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Multi drug resistant bacteria

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088439/antimicrobial-activity-of-photodynamic-therapy-in-combination-with-colistin-against-a-pan-drug-resistant-acinetobacter-baumannii-isolated-from-burn-patient
#1
Ebrahim Boluki, Hossein Kazemian, Hadi Peeridogaheh, Mohammad Yousef Alikhani, Sima Shahabi, Leili Beytollahi, Roghayeh Ghorbanzadeh
Nosocomially-acquired multi-, extensively-, and pandrug resistant (MDR, XDR, and PDR) strains of microorganisms such as Acinetobacter baumannii remain a serious cause of infection and septic mortality in burn patients. Treatment of patients with nosocomial burn wound infections is often complicated by drug-resistant strains of A. baumannii. Today, many researchers are focusing on the investigation of novel non-antibiotic strategies such as photodynamic therapy (PDT). We report a new PDT strategy that suppresses colistin resistance in PDR A...
January 11, 2017: Photodiagnosis and Photodynamic Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076388/risk-factors-for-multi-drug-resistant-pathogens-and-failure-of-empiric-first-line-therapy-in-acute-cholangitis
#2
Philipp A Reuken, Dorian Torres, Michael Baier, Bettina Löffler, Christoph Lübbert, Norman Lippmann, Andreas Stallmach, Tony Bruns
BACKGROUND: Acute cholangitis (AC) requires the immediate initiation of antibiotic therapy in addition to treatment for biliary obstruction. Against a background of an increasing prevalence of multi-drug resistant (MDR) bacteria, the risk factors for the failure of empiric therapy must be defined. METHODS: Using a pathogen-based approach, 1764 isolates from positive bile duct cultures were retrospectively analyzed to characterize the respective pathogen spectra in two German tertiary centers...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074057/development-of-new-polymyxin-derivatives-for-multi-drug-resistant-gram-negative-infections
#3
REVIEW
Pamela Brown, Michael J Dawson
Over the last decade, there has been a resurgence of interest in polymyxins owing to the rapid rise in multi-drug resistant Gram-negative bacteria against which polymyxins offer a last-resort treatment. Although having excellent antibacterial activity, the clinical utility of polymyxins is limited by toxicity, especially renal toxicity. There is much interest therefore in developing polymyxin analogues with an improved therapeutic index. This review describes recent work aimed at improving the activity and/or reducing the toxicity of polymyxins...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Antibiotics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062293/distribution-of-resistance-genetic-determinants-among-vibrio-cholerae-isolates-of-2012-and-2013-outbreaks-in-ir-iran
#4
Niloofar Rezaie, Bita Bakhshi, Shahin Najar-Peerayeh
The objective of this study was to characterize antimicrobial resistance determinants in relation to antimicrobial susceptibility and genotyping profile in 20 clinical isolates of Vibrio cholerae. All of the isolates were resistant to streptomycin. The second most prevalent resistance was observed to trimethoprim (75%), co-trimoxazole (60%), tetracycline (50%), and minocycline (45%). About 50% of the isolates fulfilled the criteria of Multi Drug Resistance (MDR) phenotype. None of the isolates carried tet A, B, C, and, D determinants...
January 3, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28061799/ralstonia-picketti-neonatal-sepsis-a-case-report
#5
Deepak Sharma, Pradeep Sharma, Priyanka Soni, Basudev Gupta
BACKGROUND: Ralstonia genus are gram negative bacillus and includes four bacteria namely Ralstonia picketti, Ralstonia Solanacearum, Ralstonia insidiosa and Ralstonia mannitolilytica. These are opportunistic pathogens and cause infections in immunocompromised host. The sources of infection are usually contaminated solutions and water. The majority of the reported cases are caused by R. picketti. It is very rare cause of neonatal sepsis with less than twenty cases reported in literature till date...
