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Multi drug resistant bacteria

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430938/characterization-of-yjjj-toxin-of-escherichia-coli
#1
Yuki Maeda, Chun-Yi Lin, Yojiro Ishida, Masayori Inouye, Yoshihiro Yamaguchi, Sangita Phadtare
Reminiscent of eukaryotic apoptotic programmed cell death, bacteria also contain a large number of suicide genes, which are in general co-expressed with their cognate antitoxic genes. These systems called the toxin-antitoxin (TA) systems are associated with cellular dormancy, and play major roles in biofilm formation and persistent multi-drug resistance of many human pathogens. In recent years, the study on TA system toxins has become a hot topic due to the health implications of these toxins by virtue of their role in bacterial pathogenicity...
April 19, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425152/nmr-structures-and-molecular-dynamics-simulation-of-hylin-a1-peptide-analogs-interacting-with-micelles
#2
Edson Crusca, Amanda Souza Câmara, Carolina Oliveira Matos, Reinaldo Marchetto, Eduardo Maffud Cilli, Luciano Morais Lião, Aline Lima de Oliveira
Antimicrobial peptides are recognized candidates with pharmaceutical potential against epidemic emerging multi-drug resistant bacteria. In this study, we use nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and molecular dynamics simulations to determine the unknown structure and evaluate the interaction with dodecylphosphatidylcholine (DPC) and sodium dodecylsulphate (SDS) micelles with three W(6) -Hylin-a1 analogs antimicrobial peptides (HyAc, HyK, and HyD). The HyAc, HyK, and HyD bound to DPC micelles are all formed by a unique α-helix structure...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Peptide Science: An Official Publication of the European Peptide Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416558/in-vitro-discordance-with-in-vivo-activity-humanized-exposures-of-ceftazidime-avibactam-aztreonam-and-tigecycline-alone-and-in-combination-against-new-delhi-metallo-%C3%AE-lactamase-producing-klebsiella-pneumoniae-in-a-murine-lung-infection-model
#3
M L Monogue, L M Abbo, R Rosa, J F Camargo, O Martinez, R A Bonomo, D P Nicolau
The management of infections with New Delhi Metallo-beta-lactamase-1 (NDM) producing bacteria remains clinically challenging given the multi-drug resistant (MDR) phenotype associated with these bacteria. Despite resistance in vitro, ceftazidime-avibactam previously demonstrated in vivo activity against NDM+ Enterobacteriaceae. Herein, we observed in vitro synergy with ceftazidime-avibactam and aztreonam against a MDR K. pneumoniae harboring NDM. In vivo, humanized doses of ceftazidime-avibactam monotherapy resulted in > 2 log10CFU bacterial reduction, therefore, no in vivo synergy was observed...
April 17, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409633/tunable-nitric-oxide-release-from-s-nitroso-n-acetylpenicillamine-via-catalytic-copper-nanoparticles-for-biomedical-applications
#4
Jitendra Pant, Marcus James Goudie, Sean P Hopkins, Elizabeth J Brisbois, Hitesh Handa
The quest for novel therapies to prevent bacterial infections and blood clots (thrombosis) is of utmost importance in biomedical research due to exponential growth in cases of thrombosis, blood infections, and the emergence of multi-drug resistant strains of bacteria. Endogenous nitric oxide (NO) is a cellular signaling molecule that plays a pivotal role in host immunity against pathogens, prevention of clotting, and regulation of systemic blood pressure among several biological functions. The physiological effect of NO is dose dependent, that necessitates the need of tunable release kinetics which is the objective of this study...
April 14, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406770/frequency-and-antibiogram-of-isolates-from-surgical-units-of-a-tertiary-care-hospital-in-quetta
#5
Maria Mushtaq Gill, Muhammad Junaid Khan, Muhammad Asif Nawaz, Sarfraz Khan Janjua
OBJECTIVE: To determine the frequency and antibiogram of the isolates from infected patients in surgical units of a tertiary care hospital. STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional, descriptive study. PLACE AND DURATION OF STUDY: Department of Microbiology, Combined Military Hospital, Quetta, from March to October 2015. METHODOLOGY: Clinical samples from the surgical units received in Department of Microbiology for culture and sensitivity were analyzed by Gram stain, culture and biochemical tests for identification of the isolates; and the antibiotic susceptibility was determined by modified Kirby Bauer disc diffusion method...
