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Ovarian cancer new hypothesis

Peter Frost, Karel Kleisner, Jaroslav Flegr
Red hair is associated in women with pain sensitivity. This medical condition, and perhaps others, seems facilitated by the combination of being red-haired and female. We tested this hypothesis by questioning a large sample of Czech and Slovak respondents about the natural redness and darkness of their hair, their natural eye color, their physical and mental health (24 categories), and other personal attributes (height, weight, number of children, lifelong number of sexual partners, frequency of smoking). Red-haired women did worse than other women in ten health categories and better in only three, being particularly prone to colorectal, cervical, uterine, and ovarian cancer...
2017: PloS One
Tingting Zheng, Yueqiong Ni, Jun Li, Billy K C Chow, Gianni Panagiotou
Background: A range of computational methods that rely on the analysis of genome-wide expression datasets have been developed and successfully used for drug repositioning. The success of these methods is based on the hypothesis that introducing a factor (in this case, a drug molecule) that could reverse the disease gene expression signature will lead to a therapeutic effect. However, it has also been shown that globally reversing the disease expression signature is not a prerequisite for drug activity. On the other hand, the basic idea of significant anti-correlation in expression profiles could have great value for establishing diet-disease associations and could provide new insights into the role of dietary interventions in disease...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
Sandro Pignata, Giovanni Scambia, Alessandra Bologna, Simona Signoriello, Ignace B Vergote, Uwe Wagner, Domenica Lorusso, Viviana Murgia, Roberto Sorio, Gabriella Ferrandina, Cosimo Sacco, Gennaro Cormio, Enrico Breda, Saverio Cinieri, Donato Natale, Giorgia Mangili, Carmela Pisano, Sabrina Chiara Cecere, Marilena Di Napoli, Vanda Salutari, Francesco Raspagliesi, Laura Arenare, Alice Bergamini, Jane Bryce, Gennaro Daniele, Maria Carmela Piccirillo, Ciro Gallo, Francesco Perrone
Purpose Platinum-based chemotherapy (PBC) for patients with progressing ovarian cancer (OC) is more effective with a longer time interval from previous platinum treatment (platinum-free interval [PFI]). In 1999, it was hypothesized that prolonging PFI with single-agent non-PBC (NPBC) may offer a strategy to improve overall outcome. MITO-8 aimed to verify this hypothesis commonly used in clinical practice although it has not been prospectively tested. Methods MITO-8 is an open-label, prospective, randomized, superiority trial...
October 10, 2017: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
Paola Concolino, Roberta Rizza, Karl Hackmann, Angelo Minucci, Giovanni Luca Scaglione, Maria De Bonis, Alessandra Costella, Cecilia Zuppi, Evelin Schrock, Ettore Capoluongo
INTRODUCTION: Many studies document the involvement of BRCA1/2 gene rearrangements in genetic predisposition to breast and ovarian cancer. Large genomic rearrangements (LGRs) of BRCA1 account for 0-27% of all disease-causing mutations in various populations, while LGRs in BRCA2 are rarer. Here, we describe a novel BRCA2 LGR, involving the duplication of exons 4-26, in an Italian family with hereditary breast and ovarian cancer (HBOC) syndrome. OBJECTIVE: Our purpose was to provide an effective characterization of this variant using a combination of different methods able to establish the exact breakpoints of the duplication...
October 2017: Molecular Diagnosis & Therapy
Shannon Salvador, Stephanie Scott, Julie Ann Francis, Anita Agrawal, Christopher Giede
OBJECTIVE: This guideline reviews the potential benefits of opportunistic salpingectomy to prevent the development of high grade serous cancers (HGSC) of the ovary/fallopian tube/peritoneum based on current evidence supporting the fallopian tube origin of disease. INTENDED USERS: Gynaecologists, obstetricians, family doctors, registered nurses, nurse practitioners, residents, and health care providers. TARGET POPULATION: Adult women (18 and older): OPTIONS: Women considering hysterectomy who wish to retain their ovaries in situ have traditionally also retained their fallopian tubes...
June 2017: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Canada: JOGC, Journal D'obstétrique et Gynécologie du Canada: JOGC
Paola Concolino, Roberta Rizza, Karl Hackmann, Ida Paris, Angelo Minucci, Elisa De Paolis, Giovanni Scambia, Cecilia Zuppi, Evelin Schrock, Ettore Capoluongo
BACKGROUND: We report a novel BRCA1 LGR, involving the complete duplication of exon 3, in an Italian patient with a strong family history of breast and ovarian cancer. Our purpose is to provide an effective characterization of this LGR using a combination of different methods able to establish the exact breakpoints of the duplication. METHODS: MAQ assay was used as primary screening method in LGRs detection. Array CGH, RT-PCR, and Long-PCR were used for a careful characterization of rearrangement and breakpoint regions...