January 7, 2017: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056944/iridoids-from-canthium-subcordatum-iso-butanol-fraction-with-potent-biological-activities
#6
Christelle Joubouhi, Jean-de-Dieu Tamokou, David Ngnokam, Laurence Voutquenne-Nazabadioko, Jules-Roger Kuiate
BACKGROUND: The continuous emergence of multi-drug-resistant bacteria drastically reduces the efficacy of antibiotic armory and, consequently, increases the frequency of therapeutic failure. The discovery of new antibacterial drugs is an urgent need. The present study reports the antibacterial and antioxidant activities of the methanol extract, fractions and iridoids from Canthium subcordatum, a plant traditionally used as antidiabetic, anti-inflammatory, and antimicrobial. METHODS: Broth microdilution assay was used to determine minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) and minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBCs) of extracts and iridoids against Staphylococcus aureus, Vibrio cholerae and Shigella flexneri...
January 5, 2017: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053573/antibiotic-resistance-profiling-and-phenotyping-of-aeromonas-species-isolated-from-aquatic-sources
#7
Olumide A Odeyemi, Asmat Ahmad
This study aimed to investigate antibiotics resistance pattern and phenotyping of Aeromonas species isolated from different aquatic sources in Melaka, Malaysia. A total of 53 Aeromonas species were isolated from the following sources: sediment (n = 13), bivalve (n = 10), sea cucumber (n = 16) and sea water (n = 14) and resistance to 12 antibiotics - Tetracycline (30 μg), Kanamycin (30 μg), Oxytetracycline (30 μg), Ampicillin (10 μg), Streptomycin (10 μg), Gentamicin (10 μg), Sulphamethoxazole (25 μg), Nalixidic acid (30 μg), Trimethoprim (1...
January 2017: Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053211/optical-screening-for-rapid-antimicrobial-susceptibility-testing-and-for-observation-of-phenotypic-diversity-among-the-genetically-clonal-species-bacillus-anthracis
#8
Heather P McLaughlin, Amy S Gargis, Pierre Michel, David Sue, Linda M Weigel
: During high-impact events involving Bacillus anthracis, such as the Amerithrax incident of 2001 or the anthrax outbreaks in Russia and Sweden in 2016, critical decisions to reduce morbidity and mortality include rapid selection and distribution of effective antimicrobial agents for treatment and post-exposure prophylaxis. Detection of antimicrobial resistance currently relies on a conventional broth microdilution (BMD) method that requires a 16 - 20 hour incubation time for B. anthracis Advances in high-resolution optical screening offer a new technology to more rapidly evaluate antimicrobial susceptibility and to simultaneously assess growth characteristics of an isolate...
January 4, 2017: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28044296/microfluidic-based-bacteria-isolation-from-whole-blood-for-diagnostics-of-blood-stream-infection
#9
Sergey Zelenin, Harisha Ramachandraiah, Asim Faridi, Aman Russom
Bacterial blood stream infection (BSI) potentially leads to life-threatening clinical conditions and medical emergencies such as severe sepsis, septic shock, and multi organ failure syndrome. Blood culturing is currently the gold standard for the identification of microorganisms and, although it has been automated over the decade, the process still requires 24-72 h to complete. This long turnaround time, especially for the identification of antimicrobial resistance, is driving the development of rapid molecular diagnostic methods...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035988/antibiotic-resistant-superbugs-assessment-of-the-interrelationship-of-occurrence-in-clinical-settings-and-environmental-niches
#10
REVIEW
Anthony Ayodeji Adegoke, Adekunle Christopher Faleye, Gulshan Singh, Thor Axel Stenström
The increasing threat to global health posed by antibiotic resistance remains of serious concern. Human health remains at higher risk due to several reported therapeutic failures to many life threatening drug resistant microbial infections. The resultant effects have been prolonged hospital stay, higher cost of alternative therapy, increased mortality, etc. This opinionated review considers the two main concerns in integrated human health risk assessment (i.e., residual antibiotics and antibiotic resistant genes) in various compartments of human environment, as well as clinical dynamics associated with the development and transfer of antibiotic resistance (AR)...