March 2017: Journal of the College of Physicians and Surgeons—Pakistan: JCPSP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406300/synthesis-and-characterization-of-tetrahydropyran-based-bacterial-topoisomerase-inhibitors-with-antibacterial-activity-against-gram-negative-bacteria
#6
Jean-Philippe Surivet, Cornelia Zumbrunn, Thierry Bruyère, Daniel Bur, Christopher Kohl, Hans H Locher, Peter Seiler, Eric A Ertel, Patrick Hess, Michel Enderlin-Paput, Stéphanie Enderlin-Paput, Jean-Christophe Gauvin, Azely Mirre, Christian Hubschwerlen, Daniel Ritz, Georg Rueedi
There is an urgent unmet medical need for novel antibiotics that are effective against a broad range of bacterial species, especially multi-drug resistant ones. Tetrahydropyran-based inhibitors of bacterial type II topoisomerases (DNA gyrase and topoisomerase IV) display potent activity against Gram-positive pathogens and no target-mediated cross-resistance with fluoroquinolones. We report our research efforts aimed at expanding the antibacterial spectrum of this class of molecules towards difficult-to-treat Gram-negative pathogens...
April 13, 2017: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403894/antibiotic-resistant-airborne-bacteria-and-their-multidrug-resistance-pattern-at-university-teaching-referral-hospital-in-south-ethiopia
#7
Fithamlak Bisetegen Solomon, Fiseha Wada Wadilo, Amsalu Amache Arota, Yishak Leka Abraham
BACKGROUND: Hospitals provide a reservoir of microorganisms, many of which are multi-resistant to antibiotics. Emergence of multi-drug resistant strains in a hospital environment, particularly in developing countries is an increasing problem to infection treatment. This study aims at assessing antibiotic resistant airborne bacterial isolates. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted at Wolaita Sodo university teaching and referral Hospital. Indoor air samples were collected by using passive air sampling method...
April 12, 2017: Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401893/bacteriophages-from-expec-reservoirs-kill-pandemic-multidrug-resistant-strains-of-clonal-group-st131-in-animal-models-of-bacteremia
#8
Sabrina I Green, Jason T Kaelber, Li Ma, Barbara W Trautner, Robert F Ramig, Anthony W Maresso
Multi-drug resistant (MDR) enteric bacteria are of increasing global concern. A clonal group, Escherichia coli sequence type (ST) 131, harbors both MDR and a deadly complement of virulence factors. Patients with an immunocompromised system are at high risk of infections with these E. coli and there is strong epidemiologic evidence that the human intestinal tract, as well as household pets, may be a reservoir. Here, we examine if phages are an effective treatment strategy against this clonal group in murine models of bacteremia that recapitulate clinical infections...
April 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399890/imipenem-cilastatin-encapsulated-polymeric-nanoparticles-for-destroying-carbapenem-resistant-bacterial-isolates
#9
Mona I Shaaban, Mohamed A Shaker, Fatma M Mady
BACKGROUND: Carbapenem-resistance is an extremely growing medical threat in antibacterial therapy as the incurable resistant strains easily develop a multi-resistance action to other potent antimicrobial agents. Nonetheless, the protective delivery of current antibiotics using nano-carriers opens a tremendous approach in the antimicrobial therapy, allowing the nano-formulated antibiotics to beat these health threat pathogens. Herein, we encapsulated imipenem into biodegradable polymeric nanoparticles to destroy the imipenem-resistant bacteria and overcome the microbial adhesion and dissemination...
April 11, 2017: Journal of Nanobiotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28384882/polymyxin-b-induced-diffuse-cutaneous-hyperpigmentation
#10
Sandeep Lahiry, Shouvik Choudhury, Ayan Mukherjee, Prajesh Kiran Bhunya, Moumita Bala
Polymyxin B is a polypeptide-antibiotic, primarily used for resistant Gram-negative infections, first obtained from bacterium Bacillus polymyxa in the late 1940s. Antibiotic spectrum are restricted to mainly gram negative bacterias like Enterobacter, E. coli, Klebsiella, Salmonella, Pasteurella, Bordetella, Shigella; and particularly organisms like Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter baumannii, which are extremely potent to acquire antibiotic resistance. Side effects include neurotoxicity and acute renal tubular necrosis...
