secondary objective) in naso- and oropharyngeal swabs by culture-based standard procedures and explored the influence of multimorbidity and functional status on bacterial carriage. METHODS: Socio-demographic data, vaccination status, multimorbidity, nutrition and functional status defined by Comprehensive Geriatric Assessment were evaluated...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29277528/determinants-of-inappropriate-empirical-antibiotic-treatment-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#11
REVIEW
Elena Carrara, Iris Pfeffer, Oren Zusman, Leonard Leibovici, Mical Paul
OBJECTIVES: To assess study-level determinants of non-covering (inappropriate) empirical antibiotic treatment (IEAT), focusing on the influence of study years and the prevalence of multidrug-resistant organisms (MDROs) in the study. METHODS: Systematic review of prospective or retrospective observational studies reporting on the association between IEAT and mortality in adult patients with microbiologically documented infections published between 2008-2016. Meta-analysis of IEAT rates was conducted using a random-effects model...
December 22, 2017: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29275223/antimicrobial-residues-and-resistance-against-critically-important-antimicrobials-in-non-typhoidal-salmonella-from-meat-sold-at-wet-markets-and-supermarkets-in-vietnam
#12
Nguyen Thi Nhung, Nguyen Thi Bich Van, Nguyen Van Cuong, Truong Thi Quy Duong, Tran Thi Nhat, Tran Thi Thu Hang, Nguyen Thi Hong Nhi, Bach Tuan Kiet, Vo Be Hien, Pham Thi Ngoc, James Campbell, Guy Thwaites, Juan Carrique-Mas
Excessive antimicrobial usage and deficiencies in hygiene in meat production systems may result in undesirable human health hazards, such as the presence of antimicrobial drug residues and non-typhoidal Salmonella (NTS), including antimicrobial resistant (AMR) NTS. Recently, Vietnam has witnessed the emergence of integrated intensive animal production systems, coexisting with more traditional, locally-sourced wet markets. To date no systematic studies have been carried out to compare health hazards in beef, pork and chicken in different production systems...
December 17, 2017: International Journal of Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29261103/calli-essential-oils-synergize-with-lawsone-against-multidrug-resistant-pathogens
#13
Sameh S M Soliman, Abrar I Alsaadi, Eman G Youssef, Gregory Khitrov, Ayman M Noreddin, Mohamed I Husseiny, Ashraf S Ibrahim
The fast development of multi-drug resistant (MDR) organisms increasingly threatens global health and well-being. Plant natural products have been known for centuries as alternative medicines that can possess pharmacological characteristics, including antimicrobial activities. The antimicrobial activities of essential oil (Calli oil) extracted from the Calligonum comosum plant by hydro-steam distillation was tested either alone or when combined with lawsone, a henna plant naphthoquinone, against MDR microbes...
December 20, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29259134/computational-antimicrobial-peptide-design-and-evaluation-against-multidrug-resistant-clinical-isolates-of-bacteria
#14
Deepesh Nagarajan, Tushar Nagarajan, Natasha Roy, Omkar Kulkarni, Sathyabaarathi Ravichandran, Madhulika Mishra, Dipshikha Chakravortty, Nagasuma Chandra
There is a pressing need for new therapeutics to combat multi-drug and carbapenem-resistant bacterial pathogens. This challenge prompted us to use a long short-term memory (LSTM) language model to understand the underlying grammar, i.e. the arrangement and frequencies of amino acid residues, in known antimicrobial peptide sequences. According to the output of our LSTM network, we synthesized 10 peptides and tested them against known bacterial pathogens. All of these peptides displayed broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity, validating our LSTM-based peptide design approach...
