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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748178/community-based-prescribing-for-impetigo-in-remote-australia-an-opportunity-for-antimicrobial-stewardship
#1
Stefanie Jane Oliver, James Cush, Jeanette E Ward
BACKGROUND: To support antibiotic prescribing for both hospital and community-based health professionals working in remote North Western Australia, a multidisciplinary Antimicrobial Stewardship (AMS) Committee was established in 2013. This Committee is usually focused on hospital-based prescribing. A troubling increase in sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim resistance in Staphylococcus aureus antibiograms from 9 to 18% over 1 year prompted a shift in gaze to community prescribing. WHAT WE DID: Finding a paucity of relevant research, we first investigated contextual factors influencing local prescribing...
2017: Frontiers in Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717548/infective-complications-in-patients-after-transrectal-ultrasound-guided-prostate-biopsy-and-the-role-of-ciprofloxacin-resistant-escherichia-coli-colonization-in-rectal-flora
#2
Mustafa Bilal Hamarat, Fatih Tarhan, Rahim Horuz, Gülfem Akengin Öcal, Mehmet Kutlu Demirkol, Alper Kafkaslı, Özgür Yazıcı
OBJECTIVE: In the present study, we aimed to invastigate the ciprofloxacin resistance in rectal flora of the patients undergoing prostate biopsy in our department. Additionally, the possible effects of the presence of ciprofloxacin resistant bacteria in faecal flora on the risk of infective complications after the procedure as well as the effect of antibiotic prophylaxis on such infectious complications have been evaluated. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A total of 142 patients undergoing transrectal ultrasound-guided prostate biopsy were included into the study program...
June 2017: Turkish Journal of Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717308/prevalence-of-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-skin-and-nasal-carriage-isolates-from-bovines-and-its-antibiogram
#3
Alok Kumar, Purushottam Kaushik, Anjay, Pankaj Kumar, Manoj Kumar
AIM: This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in cattle and buffalo and to study their antibiotic resistance pattern. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 136 samples (skin and nasal swab) from cattle and buffalo were collected. MRSA was identified by conventional bacterial culture techniques which were further confirmed by amplification of S. aureus-specific 16S rRNA by polymerase chain reaction (PCR)...
June 2017: Veterinary World
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710229/pirate-project-point-of-care-informatics-based-randomised-controlled-trial-for-decreasing-overuse-of-antibiotic-therapy-in-gram-negative-bacteraemia
#4
Angela Huttner, Werner C Albrich, Pierre-Yves Bochud, Angèle Gayet-Ageron, Anne Rossel, Elodie von Dach, Stephan Harbarth, Laurent Kaiser
INTRODUCTION: Antibiotic overuse drives antibiotic resistance. The optimal duration of antibiotic therapy for Gram-negative bacteraemia (GNB), a common community and hospital-associated infection, remains unknown and unstudied via randomised controlled trials (RCTs). METHODS AND ANALYSIS: This investigator-initiated, multicentre, non-inferiority, informatics-based point-of-care RCT will randomly assign adult hospitalised patients receiving microbiologically efficacious antibiotic(s) for GNB to (1) 14 days of antibiotic therapy, (2) 7 days of therapy or (3) an individualised duration determined by clinical response and 75% reduction in peak C reactive protein (CRP) values...
July 13, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706882/distribution-of-the-strains-of-multidrug-resistant-extensively-drug-resistant-and-pandrug-resistant-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-isolates-from-burn-patients
#5
Hajieh Ghasemian Safaei, Sharareh Moghim, Bahram Nasr Isfahani, Hossein Fazeli, Farkhondeh Poursina, Sima Yadegari, Pourya Nasirmoghadas, Seyed Abolfazl Hosseininassab Nodoushan
BACKGROUND: Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic and Gram-negative pathogen that is used as the most important factor in burn wound infections, and due to the rapid acquisition of multidrug resistance (MDR), it causes high mortality rates in these sectors. Thus, diagnosis and assessment of antibiotic resistance patterns are very important in these patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate antibiotic resistance pattern and determining P. aeruginosa MDR. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this study, phenotypic, biochemical, and polymerase chain reaction tests were used to identify P...