December 27, 2016: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28032341/nlrp3-inflammasome-mediates-il-1%C3%AE-production-in-immune-cells-in-response-to-acinetobacter-baumannii-and-contributes-to-pulmonary-inflammation-in-mice
#11
Min-Jung Kang, Sung-Gang Jo, Dong-Jae Kim, Jong-Hwan Park
Acinetobacter baumannii is a multi-drug resistant gram-negative bacteria, and infection with this organism is one of the major causes of mortality in intensive care units. Inflammasomes are multiprotein oligomers that include caspase-1, and their activation is required for maturation of IL-1β. Inflammasome signaling is involved in host defenses against various microbial infection, but the precise mechanism by which A. baumannii activates inflammasomes and the roles of relevant signals in host defense against pulmonary A...
December 29, 2016: Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028717/multi-drug-resistant-uropathogenic-escherichia-coli-and-its-treatment-by-chinese-medicine
#12
Shi-Wei Liu, Xiao-Yang Xu, Jie Xu, Jiu-Yun Yuan, Wei-Kang Wu, Ning Zhang, Ze-Liang Chen
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the resistance and virulence profiles of uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) and its treatment by Chinese medicine (CM) Fuzheng Qingre Lishi Formula (, FQLF). METHODS: UPEC strains were isolated from recurrent urinary tract infections (UTIs) patients. Patient sensitivities to 17 antibiotics were tested by the disk diffusion method. Virulence genes were screened by plolymerase chain reaction. A mouse model was constructed using a multi-drug resistant and virulent UPEC strain and treated with FQLF or the antibiotic imipenem...
December 27, 2016: Chinese Journal of Integrative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011336/superparamagnetic-iron-oxide-encapsulating-polymersome-nanocarriers-for-biofilm-eradication
#13
Benjamin M Geilich, Ilia Gelfat, Srinivas Sridhar, Anne L van de Ven, Thomas J Webster
The rising prevalence and severity of antibiotic-resistant biofilm infections poses an alarming threat to public health worldwide. Here, biocompatible multi-compartment nanocarriers were synthesized to contain both hydrophobic superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) and the hydrophilic antibiotic methicillin for the treatment of medical device-associated infections. SPION co-encapsulation was found to confer unique properties, enhancing both nanocarrier relaxivity and magneticity compared to individual SPIONs...
March 2017: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27984786/enhancement-of-antibiotic-activity-through-complexation-with-metal-ions-combined-itc-nmr-enzymatic-and-biological-studies
#14
Jasper S Möhler, Theresa Kolmar, Kevin Synnatschke, Marcel Hergert, Liam A Wilson, Soumya Ramu, Alysha G Elliott, Mark A T Blaskovich, Hanna E Sidjabat, David L Paterson, Gerhard Schenk, Matthew A Cooper, Zyta M Ziora
Alternative solutions need to be developed to overcome the growing problem of multi-drug resistant bacteria. This study explored the possibility of creating complexes of antibiotics with metal ions, thereby increasing their activity. Analytical techniques such as isothermal titration calorimetry and nuclear magnetic resonance were used to examine the structure and interactions between Cu(II), Ag(I) or Zn(II) and β-lactam antibiotics. The metal-β-lactam complexes were also tested for antimicrobial activity, by micro-broth dilution and disk diffusion methods, showing a synergistic increase in the activity of the drugs, and enzymatic inhibition assays confirming inhibition of β-lactamases responsible for resistance...
February 2017: Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27980020/identification%C3%A2-of%C3%A2-ly2%C3%A2-members%C3%A2-as%C3%A2-novel%C3%A2-antimicrobial%C3%A2-peptides%C3%A2-from%C3%A2-zebrafish%C3%A2-danio%C3%A2-rerio
#15
Xuemin Liu, Xuwen Cao, Su Wang, Guangdong Ji, Shicui Zhang, Hongyan Li
The emergence of multi-drug resistant (MDR) microbes caused by overuse of antibiotics leads to urgent demands for novel antibiotics exploration. Our recent data showed that Ly2.1-3 (a novel Ly6 gene cluster) were proteins with cationic nature and rich in cysteines content, that are characteristics of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), and their expression were all significantly up-regulated after challenge with LPS. These strongly suggested that Ly2.1-3 are potential AMPs, but firm evidences are lacking. Here we clearly showed that the recombinant proteins of Ly2...
