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Dali Wang, Edward J Calabrese, Baoling Lian, Zhifen Lin, Vittorio Calabrese
Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has been long practiced and is becoming ever more widely recognized as providing curative and/or healing treatments for a number of diseases and physiological conditions. This paper posits that herbal medicines used in TCM treatments may act through hormetic dose-response mechanisms. It is proposed that the stimulatory (i.e., low dose) and inhibitory (i.e., high dose) components of the hormetic dose response correspond to respective "regulating" and "curing" aspects of TCM herbal treatments...
November 8, 2017: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
S N Shen
Zhen Dan, the abbreviated form of Zhen Dan Sha, or called Zhu Sha (Cinnabar, HgS). It can be ruled out that Zhen Dan is the nickname of Qian Dan (Minium, Pb(3)O(4)) through the homologous formulas contrast. The prescriptions containing Zhen Dan in the Zheng lei ben cao ( Classified Materia Medica ) was put under the "attached prescriptions" of Qian Dan, while Zhong yao da ci dian ( Great Dictionary of Chinese Materia Medica )and Zhong hua ben cao ( Chinese Herbology )all definitelyconfirmed that Zhen Dan is the other name of Qian Dan, which are wrong and should be corrected...
July 28, 2017: Zhonghua Yi Shi za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Medical History
Kais Tahar, Jie Xu, Heinrich Herre
The formalization of expert knowledge enables a broad spectrum of applications employing ontologies as underlying technology. These include eLearning, Semantic Web and expert systems. However, the manual construction of such ontologies is time-consuming and thus expensive. Moreover, experts are often unfamiliar with the syntax and semantics of formal ontology languages such as OWL and usually have no experience in developing formal ontologies. To overcome these barriers, we developed a new method and tool, called Expert2OWL that provides efficient features to support the construction of OWL ontologies using GFO (General Formal Ontology) as a top-level ontology...
2017: Studies in Health Technology and Informatics
Kexin Bao
This article focuses the category status of Chinese herbal medicine in the United States where it has been mistakenly classifified as a dietary supplement. According to Yellow Emperor Canon of Internal Medicine (Huang Di Nei Jing), clinical treatment in broad sense is to apply certain poisonous medicines to fight against pathogeneses, by which all medicines have certain toxicity and side effect. From ancient times to modern society, all, or at least most, practitioners have used herbal medicine to treat patients' medical conditions...
March 2017: Chinese Journal of Integrative Medicine
Hua Yin, Janardhan Prasad Bhattarai, Sun Mi Oh, Soo Joung Park, Dong Kuk Ahn, Seong Kyu Han
The substantia gelatinosa (SG) of the trigeminal subnucleus caudalis (Vc) receives nociceptive afferent inputs from thin-myelinated A[Formula: see text] fibers and unmyelinated C fibers and has been shown to be involved in the processing of orofacial nociceptive information. Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi (Huang-Qin, SbG), one of the 50 fundamental herbs of Chinese herbology, has been used historically as anti-inflammatory and antineoplastic medicine. Baicalin, one of the major compounds of SbG, has been reported to have neuroprotective, anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects...
2016: American Journal of Chinese Medicine
Misato Ota, Masayuki Mikage, Shao-Qing Cai
In China, the crude drug licorice ("kanzo" in Japanese, "gancao" in Chinese) has been used both dried and roasted as the situation demands from ancient times. The meaning of "roasted licorice" is simply roasted and honey-roasted in ancient and modern times, respectively. However, it is not clear medicinal purposes of processed licorice or why licorice processed with honey began to be used. We researched ancient literature and found that the main objective of roasting was to change the property of licorice from cool to warm (i...
2015: Yakushigaku Zasshi. the Journal of Japanese History of Pharmacy
Chenxue Jiang, Yali Bian, Xinsheng Fan
The allegation of "Glycyrrhiza antagonistic to Sargassum, Euphorbia Pekinensis, Kansui, and Genkwa", being one of the hypotheses of "18 antagonisms" in TCM pharmacology, is referring to the antagonistic action among the Radix et Rhizoma Glycyrrhiza and Radix Euphorbiae Kansui, Radix Euphorbiae Pekinensis, Flos Genkwa, and Sargassum when compounded together in a single recipe. By reviewing its history concerted with modern knowledge, it can be found that the theory of "seven emotions" was originated from Shennong's Classic of Materia Medica; while the Variorum of the Classic of Materia Medica firstly and definitely records that Radix et Rhizoma Glycyrrhizae is forbidden to be used with Radix Kansui, Flos Genkwa, Radix Euphorbiae Pekinensis, Sargassum together in a single formula...
