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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316051/pathogenic-multiple-antimicrobial-resistant-escherichia-coli-serotypes-in-recreational-waters-of-mumbai-india-a-potential-public-health-risk
#1
Aayushi Maloo, Abhay B Fulke, Najmuddin Mulani, Soniya Sukumaran, Anirudh Ram
Globally, coastal waters have emerged into a pool of antibiotic resistance genes and multiple antibiotic resistant microorganisms, and pathogenicity of these resistant microorganisms in terms of serotypes and virulence genes has made the environment vulnerable. The current study underscores the presence of multiple antibiotic resistant pathogenic serotypes and pathotypes of Escherichia coli, the predominant faecal indicator bacteria (FIB), in surface water and sediment samples of famous recreational beaches (Juhu, Versova, Mahim, Dadar, and Girgaon) of Mumbai...
March 18, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298258/susceptibility-to-rifaximin-and-other-antimicrobials-of-bacteria-isolated-in-patients-with-acute-gastrointestinal-infections-in-southeast-mexico
#2
O Novoa-Farias, A C Frati-Munari, M A Peredo, S Flores-Juárez, O Novoa-García, J Galicia-Tapia, C E Romero-Carpio
INTRODUCTION: Enteropathogenic bacteria isolated in Mexico City have shown a high rate of resistance to different antibiotics, with the exception of rifaximin (RIF). RIF is a nonabsorbable antibiotic that reaches high fecal concentrations (≈ 8,000μg/g). Susceptibility to antimicrobials can vary in different geographic regions. AIM: To study the susceptibility to rifaximin and other antimicrobials of enteropathogenic bacteria isolated in patients with acute diarrhea in the southeastern region of Mexico...
March 12, 2017: Revista de Gastroenterología de México
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28291334/rapid-real-time-antimicrobial-susceptibility-testing-with-electrical-sensing-on-plastic-microchips-with-printed-electrodes
#3
Mohammadali Safavieh, Hardik Jeetendra Pandya, Maanasa Venkataraman, Prudhvi Thirumalaraju, Manoj Kumar Kanakasabapathy, Anupriya Singh, Devbalaji Prabhakar, Manjyot Kaur Chug, Hadi Shafiee
Rapid antimicrobial susceptibility testing is important for efficient and timely therapeutic decision making. Due to globally spread bacterial resistance, the efficacy of antibiotics is increasingly being impeded. Conventional antibiotic tests rely on bacterial culture, which is time-consuming and can lead to potentially inappropriate antibiotic prescription and up-front broad range of antibiotic use. There is an urgent need to develop point-of-care platform technologies to rapidly detect pathogens, identify the right antibiotics, and monitor mutations to help adjust therapy...
March 14, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286058/molecular-detection-and-antimicrobial-resistance-profile-of-zoonotic-salmonella-enteritidis-isolated-from-broiler-chickens-in-kohat-pakistan
#4
Muhammad Asif, Hazir Rahman, Muhammad Qasim, Taj Ali Khan, Waheed Ullah, Yan Jie
BACKGROUND: Salmonella enteritidis infection is a frequently encountered zoonotic problem, occurring with concerning regularity in recent years on a worldwide basis. The study that we undertook for the first time detected S. enteritidis and associated antimicrobial resistance pattern in broiler chickens. METHODS: A total of 150 different poultry samples were first enriched and grown on selective media, and then processed for molecular detection of S. enteritidis by amplification of the spvb gene...
