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Ovarian cancer new hypothesis

Balázs Ligeti, Ottilia Menyhárt, Ingrid Petrič, Balázs Győrffy, Sándor Pongor
BACKGROUND: Biomedical sciences use a variety of data sources on drug molecules, genes, proteins, diseases and scientific publications etc. This system can be best pictured as a giant data-network linked together by physical, functional, logical and similarity relationships. A new hypothesis or discovery can be considered as a new link that can be deduced from the existing connections. For instance, interactions of two pharmacons - if not already known - represent a testable novel hypothesis...
October 21, 2016: Current Pharmaceutical Design
Marina Bagnoli, Anna Granata, Roberta Nicoletti, Balaji Krishnamachary, Zaver M Bhujwalla, Rossella Canese, Franca Podo, Silvana Canevari, Egidio Iorio, Delia Mezzanzanica
Compared with normal differentiated cells, cancer cells require a metabolic reprograming to support their high proliferation rates and survival. Aberrant choline metabolism is a fairly new metabolic hallmark reflecting the complex reciprocal interactions between oncogenic signaling and cellular metabolism. Alterations of the involved metabolic network may be sustained by changes in activity of several choline transporters as well as of enzymes such as choline kinase-alpha (ChoK-α) and phosphatidylcholine-specific phospholipases C and D...
2016: Frontiers in Oncology
A Gómez-Alarcon, M T Gómez-García, J P García-de la-Torre, M Del Valle-Morón, M A Arones-Collantes, G González-de Merlo
BACKGROUND: The vulvar cancer is the fourth more frequent neoplasia after the endometrial, cervix and ovarian cancer. Normally, it has been related to old women of ages from 70 to 80 years old. Rarely, it has been detected cases in adult or young women. However, its incidence has been increased in the last years and in more early years. It is for this change in the incidence and its appearance in early years why a possible etiology has been looked for, opening different hypothesis that go from that related to the HPV to those that study an inflammatory chronic process as the basis for the carcinogenesis...
March 2016: Ginecología y Obstetricia de México
Anna L Beavis, Anna Jo Bodurtha Smith, Amanda Nickles Fader
Modifiable lifestyle factors, such as obesity, lack of physical activity, and smoking, contribute greatly to cancer and chronic disease morbidity and mortality worldwide. This review appraises recent evidence on modifiable lifestyle factors in the prevention of endometrial cancer (EC) and ovarian cancer (OC) as well as new evidence for lifestyle management of EC and OC survivors. For EC, obesity continues to be the strongest risk factor, while new evidence suggests that physical activity, oral contraceptive pills, and bariatric surgery may be protective against EC...
2016: International Journal of Women's Health
Noah A Kolb, A Gordon Smith, J Robinson Singleton, Susan L Beck, Gregory J Stoddard, Summer Brown, Kathi Mooney
IMPORTANCE: Chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN) is a common adverse effect of neurotoxic chemotherapy resulting in pain, sensory loss, and decreased quality of life. Few studies have prospectively examined the relationship between sensory neuropathy symptoms, falls, and fall-related injuries for patients receiving neurotoxic chemotherapy. OBJECTIVE: To determine the association between the symptoms of CIPN and the risk of falls for patients receiving neurotoxic chemotherapy...
July 1, 2016: JAMA Neurology
A Algarni, J Greenman, L A Madden
INTRODUCTION: The venous thromboembolism is considered one of the highest risk factor in cancer patients for instance ovarian and pancreas. This hypercoagulability state is believed to be caused by tumour cells that can produce a variety of procaogulant factors including tissue factor (TF) bearing microparticles (MP). Chemotherapy is an independent risk factor for venous thromboembolism (VTE) in patients and it can leads to coagulation activation and may increase microparticles that can increase risk of thrombosis...
April 2016: Thrombosis Research
Piera M Cirillo, Erica T Wang, Marcelle I Cedars, Lee-May Chen, Barbara A Cohn
We tested the hypothesis that irregular menstruation predicts lower risk for ovarian cancer, possibly due to less frequent ovulation. We conducted a 50-year prospective study of 15,528 mothers in the Child Health and Development Studies cohort recruited from the Kaiser Foundation Health Plan from 1959 to 1966. Irregular menstruation was classified via medical record and self-report at age 26. We identified 116 cases and 84 deaths due to ovarian cancer through 2011 via linkage to the California Cancer Registry and Vital Statistics...