2017: Advanced Biomedical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696636/-update-on-multidrug-resistant-tuberculosis-in-switzerland
#6
Judith Knuchel, Frédéric Lador, Paola M Soccal, Jean-Paul Janssens
Multi-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) is a world-wide public-health problem with about half a million cases/year (of a total of 9 million cases of TB). Patients at highest risk for MDR-TB are those who have already been treated. Among other risk factors are: contact with an index case of MDR-TB, being a migrant, and originating from a country with a high incidence of MDR-TB. Switzerland has had so far a relatively small number of MDR-TB cases, with a slight increase over the past few years. Use of PCR and genotypic antibiograms allow a rapid detection of MDR-TB cases as well as initiating a more adapted treatment, which must however be finally adjusted on the basis of the phenotypic antibiogram...
November 16, 2016: Revue Médicale Suisse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694537/survey-of-antimicrobial-stewardship-practices-in-public-hospitals-in-new-zealand-district-health-boards
#7
Sharon J Gardiner, Jane A Pryer, Eamon J Duffy
AIMS: To determine what antimicrobial stewardship (AMS) practices exist in New Zealand public hospitals. METHODS: A quantitative survey based on recommended components of hospital AMS programmes was sent to the 20 DHBs in June 2016. RESULTS: Ten of the 20 DHBs had an AMS committee, nine had dedicated AMS pharmacist full-time equivalents (FTEs) and eight had lead clinician FTEs. Only one DHB met FTE recommendations for AMS pharmacists and two for clinicians (0...
July 7, 2017: New Zealand Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28691828/virulence-and-antibiotic-resistance-genes-in-campylobacter-spp-in-the-czech-republic
#8
J Bardoň, V Pudová, I Koláčková, R Karpíšková, M Röderová, M Kolář
OBJECTIVE: Thermotolerant species of the genus Campy-lobacter are the important agents causing human foodborne infections throughout the world. The aims of this study were to evaluate the presence of nine putative virulence genes in Campylobacter spp. isolated from patients and from foods (poultry meat, pork liver), to determine the resistance of Campylobacter isolates to eight antibiotic agents and to detect four resistance genes.Matherial and methods: The presence of the virulence genes cdtA, cdtB, cdtC, virB11, ciaB, wlaN, iam, dnaJ and racR was detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in 94 Campylobacter spp...
2017: Epidemiologie, Mikrobiologie, Imunologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28691027/hand-hygiene-practices-and-microbial-investigation-of-hand-contact-swab-among-physiotherapists-in-an-ebola-endemic-region-implications-for-public-health
#9
S Ibeneme, V Maduako, G C Ibeneme, A Ezuma, T U Ettu, N F Onyemelukwe, D Limaye, G Fortwengel
BACKGROUND: Hand hygiene practices (HHP), as a critical component of infection prevention/control, were investigated among physiotherapists in an Ebola endemic region. METHOD: A standardized instrument was administered to 44 randomly selected physiotherapists (23 males and 21 females), from three tertiary hospitals in Enugu, Nigeria. Fifteen participants (aged 22-59 years) participated in focus group discussions (FGDs) and comprised 19 participants in a subsequent laboratory study...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28681829/molecular-characterisation-of-uropathogenic-escherichia-coli-isolates-at-a-tertiary-care-hospital-in-south-india
#10
Arindam Chakraborty, Prabha Adhikari, Shalini Shenoy, Vishwas Saralaya
Uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) express a multitude of virulence factors (VFs) to break the inertia of the mucosal barrier of the urinary tract. The aim of the present study was undertaken to characterised the UPEC strains and to correlate carriage of specific virulence markers with different phylogroups and also to correlate these findings with clinical outcome of patients. A total of 156 non-repeated, clinically significant UPEC isolates were studied. Virulent genes were determined by two set of multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR)...