May 2015: Zhonghua Yi Shi za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Medical History
Yonggang Liu, Peng Tan, Shanshan Liu, Hang Shi, Xin Feng, Qun Ma
OBJECTIVE: Calculus bovis have been widely used in Chinese herbology for the treatment of hyperpyrexia, convulsions, and epilepsy. Nowadays, due to the limited source and high market price, the substitutes, artificial and in vitro cultured Calculus bovis, are getting more and more commonly used. The adulteration phenomenon is serious. Therefore, it is crucial to establish a fast and simple method in discriminating the natural, artificial and in vitro cultured Calculus bovis. Bile acids, one of the main active constituents, are taken as an important indicator for evaluating the quality of Calculus bovis and the substitutes...
April 2015: Pharmacognosy Magazine
Andrew Abe, Alan David Kaye, Karina Gritsenko, Richard D Urman, Adam Marc Kaye
With over 50,000 dietary supplements available, resurgence in consumer interest over the past few decades has resulted in an explosion of use of these agents worldwide. Disillusionment with current medications and belief in "natural medicines" has resulted in a multibillion dollar industry. Active ingredients in a number of herbs are being tested for therapeutic potential, and some are efficacious, so herbal medicines cannot be dismissed. The prevalence of herbology is further encouraged by a relatively relaxed policy of the FDA regarding these compounds, which they consider foods...
June 2014: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Anaesthesiology
Nir Amir
Traditional herbal medicine is driven by the use of plants or parts of plants, which have undergone minimal processing in order to treat disease and improve health. The article: "Traditional Immunosuppression--Lei Gong Teng in Modern Medicine", published in this issue of "Harefuah", raises the importance of integrating herbal medicine within the existing medical system. However, there are various limitations on integrating herbology in official frameworks, such as bureaucratic and legislative restrictions concerning the safety and efficacy of the herbs...
July 2013: Harefuah
Chaekun Oh, Yongjin Kim
Sakae Miki said Classified Emergency Materia Medica had been the dominant standard of herbology throughout Joseon Dynasty, and that Compendium of Materia Medica had only been accepted so lately that a few books used herbological result of it in the late Joseon Dynasty. But according to Visiting Old Beijing Diary written by Munjoong Seo in 1690, Compendium of Materia Medica was in fact introduced before the year 1712, the year Miki Sakae argued to be the year Compendium of Materia Medica was accepted to Joseon officially...
June 30, 2011: Ŭi Sahak
Misato Doui, Hirokazu Ando, Chihiro Goi, Nobuko Kakiuchi, Masayuki Mikage
In traditional Chinese medicine, it has long been thought that the medicinal effect of a crude drug can be modified by combination with other crude drugs. One well-known example is the combination of mirabilite (a purgative) and rhubarb (an anti-inflammatory and essentially anti-blood stasis drug). One description in the medicinal literature states that mirabilite has to be added after rhubarb has been decocted. Another description states that rhubarb needs to be processed with liquor when both crude drugs are used together...
2010: Yakushigaku Zasshi. the Journal of Japanese History of Pharmacy
Xing-Wei Zhang, Wei-Fen Li, Wei-Wei Li, Kan-Han Ren, Chao-Ming Fan, Ying-Ying Chen, Yue-Liang Shen
CONTEXT:  Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi (Labiatae) (SbG), one of the fifty fundamental herbs of Chinese herbology, has been reported to have anti-asthmatic, antifungal, antioxidative, and anti-inflammatory activities. OBJECTIVE:  This study was designed to determine the protective effects of the extract of SbG against the acrolein-induced oxidative stress in cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC). MATERIALS AND METHODS:  The MTT reduction assay was employed to determine cell viability...
March 2011: Pharmaceutical Biology
Davorin Gajnik, Renata Peternel
The increase in ragweed mediated health problems has led to the development of defense strategies in the countries with the most serious ragweed pollution, namely Hungary, Italy and France. The aim of this paper is to define the frequency of allergic disturbances brought by ragweed pollen in the period between 2002 and 2004, and to devise an action plan for its eradication in the area of Zagreb, as well as in Zagreb County. Thanks to the analysis of common methods of ragweed eradication, even by stating biological ragweed eradication, the best efficiency in ragweed eradication would be achieved through a method that combines several common methods, i...