May 9, 2017: Breast Cancer Research and Treatment
Kara C Long Roche, Nadeem R Abu-Rustum, Mlica Nourmoussavi, Oliver Zivanovic
Because there is no screening test for ovarian cancer, effective prevention strategies may be the best way to reduce the mortality of this most lethal gynecologic malignancy. Increasing evidence supports the hypothesis that the fallopian tube is the site of origin for the vast majority of high-grade serous carcinomas. Our growing understanding of the pathogenesis of this disease offers a rare opportunity to explore new preventive measures, such as bilateral salpingectomy, which may provide great benefit without compromising ovarian function...
May 15, 2017: Cancer
Balazs Ligeti, Otilia Menyhart, Ingrid Petric, Balazs Gyorffy, Sandor Pongor
BACKGROUND: Biomedical sciences use a variety of data sources on drug molecules, genes, proteins, diseases and scientific publications etc. This system can be best pictured as a giant data-network linked together by physical, functional, logical and similarity relationships. A new hypothesis or discovery can be considered as a new link that can be deduced from the existing connections. For instance, interactions of two pharmacons - if not already known - represent a testable novel hypothesis...
2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
Marina Bagnoli, Anna Granata, Roberta Nicoletti, Balaji Krishnamachary, Zaver M Bhujwalla, Rossella Canese, Franca Podo, Silvana Canevari, Egidio Iorio, Delia Mezzanzanica
Compared with normal differentiated cells, cancer cells require a metabolic reprograming to support their high proliferation rates and survival. Aberrant choline metabolism is a fairly new metabolic hallmark reflecting the complex reciprocal interactions between oncogenic signaling and cellular metabolism. Alterations of the involved metabolic network may be sustained by changes in activity of several choline transporters as well as of enzymes such as choline kinase-alpha (ChoK-α) and phosphatidylcholine-specific phospholipases C and D...
2016: Frontiers in Oncology
A Gómez-Alarcon, M T Gómez-García, J P García-de la-Torre, M Del Valle-Morón, M A Arones-Collantes, G González-de Merlo
BACKGROUND: The vulvar cancer is the fourth more frequent neoplasia after the endometrial, cervix and ovarian cancer. Normally, it has been related to old women of ages from 70 to 80 years old. Rarely, it has been detected cases in adult or young women. However, its incidence has been increased in the last years and in more early years. It is for this change in the incidence and its appearance in early years why a possible etiology has been looked for, opening different hypothesis that go from that related to the HPV to those that study an inflammatory chronic process as the basis for the carcinogenesis...
March 2016: Ginecología y Obstetricia de México
Anna L Beavis, Anna Jo Bodurtha Smith, Amanda Nickles Fader
Modifiable lifestyle factors, such as obesity, lack of physical activity, and smoking, contribute greatly to cancer and chronic disease morbidity and mortality worldwide. This review appraises recent evidence on modifiable lifestyle factors in the prevention of endometrial cancer (EC) and ovarian cancer (OC) as well as new evidence for lifestyle management of EC and OC survivors. For EC, obesity continues to be the strongest risk factor, while new evidence suggests that physical activity, oral contraceptive pills, and bariatric surgery may be protective against EC...
2016: International Journal of Women's Health
Noah A Kolb, A Gordon Smith, J Robinson Singleton, Susan L Beck, Gregory J Stoddard, Summer Brown, Kathi Mooney
IMPORTANCE: Chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN) is a common adverse effect of neurotoxic chemotherapy resulting in pain, sensory loss, and decreased quality of life. Few studies have prospectively examined the relationship between sensory neuropathy symptoms, falls, and fall-related injuries for patients receiving neurotoxic chemotherapy. OBJECTIVE: To determine the association between the symptoms of CIPN and the risk of falls for patients receiving neurotoxic chemotherapy...
July 1, 2016: JAMA Neurology
A Algarni, J Greenman, L A Madden
INTRODUCTION: The venous thromboembolism is considered one of the highest risk factor in cancer patients for instance ovarian and pancreas. This hypercoagulability state is believed to be caused by tumour cells that can produce a variety of procaogulant factors including tissue factor (TF) bearing microparticles (MP). Chemotherapy is an independent risk factor for venous thromboembolism (VTE) in patients and it can leads to coagulation activation and may increase microparticles that can increase risk of thrombosis...