September 1, 2016: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
Javier A Menendez, Núria Folguera-Blasco, Elisabet Cuyàs, Salvador Fernández-Arroyo, Jorge Joven, Tomás Alarcón
The geroncogenesis hypothesis postulates that the decline in metabolic cellular health that occurs naturally with aging drives a "field effect" predisposing normal tissues for cancer development. We propose that mutations in the cancer susceptibility genes BRCA1/2 might trigger "accelerated geroncogenesis" in breast and ovarian epithelia. By speeding up the rate at which the metabolic threshold becomes "permissive" with survival and expansion of genomically unstable pre-tumoral epithelial cells, BRCA haploinsufficiency-driven metabolic reprogramming would operate as a bona fide oncogenic event enabling malignant transformation and tumor formation in BRCA carriers...
March 15, 2016: Oncotarget
Zhihong Ai, Yang Lu, Songbo Qiu, Zhen Fan
Cisplatin is currently one of the most effective chemotherapeutic drugs used for treating ovarian cancer; however, resistance to cisplatin is common. In this study, we explored an experimental strategy for overcoming cisplatin resistance of human ovarian cancer from the new perspective of cancer cell metabolism. By using two pairs of genetically matched cisplatin-sensitive and cisplatin-resistant ovarian cancer cell lines, we tested the hypothesis that downregulating hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1), which regulates metabolic enzymes involved in glycolysis, is a promising strategy for overcoming cisplatin resistance of human ovarian cancer cells...
April 1, 2016: Cancer Letters
Jerilynn C Prior
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Provide evidence-based recent data on oral micronized progesterone (OMP) and progestins in menopausal hormonal therapy (MHT). RECENT FINDINGS: Medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) increases breast cancer acting through the glucocorticoid receptor; progestins in MHT increase thrombosis more than oral estrogens; MPA, but not OMP or other progestins, increase monocyte cell endothelium adhesion; MPA and estradiol (E2)/MPA have negative brain effects, whereas E2/progesterone (P4) has neuroregenerative brain effects...
December 2015: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
Ulf-Håkan Stenman
This review describes studies performed by our group and other laboratories in the field aimed at development of biomarkers not only for cancer but also for other diseases. The markers covered include tumor-associated trypsin inhibitor (TATI), tumor-associated trypsin (TAT), human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and their various molecular forms, their biology and diagnostic use. The discovery of TATI was the result of a hypothesis-driven project aimed at finding new biomarkers for ovarian cancer among urinary peptides...
2016: Critical Reviews in Clinical Laboratory Sciences
C Chu, M S Noël-Hudson, J Bénard, T Ha-Duong, F Allaoui, R Farinotti, L Bonhomme-Faivre
PURPOSE: Cancer chemotherapy typically combines anticancer drugs from different mechanisms of action. However, cancer cells could become resistant to chemotherapy via P-gp or other ATP binding cassette proteins. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether cetuximab, monoclonal antibody directed toward epidermal growth factor receptor, could increase intracellular concentration of conventional chemotherapy by interacting with P-gp. METHODS: Two human ovarian carcinoma (IGROV1) and two human embryonary kidney (HEK) cell lines, overexpressing or weakly expressing P-gp, were used...
August 30, 2015: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Noriyuki Katsumata
Currently, paclitaxel and carboplatin are administered every 3 weeks as the standard agents for the first-line treatment of advanced ovarian cancer. The concept of "dose-dense therapy" is based on the Norton-Simon hypothesis that a shorter interval between the doses of cytotoxic agents is more effective in reducing tumor burden than dose escalation. The results of phase III clinical trials demonstrating the superiority of weekly paclitaxel administration, compared with a 3-week schedule in breast cancer in both the metastatic and adjuvant settings support the hypothesis...
May 2015: Current Treatment Options in Oncology
Eugene Demidenko
BACKGROUND: We develop a new concept that reflects how genes are connected based on microarray data using the coefficient of determination (the squared Pearson correlation coefficient). Our gene rank combines a priori knowledge about gene connectivity, say, from the Gene Ontology (GO) database, and the microarray expression data at hand, called the microarray enriched gene rank, or simply gene rank (GR). GR, similarly to Google PageRank, is defined in a recursive fashion and is computed as the left maximum eigenvector of a stochastic matrix derived from microarray expression data...
