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Daniel J Livorsi, Michihiko Goto, Margaret Carrel, Makoto M Jones, Jennifer McDanel, Rajeshwari Nair, Bruce Alexander, Brice Beck, Kelly K Richardson, Eli N Perencevich
OBJECTIVES: We sought to define regional variations in fluoroquinolone non-susceptibility (FQ-NS) among bloodstream isolates of Escherichia coli across the Veterans Health Administration (VHA) in the United States. METHODS: We analyzed a retrospective cohort of patients managed at 136 VHA hospitals who had a blood culture positive for E.coli between 2003 and 2013. Hospitals were classified based on US Census Divisions, and regional variations in FQ-NS were analyzed...
2016: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
Francesca Tocchioni, Chiara Tani, Laura Bartolini, Maria Moriondo, Francesco Nieddu, Patrizia Pecile, Chiara Azzari, Antonio Messineo, Marco Ghionzoli
Bacterial growth of peritoneal fluid specimens obtained during surgical procedures for acute appendicitis may be useful to optimize further antibiotic therapy in complicated cases. DNA amplification represents a fast technique to detect microbial sequences. We aimed to compare the potential of DNA amplification versus traditional bacterial growth culture highlighting advantages and drawbacks in a surgical setting. Peritoneal fluid specimens were collected during surgery from 36 children who underwent appendectomy between May and December 2012...
September 19, 2016: Pediatric Reports
Brenda Anna Kwambana-Adams, Franklin Asiedu-Bekoe, Badu Sarkodie, Osei Kuffour Afreh, George Khumalo Kuma, Godfred Owusu-Okyere, Ebenezer Foster-Nyarko, Sally-Ann Ohene, Charles Okot, Archibald Kwame Worwui, Catherine Okoi, Madikay Senghore, Jacob Kweku Otu, Chinelo Ebruke, Richard Bannerman, Kwame Amponsa-Achiano, David Opare, Gemma Kay, Timothy Letsa, Owen Kaluwa, Ebenezer Appiah-Denkyira, Victor Bampoe, Syed M A Zaman, Mark J Pallen, Umberto D'Alessandro, Jason M Mwenda, Martin Antonio
BACKGROUND: An outbreak of pneumococcal meningitis among non-infant children and adults occurred in the Brong-Ahafo region of Ghana between December 2015 and April 2016 despite the recent nationwide implementation of a vaccination programme for infants with the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13). METHODS: Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) specimens were collected from patients with suspected meningitis in the Brong-Ahafo region. CSF specimens were subjected to Gram staining, culture and rapid antigen testing...
October 18, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
Nandini Chatterjee, Chandan Chatterjee, Sinjan Ghosh, Mainak Mukhopadhyay, Ramkrishna Brahmachari, Kartik Patar
BACKGROUND: Indiscriminate use of antibiotics in urinary tract infections have led to emergence of 'superbugs' worldwide. Periodical review of antibiograms is of utmost importance for optimum patient benefit. OBJECTIVE: To identify the spectrum of organisms responsible for urinary tract infection and evaluate the pattern of antibiotic sensitivity of the organisms. METHODS: Urine samples were collected from all consecutive patients getting admitted in the medicine indoor irrespective of symptomatology...
April 2016: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
Rossana Rosa, Jacques Simkins, Jose F Camargo, Octavio Martinez, Lilian M Abbo
OBJECTIVES: We aimed to compare the antimicrobial susceptibility percentages in blood and urine bacterial isolates recovered from solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients with those reported in the hospital-wide antibiogram. METHODS: Retrospective review of the antimicrobial susceptibilities of bacterial isolates recovered from SOT recipients at a 1550-bed hospital over a 2-year period. Antibiograms were categorized by anatomic site (blood and urine). Percentage of bacterial susceptibilities to specific antibiotics were compared with the hospital-wide antibiogram...
August 26, 2016: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
Zhizhen Qi, Yujun Cui, Qingwen Zhang, Ruifu Yang
This chapter summarized the taxonomy and typing works of Yersinia pestis since it's firstly identified in Hong Kong in 1894. Phenotyping methods that based on phenotypic characteristics, including biotyping, serotyping, antibiogram analysis, bacteriocin typing, phage typing, and plasmid typing, were firstly applied in classification of Y. pestis in subspecies level. And then, with the advancement of molecular biological technology, the methods based on outer membrane protein profiles, fatty acid composition, and bacterial mass fingerprinting were also used to identify the populations within Y...