March 9, 2017: Journal of the Chinese Medical Association: JCMA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270804/eradication-and-sensitization-of-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-to-methicillin-with-bioactive-extracts-of-berry-pomace
#5
Serajus Salaheen, Mengfei Peng, Jungsoo Joo, Hironori Teramoto, Debabrata Biswas
The therapeutic roles of phenolic blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum) and blackberry (Rubus fruticosus) pomace (commercial byproduct) extracts (BPE) and their mechanism of actions were evaluated against methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Five major phenolic acids of BPE, e.g., protocatechuic, p. coumaric, vanillic, caffeic, and gallic acids, as well as crude BPE completely inhibited the growth of vegetative MRSA in vitro while BPE+methicillin significantly reduced MRSA biofilm formation on plastic surface...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270268/antibiotic-stewardship-new-frontier-familiar-journey
#6
Caren McHenry Martin
Recent changes in regulations by the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services require long-term care facilities to meet specific requirements on antibiotic stewardship, promoting the appropriate use of antibiotics and antimicrobials. The goal is to improve patient outcomes and decrease the spread of infections caused by multi-drug-resistant organisms. Consultant pharmacists can help facility personnel implement policies and procedures for effective antibiotic stewardship, assist prescribers and facility staff in understanding how to use the facility's antibiogram, find appropriate resources, and provide facility personnel with feedback on their antimicrobial stewardship efforts...
March 1, 2017: Consultant Pharmacist: the Journal of the American Society of Consultant Pharmacists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28266143/the-influence-of-donor-factors-on-corneal-organ-culture-contamination
#7
Anja K Gruenert, Katja Rosenbaum, Gerd Geerling, Thomas A Fuchsluger
PURPOSE: To evaluate the contamination rate and the corresponding spectrum of microbes and to identify donor risk factors for corneal organ culture contaminations. METHODS: A total of 3306 organ-cultured donor corneas were included in the study. We performed a retrospective database analysis to evaluate donor factors such as gender, age, death-to-explantation interval (DEI), procurement site and cause of death and to determine their influence on donor cornea contaminations...
March 7, 2017: Acta Ophthalmologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28260752/antibiotic-resistance-new-challenge-in-the-management-of-bacterial-eye-infections
#8
A K Talukder, Z Sultana, I Jahan, M Khanam, M Rahman, M F Rahman, M B Rahman
Ophthalmologists are still facing difficulties in managing bacterial eye infections. The study was designed for the isolation and identification of bacteria from infected eyes and observation of the sensitivity and resistant pattern. This cross sectional study was performed among 160 patients of suspected bacterial eye infection at Dr. K. Zaman BNSB Eye Hospital, Mymensingh and Department of Microbiology and Hygiene, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh from March, 2010 to June, 2014. After collection of the samples from suspected infected eyes, it was nourished into nutrient broth in shaking incubator for three hours and then cultured into nutrient agar media followed by Mannitol salt agar, MacConkey's agar and blood agar...
January 2017: Mymensingh Medical Journal: MMJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28260148/anticipating-the-unpredictable-a-review-of-antimicrobial-stewardship-and-acinetobacter-infections
#9
REVIEW
Eric Wenzler, Debra A Goff, Romney Humphries, Ellie J C Goldstein
Acinetobacter remains one of the most challenging pathogens in the field of infectious diseases owing primarily to the uniqueness and multiplicity of its resistance mechanisms. This resistance often leads to devastatingly long delays in time to appropriate therapy and increased mortality for patients afflicted with Acinetobacter infections. Selecting appropriate empiric and definitive antibacterial therapy for Acinetobacter is further complicated by the lack of reliability in commercial antimicrobial susceptibility testing devices and limited breakpoint interpretations for available agents...
March 4, 2017: Infectious Diseases and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28248675/occurrence-of-plasmid-mediated-quinolone-resistance-and-virulence-genes-in-avian-escherichia-coli-isolates-from-algeria
#10
Meradi Laarem, Abouddihaj Barguigua, Kaotar Nayme, Abdi Akila, Khalid Zerouali, Naima El Mdaghri, Mohammed Timinouni
INTRODUCTION: The emergence and spread of quinolone-resistant Escherichia coli in poultry products puts consumers at risk of exposure to the strains of E. coli that resist antibiotic treatment. The objective of this study was to define the prevalence and virulence potential of poultry-associated nalidixic acid (NAL)-resistant E. coli in the Annaba city, Algeria. METHODOLOGY: In total, 33 samples of retail chicken meat were purchased from various butcher shops and examined for bacterial contamination with NAL-resistant E...