December 15, 2016: Bioscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27977886/self-assembled-arginine-rich-peptides-as-effective-antimicrobial-agents
#16
Gujie Mi, Di Shi, Whitney Herchek, Thomas J Webster
Bacteria can adapt to their ever-changing environment to develop a resistance to commonly-used antibiotics. This escalating evolution of bacteria coupled with a diminished number of effective antibiotics have caused a global healthcare crisis. New antimicrobials and novel approaches to tackle this problem are urgently needed. Antimicrobial peptides are of particular interest in this endeavor due to their broad spectrum antimicrobial properties as well as ability to combat multi-drug resistant bacteria. Most peptides have both hydrophobic and hydrophilic regions that enables them to be soluble in an aqueous solution, yet can insert into and subsequently disintegrate lipid rich membranes through diverse mechanisms...
December 15, 2016: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27976700/high-throughput-and-automated-diagnosis-of-antimicrobial-resistance-using-a-cost-effective-cellphone-based-micro-plate-reader
#17
Steve Feng, Derek Tseng, Dino Di Carlo, Omai B Garner, Aydogan Ozcan
Routine antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) can prevent deaths due to bacteria and reduce the spread of multi-drug-resistance, but cannot be regularly performed in resource-limited-settings due to technological challenges, high-costs, and lack of trained professionals. We demonstrate an automated and cost-effective cellphone-based 96-well microtiter-plate (MTP) reader, capable of performing AST without the need for trained diagnosticians. Our system includes a 3D-printed smartphone attachment that holds and illuminates the MTP using a light-emitting-diode array...
December 15, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27976597/mycobacterial-cell-wall-biosynthesis-a-multifaceted-antibiotic-target
#18
Katherine A Abrahams, Gurdyal S Besra
Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), the etiological agent of tuberculosis (TB), is recognized as a global health emergency as promoted by the World Health Organization. Over 1 million deaths per year, along with the emergence of multi- and extensively-drug resistant strains of Mtb, have triggered intensive research into the pathogenicity and biochemistry of this microorganism, guiding the development of anti-TB chemotherapeutic agents. The essential mycobacterial cell wall, sharing some common features with all bacteria, represents an apparent 'Achilles heel' that has been targeted by TB chemotherapy since the advent of TB treatment...
December 15, 2016: Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27959872/survival-of-antibacterial-resistance-microbes-in-hospital-generated-recycled-wastewater
#19
Kumarasingam Kalaiselvi, Vincent Mangayarkarasi, Doraisami Balakrishnan, Vasudevan Chitraleka
Hospital wastewater has the potential to be a threat to the hospital environment as it can contain pathogenic bacteria that may facilitate the resistant nature of organisms within effluent or water treatment plants. The recycling of hospital wastewater should have good quality. This study was carried out to highlight the incidence of antibiotic resistant bacteria in hospital-generated recycled water. This study was conducted in a tertiary care teaching hospital during June 2013-June 2014. One hundred and forty wastewater samples were aseptically collected at different stages in the recycling plant...
December 2016: Journal of Water and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27958389/a-novel-pleuromutilin-antibacterial-compound-its-binding-mode-and-selectivity-mechanism
#20
Zohar Eyal, Donna Matzov, Miri Krupkin, Susanne Paukner, Rosemarie Riedl, Haim Rozenberg, Ella Zimmerman, Anat Bashan, Ada Yonath
The increasing appearance of pathogenic bacteria with antibiotic resistance is a global threat. Consequently, clinically available potent antibiotics that are active against multidrug resistant pathogens are becoming exceedingly scarce. Ribosomes are a main target for antibiotics, and hence are an objective for novel drug development. Lefamulin, a semi-synthetic pleuromutilin compound highly active against multi-resistant pathogens, is a promising antibiotic currently in phase III trials for the treatment of community-acquired bacterial pneumonia in adults...
December 13, 2016: Scientific Reports
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