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Acute Liver Failure

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775111/tamoxifen-prevents-d-galactosamine-lipopolysaccharide-induced-murine-acute-hepatic-failure-through-inhibition-of-oxidative-stress-and-mmd-2-upregulation
#1
Xiaoxue Gong, Peng Cao, Liping Liu, Yan Lin, Qing Yang, Linyu Zhou, Tianen Wu, Mansheng Luo
Oxidative stress is considered one of the major mechanisms underlying lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute liver failure (ALF). Tamoxifen has been reported to ameliorate LPS-induced ALF via the induction of monocyte to macrophage differentiation-associated 2 (Mmd-2). Whether antioxidant effects are involved remains unknown. Mice were given tamoxifen (TAM) once a day for 3 days. Twelve hours later, d-galactosamine (GaIN) and LPS were injected intraperitoneally to induce ALF. N-Acetylcysteine (NAC) was administered immediately after ALF induction as a positive control...
May 18, 2018: Immunological Investigations
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772253/interstitial-ion-homeostasis-and-acid-base-balance-are-maintained-in-oedematous-brain-of-mice-with-acute-toxic-liver-failure
#2
Marta Obara-Michlewska, Fengfei Ding, Mariusz Popek, Alexei Verkhratsky, Maiken Nedergaard, Magdalena Zielinska, Jan Albrecht
Acute toxic liver failure (ATLF) rapidly leads to brain oedema and neurological decline. We evaluated the ability of ATLF-affected brain to control the ionic composition and acid-base balance of the interstitial fluid. ATLF was induced in 10-12 weeks old male C57Bl mice by single intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of 100 μg/g azoxymethane (AOM). Analyses were carried out in cerebral cortex of precomatous mice 20-24 h after AOM administration. Brain fluid status was evaluated by measuring apparent diffusion coefficient [ADC] using NMR spectroscopy, Evans Blue extravasation, and accumulation of an intracisternally-injected fluorescent tracer...
May 14, 2018: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771932/a-multi-center-preclinical-study-of-gadoxetate-dce-mri-in-rats-as-a-biomarker-of-drug-induced-inhibition-of-liver-transporter-function
#3
Anastassia Karageorgis, Stephen C Lenhard, Brittany Yerby, Mikael F Forsgren, Serguei Liachenko, Edvin Johansson, Mark A Pilling, Richard A Peterson, Xi Yang, Dominic P Williams, Sharon E Ungersma, Ryan E Morgan, Kim L R Brouwer, Beat M Jucker, Paul D Hockings
Drug-induced liver injury (DILI) is a leading cause of acute liver failure and transplantation. DILI can be the result of impaired hepatobiliary transporters, with altered bile formation, flow, and subsequent cholestasis. We used gadoxetate dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI), combined with pharmacokinetic modelling, to measure hepatobiliary transporter function in vivo in rats. The sensitivity and robustness of the method was tested by evaluating the effect of a clinical dose of the antibiotic rifampicin in four different preclinical imaging centers...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771702/pathogenesis-of-cerebral-edema-in-patients-with-acute-renal-and-liver-failure-and-the-role-of-the-nephrologist-in-the-management
#4
Tamim Hamdi
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Acute liver failure (ALF) is a severe and complex illness and one of the most daunting conditions managed in the ICU. Because the renal care is intertwined with multiple disciplines, the aim of this review is to examine the multifactorial pathogenesis of cerebral edema in ALF, covering basic established facts as well as recent advances in our understanding of this condition. RECENT FINDINGS: Acetaminophen remains the most common cause of ALF in the United States and many European countries...
May 15, 2018: Current Opinion in Nephrology and Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770308/allo-and-auto-percutaneous-intra-portal-pancreatic-islet-transplantation-pipit-for-diabetes-cure-and-prevention-the-role-of-imaging-and-interventional-radiology
#5
REVIEW
Massimo Venturini, Claudio Sallemi, Paolo Marra, Anna Palmisano, Giulia Agostini, Carolina Lanza, Gianpaolo Balzano, Massimo Falconi, Antonio Secchi, Paolo Fiorina, Lorenzo Piemonti, Paola Maffi, Antonio Esposito, Francesco De Cobelli, Alessandro Del Maschio
Although the life expectancy of patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) has improved since the introduction of insulin therapy, the acute life-threatening and long-term complications from diabetes mellitus are significant causes of both mortality and morbidity. Percutaneous intra-portal pancreatic islet transplantation (PIPIT) is a minimally invasive, repeatable procedure which allows a β-cell replacement therapy through a liver islet engraftment, leading to insulin release and glycaemic control restoration in patients with diabetes...