April 2017: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676284/incx3-plasmid-mediated-occurrence-of-blandm-4-within-escherichia-coli-st448-from-india
#11
Nargis Alom Choudhury, Deepjyoti Paul, Atanu Chakravarty, Amitabha Bhattacharjee, Debadatta Dhar Chanda
This study was designed to investigate blaNDM-4 encoded within IncX3 type plasmid and their copy number alteration under carbapenem pressure within clinical isolates of Escherichia coli. NDM-4 producing E. coli isolates were collected from an Indian hospital and transferability as well as plasmid incompatibility typing was determined. Genetic environment and antibiogram profiling was carried out. Quantitative Real Time PCR was done to determine the change in plasmid copy number under concentration gradient carbapenem stress...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Infection and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674590/-proteus-mirabilis-septic-arthritis
#12
REVIEW
Mohammed Sbiti, Bahia Bouhamidi, Lhoussaine Louzi
Acute septic arthritis is rare. It is associated with poor prognosis in terms of mortality and morbidity. We report the case of a 61-year old patient with spontaneous Proteus mirabilis septic arthritis. He suffered from complicated diabetes associated with positive blood cultures and synovial fluid cultures. Patient's evolution was favorable thanks to early diagnosis and initiation of adequate antibiotic therapy. Proteus mirabilis septic arthritis is rare. On that basis we conducted a literature review of cases of Proteus mirabilis pyogenic arthritis to highlight the risk factors, pathogenesis, treatment and evolution of these diseases...
2017: Pan African Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28670637/serotyping-and-antimicrobial-drug-resistance-of-salmonella-isolated-from-lettuce-and-human-diarrhea-samples-in-burkina-faso
#13
Somda Namwin Siourimè, Bonkoungou Ouindgueta Juste Isidore, Traoré Oumar, Bassolé Ismael Henri Nestor, Traoré Yves, Barro Nicolas, Savadogo Aly
BACKGROUND: In Burkina Faso dirty water in particular those of the stoppings and the gutter ones are used for vegetables irrigation in the gardens. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility of Salmonella serotypes from humans and lettuce samples inBurkina Faso. Materials and Methods:Salmonella strains isolated from patients in 2009 to 2015 and lettuce samples in 2014 in Burkina Faso were serotyped using specific antisera. All strains were subjected to a set of 14 antibiotics to study their antibiogram by using Baeur-Kirby disk diffusion method...
2017: African Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28655424/risk-factors-for-early-return-visits-to-the-emergency-department-in-patients-with-urinary-tract-infection
#14
Sarah Jorgensen, Mira Zurayk, Samantha Yeung, Jill Terry, Maureen Dunn, Paul Nieberg, Annie Wong-Beringer
BACKGROUND: Optimal management of urinary tract infections (UTIs) in the emergency department (ED) is challenging due to high patient turnover, decreased continuity of care, and treatment decisions made in the absence of microbiologic data. We sought to identify risk factors for return visits in ED patients treated for UTI. METHODS: A random sample of 350 adult ED patients with UTI by ICD 9/10 codes was selected for review. Relevant data was extracted from medical charts and compared between patients with and without ED return visits within 30days (ERVs)...
June 21, 2017: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28655372/antibiotic-stewardship-new-frontier-familiar-journey
#15
Caren McHenry Martin
Recent changes in regulations by the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services require long-term care facilities to meet specific requirements on antibiotic stewardship, promoting the appropriate use of antibiotics and antimicrobials. The goal is to improve patient outcomes and decrease the spread of infections caused by multi-drug-resistant organisms. Consultant pharmacists can help facility personnel implement policies and procedures for effective antibiotic stewardship, assist prescribers and facility staff in understanding how to use the facility's antibiogram, find appropriate resources, and provide facility personnel with feedback on their antimicrobial stewardship efforts...