December 2009: Collegium Antropologicum
Kathryn P White
Given the unparalleled popularity of botanicals in the United States, it is safe to say that almost every psychopharmacological prescriber will see some patients using Chinese herbs. Data show that between 36% and 42% of Americans use complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) each year and that persons suffering from depression and anxiety (67%) use CAM services significantly more than do their nonanxious and nondepressed counterparts (39%). This article gives an overview of several classical Chinese medical single herbs and herbal formulas commonly used for persons with psychiatric disorders and discusses some of the herbs that have the potential to interact with various pharmaceutical drugs...
December 2009: Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology
Masayuki Mikage, Yukari Hutagi
The historical change in the botanical origin of the Chinese herbal drug Shan-zhu-yu, San-syu-yu in Japanese) was studied herbologically. The results obtained were as follows: The original plant, described in Shen-nong-ben-cao-jing written in the Hou-Han Dynasty (A.D. 25-220) and Wu-pu-ben-cao written in the Wei dynasty (A.D. 220-265), was Prunus pseudocerasus or an allied species such as P. tomentosa. However, the original plant described in Ming-yi-bie-lu, written in the same era, was thought to be Cornus officinalis; the fruit of which is used commonly today as Shan-zhu-yu...
2008: Yakushigaku Zasshi. the Journal of Japanese History of Pharmacy
Ming-Nan Lai, Jung-Nien Lai, Pau-Chung Chen, Wei-Lum Tseng, Ya-Yin Chen, Jing-Shiang Hwang, Jung-Der Wang
AIM: Nephropathy associated with aristolochic acid (AA) has been documented by human and animal studies. Ancient Chinese herbology claimed to reduce toxicity in their mixtures. It was the objective of this study to determine the risk of chronic kidney disease (CKD) associated with AA-related Chinese herbal products (CHP) or mixtures of herbs in a national cohort. METHODS: A retrospective follow-up study was conducted, using a systematic random sample (200 000 people) in the National Health Insurance reimbursement database during 1997-2002...
April 2009: Nephrology
Shuji Kotaka
Ye-Ge exists in the SHOOSOUIN, and the herbal origin was decided as Gelsemium elegans Bentham. On the other hand, Gou-Wen may be a general term that means poison plants as well as Jin. At least four kinds of Gou-Wen were known in ancient times: three herbs and one wood-like plant. The shi-leaf Gou-Wen may be Gelsemium elegans Bentham, in short, the same as Ye-Ge. The huang jing-leaf Gou-Wen may be Croomia heterosepala. The qin-leaf Gou-Wen may be Cicuta virosa L. The wood-like Gou-Wen may be Coriaria nepalensis Wall...
2007: Yakushigaku Zasshi. the Journal of Japanese History of Pharmacy
Masayuki Mikage, Akane Ochimori
The Chinese crude drug Qiang-hua was listed as an alias of Du-hua in Shen-nong-ben-cao-jing, an herbal journal written during the Han Dynasty, China. Du-hua and Qiang-hua are recognized as different herbs in China these days; the main botanical origin of Du-hua is Angelica spp. and that of Qiang-hua is Notopterygium spp., of the family Umbelliferae. To make clear the botanical origins of Du-hua and Qiang-hua in ancient China, the authors made a herbological study. The findings were as follows: the name of Qiang-hua was given to the genuine Du-hua, which is produced in Qiang Province, an ancient province located in northwest China; the botanical origin of Qiang-hua is presumed to be Notopterygium incisum Ting ex H...
2007: Yakushigaku Zasshi. the Journal of Japanese History of Pharmacy
Chieko Yoshizawa, Makiko Kitade, Masayuki Mikage
As we previously reported, ma-huang ([Chinese characters: see text], Ephedrae Herba) has been sometimes used together with mu-zei ([Chinese characters: see text], Equiseti Herba) in medieval China and Japan. We herbologically studied this confusion and found that, in China, the confusion was found in literature in the Song dynasty, and Li Shi-Zhen recorded in Ben-cao-gang-mu that both drugs were morphologically and medicinally the same in the Ming dynasty. Though the main reason why the plant of the genus Equisetum, especially E...
2006: Yakushigaku Zasshi. the Journal of Japanese History of Pharmacy
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