April 2018: Gland Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770238/charlson-comorbidity-index-as-a-predictor-of-periodontal-disease-in-elderly-participants
#6
Jae-Hong Lee, Jung-Kyu Choi, Seong-Nyum Jeong, Seong-Ho Choi
Purpose: This study investigated the validity of the Charlson comorbidity index (CCI) as a predictor of periodontal disease (PD) over a 12-year period. Methods: Nationwide representative samples of 149,785 adults aged ≥60 years with PD (International Classification of Disease, 10th revision [ICD-10], K052-K056) were derived from the National Health Insurance Service-Elderly Cohort during 2002-2013. The degree of comorbidity was measured using the CCI (grade 0-6), including 17 diseases weighted on the basis of their association with mortality, and data were analyzed using multivariate Cox proportional-hazards regression in order to investigate the associations of comorbid diseases (CDs) with PD...
April 2018: Journal of Periodontal & Implant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768734/in-vitro-efficacy-of-pro-and-anticoagulant-strategies-in-compensated-and-acutely-ill-patients-with-cirrhosis
#7
Ton Lisman, Simone Kleiss, Vishal C Patel, Caleb Fisher, Jelle Adelmeijer, Sarah Bos, Arjuna Singanayagam, Sidsel Hyldgaard Stoy, Debbie L Shawcross, William Bernal
BACKGROUND & AIMS: A simultaneous decline in pro- and anticoagulant drivers in patients with liver diseases results in a 'rebalanced' hemostatic system, even in acutely ill patients. Nevertheless, both bleeding and thrombotic events are common. Here, we explored efficacy of pro- and antihemostatic strategies in compensated and acutely ill cirrhotics which may be unpredictable given the profound hemostatic changes. METHODS: We tested the effects in vitro of the addition of clinically relevant doses of commonly used pro- and antihemostatic strategies in plasma from healthy individuals (n=30) and patients with compensated (n=18) and acutely decompensated cirrhosis (n=18), and acute-on-chronic liver failure (n=10)...
May 16, 2018: Liver International: Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765485/spontaneous-hemoperitoneum-resulting-from-segmental-arterial-mediolysis
#8
Emily Olivares, Harlan Vingan, Qiao Zhou
Segmental arterial mediolysis is a rare but potentially life-threatening arteropathy of medium to large arteries that can be managed with endovascular treatment for patients who are hemodynamically unstable. We present a case of segmental arterial mediolysis in a 73-year-old woman who developed spontaneous hemoperitoneum in the emergency department after initially presenting with unrelated upper respiratory complaints. Her initial computed tomography revealed an aneurysm arising off the right hepatic artery...
June 2018: Radiology Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762630/acute-on-chronic-liver-failure-in-china-rationale-for-developing-a-patient-registry-and-baseline-characteristics
#9
Wen-Yi Gu, Bao-Yan Xu, Xin Zheng, Jinjun Chen, Xian-Bo Wang, Yan Huang, Yan-Hang Gao, Zhong-Ji Meng, Zhi-Ping Qian, Feng Liu, Xiao-Bo Lu, Jia Shang, Hai Li, Shao-Yang Wang, Xin Sun, Hai Li
Definitions and descriptions of acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF) vary between Western and Eastern types, and alcoholism and hepatitis B virus(HBV) are the main etiologies, respectively. To determine whether there are unified diagnostic criteria and common treatment programs for different etiologies of ACLF, a multicenter prospective cohort with the same inclusion criteria and disease indicators as those used in the European CANONIC (Chronic liver failure-ACLF in Cirrhosis) study is urgently needed in Asia, where the prevalence of HBV is high...
May 14, 2018: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761573/using-fat-to-fight-disease-a-systematic-review-of-non-homologous-adipose-derived-stromal-stem-cell-therapies
#10
REVIEW
Marjorie E Bateman, Amy L Strong, Jeffrey M Gimble, Bruce A Bunnell
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this review is to describe the safety and efficacy of ASC and SVF in treating common diseases and the next steps in research that must occur prior to clinical use. EVIDENCE REVIEW: Pubmed, Ovid Medline, Embase, Web of Science, and the Cochrane Library were searched for articles about use of SVF or ASC for disease therapy published between 2012 and 2017. One meta-analysis, 2 randomized controlled trials, and 16 case series were included, representing 844 human patients...