April 2016: Thrombosis Research
Piera M Cirillo, Erica T Wang, Marcelle I Cedars, Lee-May Chen, Barbara A Cohn
We tested the hypothesis that irregular menstruation predicts lower risk for ovarian cancer, possibly due to less frequent ovulation. We conducted a 50-year prospective study of 15,528 mothers in the Child Health and Development Studies cohort recruited from the Kaiser Foundation Health Plan from 1959 to 1966. Irregular menstruation was classified via medical record and self-report at age 26. We identified 116 cases and 84 deaths due to ovarian cancer through 2011 via linkage to the California Cancer Registry and Vital Statistics...
September 1, 2016: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
Javier A Menendez, Núria Folguera-Blasco, Elisabet Cuyàs, Salvador Fernández-Arroyo, Jorge Joven, Tomás Alarcón
The geroncogenesis hypothesis postulates that the decline in metabolic cellular health that occurs naturally with aging drives a "field effect" predisposing normal tissues for cancer development. We propose that mutations in the cancer susceptibility genes BRCA1/2 might trigger "accelerated geroncogenesis" in breast and ovarian epithelia. By speeding up the rate at which the metabolic threshold becomes "permissive" with survival and expansion of genomically unstable pre-tumoral epithelial cells, BRCA haploinsufficiency-driven metabolic reprogramming would operate as a bona fide oncogenic event enabling malignant transformation and tumor formation in BRCA carriers...
March 15, 2016: Oncotarget
Zhihong Ai, Yang Lu, Songbo Qiu, Zhen Fan
Cisplatin is currently one of the most effective chemotherapeutic drugs used for treating ovarian cancer; however, resistance to cisplatin is common. In this study, we explored an experimental strategy for overcoming cisplatin resistance of human ovarian cancer from the new perspective of cancer cell metabolism. By using two pairs of genetically matched cisplatin-sensitive and cisplatin-resistant ovarian cancer cell lines, we tested the hypothesis that downregulating hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1), which regulates metabolic enzymes involved in glycolysis, is a promising strategy for overcoming cisplatin resistance of human ovarian cancer cells...
April 1, 2016: Cancer Letters
Jerilynn C Prior
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Provide evidence-based recent data on oral micronized progesterone (OMP) and progestins in menopausal hormonal therapy (MHT). RECENT FINDINGS: Medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) increases breast cancer acting through the glucocorticoid receptor; progestins in MHT increase thrombosis more than oral estrogens; MPA, but not OMP or other progestins, increase monocyte cell endothelium adhesion; MPA and estradiol (E2)/MPA have negative brain effects, whereas E2/progesterone (P4) has neuroregenerative brain effects...
December 2015: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
Ulf-Håkan Stenman
This review describes studies performed by our group and other laboratories in the field aimed at development of biomarkers not only for cancer but also for other diseases. The markers covered include tumor-associated trypsin inhibitor (TATI), tumor-associated trypsin (TAT), human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and their various molecular forms, their biology and diagnostic use. The discovery of TATI was the result of a hypothesis-driven project aimed at finding new biomarkers for ovarian cancer among urinary peptides...
2016: Critical Reviews in Clinical Laboratory Sciences
C Chu, M S Noël-Hudson, J Bénard, T Ha-Duong, F Allaoui, R Farinotti, L Bonhomme-Faivre
PURPOSE: Cancer chemotherapy typically combines anticancer drugs from different mechanisms of action. However, cancer cells could become resistant to chemotherapy via P-gp or other ATP binding cassette proteins. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether cetuximab, monoclonal antibody directed toward epidermal growth factor receptor, could increase intracellular concentration of conventional chemotherapy by interacting with P-gp. METHODS: Two human ovarian carcinoma (IGROV1) and two human embryonary kidney (HEK) cell lines, overexpressing or weakly expressing P-gp, were used...
August 30, 2015: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Noriyuki Katsumata
Currently, paclitaxel and carboplatin are administered every 3 weeks as the standard agents for the first-line treatment of advanced ovarian cancer. The concept of "dose-dense therapy" is based on the Norton-Simon hypothesis that a shorter interval between the doses of cytotoxic agents is more effective in reducing tumor burden than dose escalation. The results of phase III clinical trials demonstrating the superiority of weekly paclitaxel administration, compared with a 3-week schedule in breast cancer in both the metastatic and adjuvant settings support the hypothesis...
May 2015: Current Treatment Options in Oncology
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