May 1, 2017: Consultant Pharmacist: the Journal of the American Society of Consultant Pharmacists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28655352/evaluation-of-early-antimicrobial-therapy-adaptation-guided-by-the-betalacta%C3%A2-test-a-case-control-study
#16
Marc Garnier, Sacha Rozencwajg, Tài Pham, Sophie Vimont, Clarisse Blayau, Mehdi Hafiani, Jean-Pierre Fulgencio, Francis Bonnet, Jean-Luc Mainardi, Guillaume Arlet, Muriel Fartoukh, Salah Gallah, Christophe Quesnel
BACKGROUND: Rapid diagnostic tests detecting microbial resistance are needed for limiting the duration of inappropriateness of empirical antimicrobial therapy (EAT) in intensive care unit patients, besides reducing the use of broad-spectrum antibiotics. We hypothesized that the betaLACTA® test (BLT) could lead to early increase in the adequacy of antimicrobial therapy. METHODS: This was a case-control study. Sixty-one patients with BLT-guided adaptation of EAT were prospectively included, and then matched with 61 "controls" having similar infection characteristics (community or hospital-acquired, and source of infection), in whom EAT was conventionally adapted to antibiogram results...
June 28, 2017: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651533/profiling-of-antibiotic-resistance-of-bacterial-species-recovered-from-routine-clinical-isolates-in-ethiopia
#17
Robert-Jan Ten Hove, Melaku Tesfaye, Witold Frederik Ten Hove, Mesfin Nigussie
BACKGROUND: With the alarming rise in antibiotic resistance in African countries, the need for a surveillance system in the region has become pressing. The rapid expansion of data networks makes it possible to set up healthcare applications that can be both cost-efficient and effective. Large data sets are available for assessment of current antibiotic resistance among Ethiopian patients. Based on the data-presentation, a practical approach is proposed on how diagnostic laboratories can participate remedial action against antibiotic resistance in Ethiopia...
June 26, 2017: Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640870/dominance-of-community-associated-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-clones-in-a-maternity-hospital
#18
Edet E Udo, Noura Al-Sweih
BACKGROUND: Methicillin- resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a major pathogen causing healthcare- and community- acquired infections. The purpose of this study was to characterize MRSA isolated at the Maternity Hospital between 2006 and 2011 for their genetic relatedness. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The MRSA isolates were investigated using a combination of antibiogram, Staphylococcal chromosome cassette mec (SCCmec) and spa typing to determine their relatedness to MRSA isolated in other Kuwait hospitals...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615465/emergency-department-urinary-antibiograms-differ-by-specific-patient-groups
#19
S Jorgensen, M Zurayk, S Yeung, J Terry, M Dunn, P Nieberg, A Wong-Beringer
Background: Patients presenting to the ED represent a heterogeneous population comprised of all ages, from the community and skilled-nursing facilities (SNF), and at varying risk for resistant pathogens. The aim of this study was to compare patient group-specific urinary antibiograms in ED.Methods: Adults presented to ED with an ICD 9/10 UTI diagnosis during 7/15 - 6/16 were randomly selected (n=500) to extract relevant demographic, laboratory, and clinical data from the medical record. Urinary E. coli antibiograms were compared between: institutional vs...
June 14, 2017: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28603118/carbapenem-resistant-acinetobacter-spp-restricted-the-therapeutic-alternatives
#20
Naheed Afshan, Benish Nawaz, Maliha Hamid
Carbapenem resistant Acinetobacter has appeared an organism of uncertain resistivity towards antimicrobial agents. Among non-fermenting bacterium Acinetobacter is the second-most-commonly-isolated organisms in human. The fast intensify of their resistance to antibiotics, especially global emergence and extend of Acinetobacter strains resistant to carbapenem more restricted the therapeutic alternatives. The importation of A. baumannii and subsequent presence in hospitals has been well documented. In this study we evaluate the resistivity of Acinetobacter against carbapenem antibiotics at Jinnah University for Women, Karachi...
January 2017: Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
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