May 15, 2018: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761425/genistein-has-the-function-of-alleviating-and-treating-disseminated-intravascular-coagulation-caused-by-lipopolysaccharide
#11
Xueqin Chen, Jingyi Tan, Mengqi Yang, Zhi-Kai Liao, Cheng Lu, Youwei Huang, Liang-Cai Wu
Symptoms of disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) include thromboembolism, acute attrition bleeding and multiple organ failure. Genistein isolated from leguminous plants has been shown to be effective in oxidation resistance and tumor inhibition. The present study was designed to evaluate the therapeutic effects of genistein in DIC and preliminarily discuss the mechanisms regarding the anti-inflammatory and anticoagulant effect of genistein. Swiss mice were randomly divided into the following groups-(1) lipopolysaccharide (LPS), (2) genistein, (3) dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO, the non-major solvent component of genistein), (4) DMSO + LPS, (5) saline control group, and (6) heparin control group...
May 14, 2018: Journal of Natural Medicines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29756955/multicenter-study-of-parenteral-nutrition-in-non-critically-ill-elderly-patients-compared-to-younger-patients-study-iaios-pn-incidence-and-assessment-of-iatrogenesis-in-older-subjects-receiving-parenteral-nutrition
#12
Javier Mateu-de Antonio, David Berlana, Montserrat Pons-Bussom, Maria B Badia-Tahull, María Teresa Miana-Mena, Beatriz Martínez-Castro, Neus Sunyer-Esquerrà, Mónica Sanmartin-Suñer, Juan González-Valdivieso, Elisabet Leiva-Badosa, Eva Martínez-Bernabé, Anna Murgadella-Sancho, Nuria Mirerachs-Aranda, Anna Vila-Bundó, Jordi Fernández-Morató, María Teresa Vitales-Farrero
OBJECTIVE: this study assessed the incidence of hyperglycemia, hypertriglyceridemia, and liver function test (LFT) alterations among patients older and younger than 65 years receiving parenteral nutrition (PN). A secondary objective was to compare the incidence of any of these three events. MATERIAL AND METHODS: inclusion criteria were non-critically ill adult inpatients receiving PN for ≥ 7 days in 15 hospitals in Spain. Exclusion criteria were hyperglycemia, hypertriglyceridemia, LFT alterations, sepsis, shock, pancreatic/hepatobiliary surgery, renal failure, diabetes mellitus (DM) type 1, insulin-treated DM type 2, acute DM complications, or obesity prior to PN...
February 27, 2018: Nutrición Hospitalaria: Organo Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Nutrición Parenteral y Enteral
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753761/grand-rounds-alcoholic-hepatitis
#13
REVIEW
Ashwani K Singal, Alexandre Louvet, Vijay H Shah, Patrick S Kamath
Alcoholic hepatitis presents with acute on chronic liver failure among patients with chronic and active heavy use of alcohol, with high short-term mortality. These patients suffer from two problems, namely hepatic dysfunction and alcohol use disorder. Short-term outcome is impacted by liver failure and the long-term outcome by alcoholism and relapse to alcohol use. Clearly, these patients need integrated and coordinated management from the beginning by multi-disciplinary team. Herein, we describe a clinical vignette on a 33 year old male patient who survived the first episode of alcoholic hepatitis with this integrated management approach...
May 10, 2018: Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753208/mechanisms-of-acetaminophen-induced-liver-injury-and-its-implications-for-therapeutic-interventions
#14
REVIEW
Mingzhu Yan, Yazhen Huo, Shutao Yin, Hongbo Hu
Acetaminophen (APAP) overdose is the leading cause of drug-induced acute liver failure in many developed countries. Mitochondrial oxidative stress is considered to be the predominant cellular event in APAP-induced liver injury. Accordingly, N-acetyl cysteine, a known scavenger of reactive oxygen species (ROS), is recommended as an effective clinical antidote against APAP-induced acute liver injury (AILI) when it is given at an early phase; however, the narrow therapeutic window limits its use. Hence, the development of novel therapeutic approaches that can offer broadly protective effects against AILI is clearly needed...