February 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28383517/antibiotic-resistance-in-an-indian-rural-community-a-one-health-observational-study-on-commensal-coliform-from-humans-animals-and-water
#11
Manju Raj Purohit, Salesh Chandran, Harshada Shah, Vishal Diwan, Ashok J Tamhankar, Cecilia Stålsby Lundborg
Antibiotic-resistant bacteria are an escalating grim menace to global public health. Our aim is to phenotype and genotype antibiotic-resistant commensal Escherichia coli (E. coli) from humans, animals, and water from the same community with a 'one-health' approach. The samples were collected from a village belonging to demographic surveillance site of Ruxmaniben Deepchand (R.D.) Gardi Medical College Ujjain, Central India. Commensal coliforms from stool samples from children aged 1-3 years and their environment (animals, drinking water from children's households, common source- and waste-water) were studied for antibiotic susceptibility and plasmid-encoded resistance genes...
April 6, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28382808/weaning-of-neurological-early-rehabilitation-patients-from-mechanical-ventilation-a-retrospective-observational-study
#12
Jens D Rollnik, Joachim K Krauss, Christoph Gutenbrunner, Claus Wallesch, Thomas Münte, Martin Stangel
BACKGROUND: There is little known about the factors influencing the weaning process of long-term mechanically ventilated patients in the neurological early rehabilitation. AIM: To identify salient clinical and neurophysiological variables with impact upon weaning from mechanical ventilation during neurological and neurosurgical early rehabilitation. DESIGN: Observational, retrospective data analysis. POPULATION: A sample of 65 mechanically ventilated neurological and neurosurgical early rehabilitation patients of the BDH-Clinic Hessisch Oldendorf in Northern Germany...
April 4, 2017: European Journal of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28381708/analysis-of-drug-resistance-using-experimental-evolution
#13
Chikara Furusawa
 The emergence of drug-resistant bacteria is a growing concern for global public health. One possible strategy to deal with the problem of resistant bacteria is to understand the dynamics of adaptive evolution under antibiotics and then develop methods to suppress such adaptive evolution. For this purpose, we performed experimental evolution of Escherichia coli under various antibiotics and obtained resistant strains. The phenotypic changes in these resistant strains were quantified by transcriptome analysis, and the genomic changes were analyzed using next-generation sequencers...
2017: Yakugaku Zasshi: Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28375516/host-pathogen-interface-progress-in-understanding-the-pathogenesis-of-infection-due-to-multidrug-resistant-bacteria-in-the-intensive-care-unit
#14
Danielle Ahn, Alice Prince
The diverse responses of critically ill patients to infection with multi-drug resistant (MDR) bacteria are determined by many complex factors. These include the nature of the immune response activated by specific organisms. Properties unique to each organism such as adherence proteins, microvesicle formation, toxin production and the propensity to form biofilms are important factors in pathogenesis. Equally important is the variability in the host immune response, whether due to genetic or iatrogenic factors, including the presence of major comorbidities, treatment with immunomodulatory therapy and disruption of the microbiome...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28368216/an-overview-of-antimicrobial-peptides-and-the-latest-advances-in-their-development
#15
Josep M Sierra, Ester Fusté, Francesc Rabanal, Teresa Vinuesa, Miguel Viñas
The recent dramatic increase in the incidence of antimicrobial resistance has been recognized by organizations such as the United Nations and World Health Organization as well as the governments of the USA and several European countries. A relatively new weapon in the fight against severe infections caused by multi-drug resistant bacteria is antimicrobial peptides (AMPs). These include colistin, currently regarded as the last line of antimicrobial therapy against multi-drug resistant microorganisms. Areas covered: Here, the authors provide an overview of the current research on AMPs...