2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Gabriel Amselem, Cyprien Guermonprez, Benoît Drogue, Sébastien Michelin, Charles N Baroud
In spite of the large number of droplet-based microfluidic tools that have appeared in recent years, their penetration into non-specialist labs remains limited to a small number of applications. This is partly due to the lack of a generic platform that integrates all of the necessary operations for end-users, and partly to the increasing complexity that emerges as several operations are combined together. Here we report the development of a platform that provides the capabilities of multiwell plates in a two-dimensional array of nanoliter droplets: encapsulation, time-resolved monitoring and variation of well contents, as well as the ability to selectively extract the contents of any of the wells...
October 18, 2016: Lab on a Chip
Charles Mesnard, Laurence Beral, Rabih Hage, Harold Merle, Selim Farès, Thierry David
PURPOSE: To report a case series of post-phacoemulsification endophthalmitis despite antibiotic prophylaxis with an intracameral injection of a licensed cefuroxime formulation (Aprokam). SETTING: University Hospitals of Pointe-à-Pitre, Guadeloupe, and Fort-de-France, Martinique, French West Indies. DESIGN: Retrospective case series. METHODS: Patients who had cataract surgery with licensed cefuroxime prophylaxis between March 1, 2013, and July 31, 2015, and developed endophthalmitis were included...
September 2016: Journal of Cataract and Refractive Surgery
K Govind Babu, D Lokanatha, K C Lakshmaiah, M C Suresh Babu, Linu A Jacob, Gita R Bhat, Harsha Vardhana, Mahua Sinha, B R Vijaykumar, B G Sumati, R S Jayshree
INTRODUCTION: Febrile neutropenia (FN) is an oncological emergency. The choice of empiric therapy depends on the locally prevalent pathogens and their sensitivities, the sites of infection, and cost. The Infectious Diseases Society of America guidelines are being followed for the management of FN in India. METHODS: This is a prospective observational study conducted at a tertiary care cancer centre from September 2012 to September 2014. OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this study were as follows: (1) To review the pattern of microbial flora, susceptibility pattern, and important clinical variables among bloodstream infections in febrile neutropenic patients with solid tumors and hematological malignancies...
July 2016: Indian Journal of Medical and Paediatric Oncology
Alberto Hernández-Tejedor, Carmen Débora Merino-Vega, Alfredo Martín-Vivas, Rafael Ruiz de Luna-González, Alberto Delgado-Iribarren, Ángeles Gabán-Díez, Ignacio Temprano-Gómez, Natalia de la Calle-Pedrosa, Ana Isabel González-Jiménez, Alejandro Algora-Weber
INTRODUCTION: Ceftolozane/tazobactam is a novel antibiotic approved for the treatment of complicated intra-abdominal and complicated urinary tract infections. CASE DESCRIPTION: We describe the use of off-label ceftolozane/tazobactam in the management of a multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacteremia that was already being treated with colistin and amikacin, the only active antibiotics according to the antibiogram.
September 26, 2016: Infection
Dorji Dorji, Ross M Graham, Peter Richmond, Anthony Keil, Trilochan K Mukkur
Whooping cough caused by Bordetella pertussis is increasing in several countries despite high vaccine coverage. One potential reason for the resurgence is the emergence of genetic variants of the bacterium. Biofilm formation has recently been associated with the pathogenesis of B. pertussis. Biofilm formation of 21 Western Australian B. pertussis clinical isolates was investigated. All isolates formed thicker biofilms than the reference vaccine strain Tohama I while retaining susceptibility to ampicillin, erythromycin, azithromycin and streptomycin...
October 2016: Biofouling
R Javed, A K Taku, Rakhi Gangil, R K Sharma
AIM: The aim was to determine the occurrence of streptococci in equines in Jammu (R. S. Pura, Katra), characterization of Streptococci equi subsp. equi and Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus with respect to their virulence traits and to determine antibiotic sensitivity pattern of virulent Streptococcus isolates. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 96 samples were collected from both clinically affected animals (exhibiting signs of respiratory tract disease) and apparently healthy animals and were sent to laboratory...
August 2016: Veterinary World
Samar S Boswihi, Edet E Udo, Noura Al-Sweih
BACKGROUND: As the epidemiology of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is constantly changing globally, determining the prevailing MRSA clones in a local healthcare facility is important for better management of infections. This study investigated clonal composition and distribution of MRSA isolates in Kuwait's hospitals using a combination of molecular typing methods. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In total, 400 non-repeat MRSA isolates were obtained between 1992 and 2010 in 13 public hospitals and were characterized using antibiogram, SCCmec typing, spa typing, and multilocus-sequence typing...