2015: BioData Mining
Mitch Dowsett, Elizabeth Folkerd
Understanding the complex relationship between obesity and breast cancer is fundamental to our knowledge of the etiology of this malignancy; changes in the composition of the hormonal milieu are implicit in this process. Estrogens are synthesized from androgens by aromatase in the gonads and in peripheral tissues, principally, adipose tissue. Obesity in women, regardless of their age, leads to more aromatase and more extra-glandular estrogen production. In postmenopausal women, in whom ovarian estrogen production is absent, the increased incidence of breast cancer in women with high body mass index has been attributed to the relatively high plasma levels of estradiol from subcutaneous fat...
January 2015: Breast Cancer Research and Treatment
Richard Neapolitan, Xia Jiang
This paper concerns a new method for identifying aberrant signal transduction pathways (STPs) in cancer using case/control gene expression-level datasets, and applying that method and an existing method to an ovarian carcinoma dataset. Both methods identify STPs that are plausibly linked to all cancers based on current knowledge. Thus, the paper is most appropriate for the cancer informatics community. Our hypothesis is that STPs that are altered in tumorous tissue can be identified by applying a new Bayesian network (BN)-based method (causal analysis of STP aberration (CASA)) and an existing method (signaling pathway impact analysis (SPIA)) to the cancer genome atlas (TCGA) gene expression-level datasets...
2014: Cancer Informatics
Yvonne G van der Zwan, Katharina Biermann, Katja P Wolffenbuttel, Martine Cools, Leendert H J Looijenga
CONTEXT: A disturbed process of gonadal formation and maintenance may result in testicular dysgenesis syndrome or disorders of sex development (DSDs), with an increased germ cell cancer (GCC) risk. Early diagnosis and treatment requires the identification of relevant risk factors and initial pathologic stages. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate current knowledge and novel insights regarding GCC risk in patients with DSDs, with the aim of providing a model for clinical use. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: A Medline search was conducted to identify all original and review articles assessing the aetiology of GCC, GCC risk in DSD patients, new predictive markers related to GCC, and possible clinical scenarios related to GCC and DSDs...
April 2015: European Urology
Jianping Lu, Di Wu, Chuanxing Li, Meng Zhou, Dapeng Hao
UNLABELLED: New strategies are needed to predict response to platinum-based chemotherapy and outcome of ovarian cancers. We hypothesized that the mutator phenotype in the cancer genome represents the overuse of alternative DNA repair mechanisms, which might be a sign of homologous recombination (HR) deficiency and can be captured by gene expression. Multidimensional data of ovarian cancer patients and breast cancer patients from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database were used for the development and validation of a potential clinical information-independent score that correlates with HR deficiency and predicts outcome...
November 2014: Journal of Molecular Medicine: Official Organ of the "Gesellschaft Deutscher Naturforscher und Ärzte"
Yinu Wang, Horacio Cardenas, Fang Fang, Salvatore Condello, Pietro Taverna, Matthew Segar, Yunlong Liu, Kenneth P Nephew, Daniela Matei
Emerging results indicate that cancer stem-like cells contribute to chemoresistance and poor clinical outcomes in many cancers, including ovarian cancer. As epigenetic regulators play a major role in the control of normal stem cell differentiation, epigenetics may offer a useful arena to develop strategies to target cancer stem-like cells. Epigenetic aberrations, especially DNA methylation, silence tumor-suppressor and differentiation-associated genes that regulate the survival of ovarian cancer stem-like cells (OCSC)...
September 1, 2014: Cancer Research
M F Fathalla
Ovarian cancer continues to be a silent killer. Most women have advanced disease at the time of diagnosis. Intensive efforts to develop effective screening strategies have not so far met with success. There is a need to re-visit the potential of prevention strategies. In 1971, the author submitted a hypothesis for a possible relationship between incessant ovulation and development of epithelial ovarian cancer. Subsequent research from different disciplines opened new frontiers to be explored for prevention in the general population and in high-risk groups, and for opportunistic interventions...
2013: Facts, Views & Vision in ObGyn
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