February 28, 2017: Journal of Infection in Developing Countries
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28246454/molecular-identification-and-histopathological-study-of-natural-streptococcus-agalactiae-infection-in-hybrid-tilapia-oreochromis-niloticus
#11
A A Laith, Mohd Azmi Ambak, Marina Hassan, Shahreza Md Sheriff, Musa Nadirah, Ahmad Shuhaimi Draman, Wahidah Wahab, Wan Nurhafizah Wan Ibrahim, Alia Syafiqah Aznan, Amina Jabar, Musa Najiah
AIM: The main objective of this study was to emphasize on histopathological examinations and molecular identification of Streptococcus agalactiae isolated from natural infections in hybrid tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) in Temerloh Pahang, Malaysia, as well as to determine the susceptibility of the pathogen strains to various currently available antimicrobial agents. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The diseased fishes were observed for variable clinical signs including fin hemorrhages, alterations in behavior associated with erratic swimming, exophthalmia, and mortality...
January 2017: Veterinary World
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28246445/prevalence-of-colibacillosis-in-chickens-in-greater-mymensingh-district-of-bangladesh
#12
Md Abdul Matin, Md Ariful Islam, Mst Minara Khatun
AIM: This study was conducted for determination of the prevalence of colibacillosis in chicken in poultry farms in Mymensingh and Tangail districts. Isolation, identification, and antibiogram profile of Escherichia coli were also performed. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 25 chickens manifested clinical signs of colibacillosis were collected from five different poultry farms during natural outbreaks. RESULTS: In broiler, the prevalence of colibacillosis was 0...
January 2017: Veterinary World
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28246441/molecular-characterization-of-rhodococcus-equi-isolates-in-equines
#13
Rabyia Javed, A K Taku, R K Sharma, Gulzaar Ahmed Badroo
AIM: The aim was to determine the occurrence of Rhodococcus equi in equines and their environment in Jammu (R.S. Pura, Katra), molecular characterization and to determine the antibiotic resistance pattern of R. equi. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 96 nasopharyngeal swab samples were collected from equines. The organism was isolated on Columbia nalidixic acid agar containing 5% sheep blood as well as on sheep blood agar and was later confirmed by cultural characteristics and biochemical tests...
January 2017: Veterinary World
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239453/the-sink-as-a-potential-source-of-transmission-of-carbapenemase-producing-enterobacteriaceae-in-the-intensive-care-unit
#14
Deborah De Geyter, Lieve Blommaert, Nicole Verbraeken, Mark Sevenois, Luc Huyghens, Helena Martini, Lieve Covens, Denis Piérard, Ingrid Wybo
BACKGROUND: Carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) are emerging pathogens that represent a major public health threat. In the University Hospital of Brussels, the incidence of new patients with CPE rose from 1 case in 2010 to 35 cases in 2015. Between January and August 2015, five patients became infected/colonized with CPE during their stay in the same room in the intensive care unit (ICU). Since the time period between those patients was relatively short and the strains belonged to different species with different antibiograms and mechanisms of resistance, the hypothesis was that the environment could be a possible source of transmission...
2017: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215625/identification-badge-lanyards-as-infection-control-risk-a-cross-sectional-observation-study-with-epidemiological-analysis
#15
C M Murphy, F Di Ruscio, M Lynskey, J Collins, E McCullough, R Cosgrave, D McDonnell, J Fennell
Staphylococcus aureus cultures from name badge lanyards were phenotypically and genotypically indistinguishable from the wearer's nasal carrier strains by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and antibiogram. Lanyards had a mean age of 22 months and hygiene was poor with only 9% ever having been laundered. Molecular analysis showed that 26% of S. aureus nasal carriers shared an indistinguishable strain on their lanyard. Lanyards should not be recommended for staff in frontline clinical care.