April 22, 2018: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29749699/histological-findings-in-protocol-biopsies-following-pediatric-liver-transplant-low-incidence-of-abnormalities-at-5-years
#15
Amin Sheikh, Kai Y Chau, Helen M Evans
Histological abnormalities, including chronic hepatitis, fibrosis, and steatosis, are increasingly reported in liver biopsies of children after LT. These changes may be progressive and represent a form of rejection. Liver biochemistry is often initially normal. Our LT program began in 2002, utilizing tacrolimus and low-dose steroids for the first year post-LT. Patients undergo a protocol biopsy at 1 year post-LT prior to stopping steroids, then at 5 years and every 5 years thereafter. Target tacrolimus levels are 5-8 μg/L and 3-5 μg/L after 3 and 12 months, respectively...
May 11, 2018: Pediatric Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29749243/the-predictive-value-of-risk-indices-for-cardiac-complications-in-living-donor-liver-transplantation
#16
I P Canbolat, Y Erdogan, G Adali, O Kaplan, M Dayangac, Y Yuzer, Y Tokat
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The American College of Surgeons' National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (NSQIP) risk tool and Revised Cardiac Risk Index (RCRI) are recommended tools for cardiovascular assessment before non-cardiac surgery to predict early postoperative cardiac morbidity and mortality. Their predictive value for postoperative cardiovascular morbidity and mortality after liver transplantation is unknown. We aimed to evaluate the validity of these two risk tools to predict early (30-day) cardiovascular complications and in-hospital all-cause mortality...
2018: Bratislavské Lekárske Listy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29748533/p53-attenuates-acetaminophen-induced-hepatotoxicity-by-regulating-drug-metabolizing-enzymes-and-transporter-expression
#17
Jiahong Sun, Yajie Wen, Yanying Zhou, Yiming Jiang, Yixin Chen, Huizheng Zhang, Lihuan Guan, Xinpeng Yao, Min Huang, Huichang Bi
Acetaminophen (APAP) overdose is the most frequent cause of drug-induced acute liver failure. Inhibition of APAP metabolic activation and promotion in APAP disposition are important to protect against APAP-induced liver injury. Tumor suppressor p53 is traditionally recognized as a surveillance molecule to preserve genome integrity. Recent studies have emerged on discovering its functions in metabolic regulation. Our previous study reported that p53 promoted bile acid disposition and alleviated cholestastic syndrome...
May 10, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29747694/clinical-performance-of-stem-cell-therapy-in-patients-with-acute-on-chronic-liver-failure-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#18
Ran Xue, Qinghua Meng, Jinling Dong, Juan Li, Qinwei Yao, Yueke Zhu, Hongwei Yu
BACKGROUND: Stem cell therapy has been applied in the treatment of acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF). However, its clinical efficiency is still debatable. The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis is to evaluate the clinical efficiency of stem cell therapy in the treatment of ACLF. METHODS: The Cochrane Library, OVID, EMBASE, and PUBMED were searched to December 2017. Both randomized and non-randomized studies, assessing stem cell therapy in patients with ACLF, were included...
May 10, 2018: Journal of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29743800/a-case-of-acute-on-chronic-liver-failure-aclf-due-to-an-uncommon-acute-and-chronic-event
#19
Swastik Agrawal, Baldev S Rana, Suvradeep Mitra, Ajay Duseja, Ashim Das, Radha K Dhiman, Yogesh Chawla
Acute on Chronic Liver Failure (ACLF) is an acute worsening of patients with chronic liver disease resulting in liver failure. Usually these patients have cirrhosis as the underlying liver disease with alcohol being the most common etiology. Common hepatitic illnesses causing acute worsening in Indian patients of ACLF include alcoholic hepatitis, acute viral hepatitis related to hepatitis E virus and acute flare in chronic hepatitis B. We report an adult case of ACLF due acute viral hepatitis related to hepatitis A virus infection superimposed on nonalcoholic steatohepatitis without cirrhosis...
March 2018: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29743795/prevalence-and-impact-of-bacterial-infections-in-children-with-liver-disease-a-prospective-study
#20
Rishi Bolia, Anshu Srivastava, Rungmei Marak, Surender K Yachha, Ujjal Poddar
Background and aims: Risk of infections is increased in patients with Acute Liver Failure (ALF) and Decompensated Chronic Liver Disease (DCLD). We evaluated the frequency, site, type and risk-factors for bacterial infections in children with ALF and DCLD and its effect on outcome. Methods: ALF or DCLD children were enrolled prospectively. Clinical and laboratory details were recorded. Cultures (blood, urine and ascites) and chest X-ray were done at admission followed by weekly surveillance cultures...
March 2018: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hepatology
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