December 19, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29250038/double-serine-fluoroquinolone-resistance-mutations-advance-major-international-clones-and-lineages-of-various-multi-drug-resistant-bacteria
#15
REVIEW
Miklos Fuzi, Dora Szabo, Rita Csercsik
The major international sequence types/lineages of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae and ESBL-producing E. coli were demonstrated to have been advanced by favorable fitness balance associated with high-level resistance to fluoroquinolones. The paper shows that favorable fitness in the major STs/lineages of these pathogens was principally attained by the capacity of evolving mutations in the fluoroquinolone-binding serine residues of both the DNA gyrase and topoisomerase IV enzymes...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233039/characterization-antibacterial-total-antioxidant-scavenging-reducing-power-and-ion-chelating-activities-of-green-synthesized-silver-copper-and-titanium-dioxide-nanoparticles-using-artemisia-haussknechtii-leaf-extract
#16
Mehran Alavi, Naser Karimi
Recently, major problem related to pathogenic bacteria is augmentation of antibiotic resistance which has been changed treatment and recovery of millions of infectious patients. The present study reports an eco-friendly, rapid and easy method for synthesis of silver (Ag), copper (Cu) and titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles (NPs) using Artemisia haussknechtii leaf aqueous extract with antibacterial activities against multi-drug resistance (MDR) bacteria species. Three different concentrations (0.001, 0.01 and 0...
December 12, 2017: Artificial Cells, Nanomedicine, and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229778/structural-and-functional-insights-into-the-role-of-bamd-and-bame-within-the-%C3%AE-barrel-assembly-machinery-in-neisseria-gonorrhoeae
#17
Aleksandra E Sikora, Igor H Wierzbicki, Ryszard A Zielke, Rachael F Ryner, Konstantin V Korotkov, Susan K Buchanan, Nicholas Noinaj
The β-barrel assembly machinery (BAM) is a conserved multi-component protein complex responsible for the biogenesis of β-barrel outer membrane proteins (OMPs) in Gram-negative bacteria. Given its role in the production of OMPs for survival and pathogenesis, BAM represents an attractive target for the development of therapeutic interventions including drugs and vaccines against multi-drug resistant bacteria such as Neisseria gonorrhoeae The first structure of BamA, the central component of BAM, was from N...
December 11, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217934/the-prevalence-of-antibiotic-resistant-diarrhogenic-bacterial-species-in-surface-waters-south-eastern-nigeria
#18
Stanley C Onuoha
Background: This study assessed the bacteriological qualities of surface waters in Afikpo, between April and September 2016. Methods: Surface water samples were collected from three streams for bacteriological analysis. Bacteria species were isolated using standard microbiological and biochemical techniques. Antibiotic susceptibility study was carried out using Kirby Bauer disc diffusion method. Results: The result of the mean heterotrophic bacteria count from the streams showed that Okpu stream had 209...
July 2017: Ethiopian Journal of Health Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214045/the-rumen-microbiome-an-underexplored-resource-for-novel-antimicrobial-discovery
#19
Linda B Oyama, Susan E Girdwood, Alan R Cookson, Narcis Fernandez-Fuentes, Florence Privé, Hannah E Vallin, Toby J Wilkinson, Peter N Golyshin, Olga V Golyshina, Ralf Mikut, Kai Hilpert, Jennifer Richards, Mandy Wootton, Joan E Edwards, Marc Maresca, Josette Perrier, Fionnuala T Lundy, Yu Luo, Mei Zhou, Matthias Hess, Hilario C Mantovani, Christopher J Creevey, Sharon A Huws
Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are promising drug candidates to target multi-drug resistant bacteria. The rumen microbiome presents an underexplored resource for the discovery of novel microbial enzymes and metabolites, including AMPs. Using functional screening and computational approaches, we identified 181 potentially novel AMPs from a rumen bacterial metagenome. Here, we show that three of the selected AMPs (Lynronne-1, Lynronne-2 and Lynronne-3) were effective against numerous bacterial pathogens, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)...
2017: NPJ Biofilms and Microbiomes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29206153/is-genetic-mobilization-considered-when-using-bacteriophages-in-antimicrobial-therapy
#20
Lorena Rodríguez-Rubio, Joan Jofre, Maite Muniesa
The emergence of multi-drug resistant bacteria has undermined our capacity to control bacterial infectious diseases. Measures needed to tackle this problem include controlling the spread of antibiotic resistance, designing new antibiotics, and encouraging the use of alternative therapies. Phage therapy seems to be a feasible alternative to antibiotics, although there are still some concerns and legal issues to overcome before it can be implemented on a large scale. Here we highlight some of those concerns, especially those related to the ability of bacteriophages to transport bacterial DNA and, in particular, antibiotic resistance genes...
December 5, 2017: Antibiotics
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