April 3, 2017: Expert Opinion on Biological Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28365981/evaluation-of-the-antimicrobial-activity-of-cationic-polymers-against-mycobacteria-towards-anti-tubercular-macromolecules
#16
Daniel J Phillips, James Harrison, Sarah-Jane Richards, Daniel E Mitchell, Esther Tichauer, Alasdair Thomas Macadam Hubbard, Collette S Guy, Ian Hands-Portman, Elizabeth Fullam, Matthew I Gibson
Antimicrobial resistance is a global healthcare problem with a dwindling arsenal of usable drugs. Tuberculosis, caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis, requires long-term combination therapy and multi- and totally-drug resistant strains have emerged. This study reports the antibacterial activity of cationic polymers against mycobacteria, which are distinguished from other Gram-positive bacteria by their unique cell wall comprising a covalently linked mycolic acid-arabinogalactan-peptidoglycan complex (mAGP), interspersed with additional complex lipids which helps them persist in their host...
April 3, 2017: Biomacromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28358877/tuberculosis-knowledge-attitudes-and-practices-among-northern-ethiopian-prisoners-implications-for-tb-control-efforts
#17
Kelemework Adane, Mark Spigt, Laturnus Johanna, Dorscheidt Noortje, Semaw Ferede Abera, Geert-Jan Dinant
INTRODUCTION: Although awareness is an important component in tuberculosis (TB) control, we do not know how much Ethiopian prisoners know about TB. This study assessed the level of knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) of prisoners about TB in eight northern Ethiopian prisons. METHODS: Data were collected cross-sectionally from 615 prisoners using a standardized questionnaire between March and May 2016. The outcome variables were defined considering the basic elements about TB...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28355133/an-allosteric-transport-mechanism-for-the-acrab-tolc-multidrug-efflux-pump
#18
Zhao Wang, Guizhen Fan, Corey F Hryc, James N Blaza, Irina I Serysheva, Michael F Schmid, Wah Chiu, Ben F Luisi, Dijun Du
Bacterial efflux pumps confer multidrug resistance by transporting diverse antibiotics from the cell. In Gram-negative bacteria, some of these pumps form multi-protein assemblies that span the cell envelope. Here we report the near-atomic resolution cryoEM structures of the Escherichia coli AcrAB-TolC multidrug efflux pump in resting and drug transport states, revealing a quaternary structural switch that allosterically couples and synchronizes initial ligand binding with channel opening. Within the transport-activated state, the channel remains open even though the pump cycles through three distinct conformations...
March 29, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28353153/good-tolerability-of-high-dose-colistin-based-therapy-in-patients-with-haematological-malignancies
#19
Sara Grignolo, Paola Tatarelli, Fabio Guolo, Paola Minetto, Giulia Rivoli, Daniela Guardo, Valerio Del Bono, Riccardo Varaldo, Francesca Gualandi, Filippo Ballerini, Annamaria Raiola, Marco Gobbi, Claudio Viscoli, Malgorzata Mikulska
PURPOSE: Colistin is usually the only drug fully active against multi-drug resistant Gram-negative bacteria, but its nephrotoxicity might limit its use. Recent pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic data suggest that high dose of colistin, preceded by a loading dose, are needed to maximize its antibacterial effect. The aim of this study was to determine the safety of high doses colistin, in haematology population. METHODS: A retrospective review of haematology patients who received high dose colistin-based therapy in years 2011-2016 was performed...
March 28, 2017: Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346030/antimicrobial-activity-of-eugenol-and-essential-oils-containing-eugenol-a-mechanistic-viewpoint
#20
Anna Marchese, Ramona Barbieri, Erika Coppo, Ilkay Erdogan Orhan, Maria Daglia, Seyed Fazel Nabavi, Morteza Izadi, Mohammad Abdollahi, Seyed Mohammad Nabavi, Marjan Ajami
Eugenol is a hydroxyphenyl propene, naturally occurring in the essential oils of several plants belonging to the Lamiaceae, Lauraceae, Myrtaceae, and Myristicaceae families. It is one of the major constituents of clove (Syzygium aromaticum (L.) Merr. & L.M. Perry, Myrtaceae) oil and is largely used in both foods and cosmetics as a flavoring agent. A large body of recent scientific evidence supports claims from traditional medicine that eugenol exerts beneficial effects on human health. These effects are mainly associated with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities...
March 27, 2017: Critical Reviews in Microbiology
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