2016: PloS One
Praveen Gundelly, Yasuhiro Suzuki, Julie A Ribes, Alice Thornton
Rhodococcus equi is an unusual zoonotic pathogen that can cause life-threatening diseases in susceptible hosts. Twelve patients with R. equi infection in Kentucky were compared to 137 cases reported in the literature. Although lungs were the primary sites of infection in immunocompromised patients, extrapulmonary involvement only was more common in immunocompetent patients (P < 0.0001). Mortality in R. equi-infected HIV patients was lower in the HAART era (8%) than in pre-HAART era (56%) (P < 0.0001), suggesting that HAART improves prognosis in these patients...
2016: BioMed Research International
Nandita S Mirajkar, Nyree D Phillips, Tom La, David J Hampson, Connie J Gebhart
Swine dysentery (SD) is a mucohemorhagic colitis of swine classically caused by infection with the intestinal spirochete Brachyspira hyodysenteriae. Since around 2007, cases of SD have occurred in North America associated with a different strongly beta-hemolytic spirochete that has been molecularly and phenotypically characterized and provisionally named "Brachyspira hampsonii". Despite increasing international interest, "B. hampsonii" is currently not recognized as a valid species. To support its recognition, we sequenced the genomes of strains NSH-16, NSH-24 and P280/1, representing "B...
September 14, 2016: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
Simon Pius, Mustapha Bello, Gadzama Balla Galadima, Halima A Ibrahim, Samuel Timothy Yerima, Jose Pwavimbo Ambe
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: The aim and objective of the study was to determine the incidence, bacterial isolates and the antibiogram sensitivity of the isolates in neonates with septicaemia. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The neonates with clinical diagnosis of neonatal septicaemia (NNS) were consecutively enrolled into our special care baby unit. The patients were investigated including blood cultures, cerebrospinal fluid cultures and urine among others. Data were analysed with Statistical Package for Social Sciences software version 16...
July 2016: Nigerian Postgraduate Medical Journal
Esmail Abdollahzadeh, Seyed Mahdi Ojagh, Hedayat Hosseini, Ezzat Allah Ghaemi, Gholamreza Irajian, Masoud Naghizadeh Heidarlo
Fourteen Listeria monocytogenes isolates previously collected from seafood (n = 7) and human patients (n = 7) were studied for their antimicrobial susceptibility against eight common antimicrobials (ampicillin, penicillin, gentamicin, streptomycin, tetracycline, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, chloramphenicol, and cefotaxime). A high resistance level to ampicillin, cefotaxime (100%), and pencillin (57% in seafood isolates and 71.4% in clinical isolates) was observed in this study. However, all of the isolates were susceptible to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, chloramphenicol, and tetracycline...
September 10, 2016: Microbial Pathogenesis
Philip D Sloane, Kirk Huslage, Christine E Kistler, Sheryl Zimmerman
Antibiotic stewardship is becoming a requirement for nursing homes. Programs should be interdisciplinary and multifaceted; should have support from nursing home administrators; and should aim to promote antibiotics only when needed, not just in case. Recommended components include use of evidence-based guidelines; ongoing monitoring of antibiotic prescriptions, cultures, and study results; monitoring of health outcomes; use of nursing home-specific antibiograms; regular reporting and feedback to medical providers and nurses; and education of residents and families...
September 2016: North Carolina Medical Journal
C Duployez, C Loiez, C Cattoen, D Descamps, F Wallet, A Vachée
OBJECTIVES: Pivmecillinam is a safe beta-lactam for use in pregnancy. It has been widely used for the treatment of lower urinary tract infections (UTIs) in the Nordic countries where its efficacy, minor impact on the microbiota, and low level of resistance among the Escherichia coli strains have been proven. However, susceptibility data related to E. coli involved in asymptomatic bacteriuria and lower UTIs in pregnant women is lacking. We aimed to support the 2015 recommendations issued by the French Infectious Diseases Society (SPILF) on gestational UTI, with a particular focus on pivmecillinam...
September 5, 2016: Médecine et Maladies Infectieuses
M M Bendary, S M Solyman, M M Azab, N F Mahmoud, A M Hanora
In recent years, the increasing incidence of diseases caused by Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) has been noted in the university hospitals of El-Sharkia and Assuit governorates - Egypt. Therefore, we studied the genetic relatedness of multidrug resistant S. aureus isolates from different sources in the above mentioned governorates. One hundred and fifty six S. aureus isolates were divided into 5 different groups, 1 non clinical isolates from different food products and 4 different clinical isolates of human and animal sources in the 2 different governorates...
2016: Cellular and Molecular Biology
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