January 21, 2017: Journal of Hospital Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203427/potency-of-parenteral-antimicrobials-including-ceftolozane-tazobactam-against-nosocomial-respiratory-tract-pathogens-considerations-for-empiric-and-directed-therapy
#16
Christina A Sutherland, David P Nicolau
BACKGROUND: Empiric therapy decisions are predicated on knowledge of both the epidemiology and antimicrobial susceptibility of the probable infecting pathogen(s). The objective of this study was to evaluate the microbial distribution and phenotypic profiles of nosocomial respiratory isolates collected from multiple US hospitals and assess the clinical utility of various monotherapy and combination regimens. METHODS: Hospitals provided consecutive non-duplicate adult inpatients Gram-negative nosocomial respiratory isolates from cultures received ≥48 h after hospital admission...
January 2017: Journal of Thoracic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202799/clonal-complexity-in-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-can-hamper-diagnostic-procedures
#17
Laura Pérez-Lago, Marta Herranz, Yurena Navarro, María Jesús Ruiz Serrano, Pilar Miralles, Emilio Bouza, Darío García-de-Viedma
Clonal complexity is increasingly accepted in Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection, including mixed infections by ≥2 strains, which usually occur in settings with a high burden of tuberculosis and/or a high risk of overexposure to infected patients. Mixed infections can hamper diagnostic procedures: obtaining an accurate antibiogram is difficult when the susceptibility patterns of the strains differ. Here, we show how mixed infections can also prove challenging for other diagnostic procedures, even outside settings where mixed infections are traditionally expected...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198727/new-guidelines-for-nosocomial-pneumonia
#18
Mark L Metersky, Andre C Kalil
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP) and ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) remain important causes of morbidity and mortality in hospitalized patients. New evidence-based guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of these entities were released by the Infectious Diseases Society of America and the American Thoracic Society in 2016. This review summarizes the recommendations contained within these guidelines and their supporting rationale. RECENT FINDINGS: With respect to diagnosis of HAP and VAP, the guidelines suggest using semiquantitative cultures of noninvasively obtained respiratory samples instead of quantitative cultures of invasively obtained samples...
February 13, 2017: Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197394/antibiogram-of-bacteria-isolated-from-automated-teller-machines-in-hamadan-west-iran
#19
Hassan Mahmoudi, Mohammad Reza Arabestani, Mohammad Yousef Alikhani, Iraj Sedighi, Hamed Farhadi Kohan, Mohammad Molavi
Aim: Bacteria are ubiquitous in the environment. In keeping with the continued expansion of urbanization and the growing population, an increasing number of people use automated banking, i.e. automated teller machines (ATMs). The aim of this study was to investigate the bacterial contamination and its antibiotic sensitivity on computer keyboards located at ATMs in Hamadan province, Iran. Method: Out of 360 ATMs at four locations in Hamadan, 96 were randomly selected for this study. The antibiotic susceptibility pattern of all isolates was determined by the agar disk diffusion method using gentamicin (10 µg), vancomycin (30 µg), trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (25 µg), amikacin (30 µg), tobramycin (10 µg), cephalotin (30 µg), norfloxacin (5 µg), and ceftizoxim (30 µg) disks...
2017: GMS Hygiene and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28173888/current-state-of-antimicrobial-stewardship-in-children-s-hospital-emergency-departments
#20
Rakesh D Mistry, Jason G Newland, Jeffrey S Gerber, Adam L Hersh, Larissa May, Sarah M Perman, Nathan Kuppermann, Peter S Dayan
BACKGROUND Antimicrobial stewardship programs (ASPs) effectively optimize antibiotic use for inpatients; however, the extent of emergency department (ED) involvement in ASPs has not been described. OBJECTIVE To determine current ED involvement in children's hospital ASPs and to assess beliefs and preferred methods of implementation for ED-based ASPs. METHODS A cross-sectional survey of 37 children's hospitals participating in the Sharing Antimicrobial Resistance Practices collaboration was conducted. Surveys were distributed to ASP leaders and ED medical directors at each institution...
February 8, 2017: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
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