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Acute Liver Failure

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738354/review-of-extracorporeal-membrane-oxygenation-and-dialysis-based-liver-support-devices-for-the-use-of-nephrologists
#1
Tamim Hamdi, Biff F Palmer
Acute kidney injury in the intensive care unit (ICU) is a manifestation of an underlying severe illness that commonly involves other organ systems. Pulmonary, cardiac, and hepatic failures are the most prevalent. This article provides a simplified review of the technical aspects of extracorporeal cardiopulmonary and liver support devices used in the adult ICU patient, as well as a summary of the most relevant and up-to-date clinical evidence that supports their use.
July 22, 2017: American Journal of Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735981/autoimmune-liver-disease-in-children-with-sickle-cell-disease
#2
Suttiruk Jitraruch, Emer Fitzpatrick, Maesha Deheragoda, Annamaria Deganello, Giorgina Mieli-Vergani, Susan Height, David Rees, Nedim Hadzic, Marianne Samyn
OBJECTIVE: To assess the incidence, clinical features, and outcome of autoimmune liver disease (AILD) in patients with sickle cell disease (SCD). STUDY DESIGN: Single center retrospective review of patients with SCD with AILD referred between 1999 and 2015. RESULTS: Thirteen of 77 (17%) patients with SCD with hepatic dysfunction were diagnosed with AILD (median age 11, range, 3.4-16 years) with a female preponderance (77%). Acute hepatitis and insidious onset were the commonest presentations...
July 20, 2017: Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734939/public-health-acetaminophen-apap-hepatotoxicity-isn-t-it-time-for-apap-to-go-away
#3
REVIEW
William M Lee
Acetaminophen (APAP) is the most commonly used drug for the treatment of pain and fever around the world. At the same time, APAP is capable of causing dose-related hepatocellular necrosis, responsible for nearly 500 deaths annually in the U.S. alone, as well as 100,000 calls to US Poison Control Centers, 50,000 emergency room visits and 10,000 hospitalizations per year. As an over-the-counter and prescription product (with opioids), APAP toxicity dwarfs all other prescription drugs as a cause for acute liver failure in the United States and Europe, but is not regulated in any significant way...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734480/an-unusual-cause-of-acute-liver-failure-tumour-infiltration-by-neuroendocrine-carcinoma
#4
Sara de Cima Iglesias, Lucía Viña Soria, Lorena Martín Iglesias, Iván Astola Hidalgo, Lucía López-Amor, Dolores Escudero Augusto
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 19, 2017: Gastroenterología y Hepatología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733538/the-abnormality-of-thyroid-hormones-in-patients-with-type-a-hepatic-encephalopathy
#5
Lin Wang, Wanyou Yu, Wukui Cao, Wei Lu
Abnormality of thyroid hormones in liver diseases is common, but data is lacking in patients with type A hepatic encephalopathy (HE). The present study was aimed to determine whether there was an abnormality in thyroid hormones among patients with type A HE. We measured the levels of thyroid hormones in 36 acute liver failure (ALF) patients with type A HE and in 29 acute liver injury patients (international normalized ratio, INR ≥ 1.5) without encephalopathy as control. The clinical parameters associated with abnormality of thyroid hormones were evaluated...
June 29, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733221/incidence-predictors-and-outcomes-of-acute-on-chronic-liver-failure-in-outpatients-with-cirrhosis
#6
Salvatore Piano, Marta Tonon, Elia Vettore, Marialuisa Stanco, Chiara Pilutti, Antonietta Romano, Sara Mareso, Carmine Gambino, Alessandra Brocca, Antonietta Sticca, Silvano Fasolato, Paolo Angeli
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF) is the most life-threatening complication of cirrhosis. Prevalence and outcomes of ACLF have been recently described in hospitalized patients with cirrhosis. However, no data is currently available on the prevalence and the risk factors of ACLF in outpatients with cirrhosis. The aim of this study was to evaluate incidence, predictors and outcomes of ACLF in a large cohort of outpatients with cirrhosis. METHODS: 466 patients with cirrhosis consecutively evaluated in a tertiary hospital outpatient clinic were included and followed up until death and/or liver transplantation for a mean of 45±44 months...
July 18, 2017: Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730699/elevated-cardiac-troponin-t-in-cirrhotic-patients-with-emergency-care-admissions-is-associated-with-mortality
#7
Mayada Elnegouly, Katrin Umgelter, Wajima Safi, Alexander Hapfelmeier, Roland M Schmid, Andreas Umgelter
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Mortality of cirrhotic patients after emergency care admission is high and prognostic factors can help in prioritizing patients. The aim of our study was to assess the association between levels of cardiac Troponin T (cTnT) and one-year mortality in patients with liver cirrhosis without known cardiac disease, who were admitted to the emergency department (ED). METHODS: All patients with cirrhosis presented to the ED from October 2009 until August 2015 who had an initial cTnT value measured with the first lab-panel were retrospectively analyzed with a follow-up of 365 days...
July 20, 2017: Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729435/dysregulation-of-mir-223-constitutes-a-promising-biomarker-that-informs-about-clinical-outcomes-of-acute-liver-failure
#8
Volker M Lauschke
In this issue of Clinical Science, Schueller et al. [Clin. Sci. (2017) 131, 1971-1987] evaluated the role of miR-223 across multiple etiologies of acute and chronic liver insults in murine models and clinical samples. The authors find that while miR-223 is not mechanistically involved in liver injury, its intracellular levels in hepatocytes are increased upon hepatic damage in a broad panel of mechanistically distinct injury models. Furthermore, the authors provide evidence that circulating miR-223 levels provide a promising minimally invasive biomarker for acute liver failure (ALF) that defines a distinct subset of ALF cases and correlates with clinical outcomes...
August 1, 2017: Clinical Science (1979-)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729056/discovery-and-structure-activity-relationship-of-auriculatone-a-potent-hepatoprotective-agent-against-acetaminophen-induced-liver-injury
#9
Meng Zhou, Min Wang, Rui-Feng Zhong, Xiang-Ming Liao, Lian-Li Deng, Guo-Bo Xu, Xun He, Jing Li, Yong-Jun Li, Ting Liu, Yong-Lin Wang, Shang-Gao Liao
Acetaminophen (APAP, paracetamol) overdose has been the most frequent cause of drug-induced liver failure. APAP-induced liver toxicity can be fatal in many cases even with treatment of the clinically used N-acetylcysteine (NAC), and the need for novel therapeutic agents is apparent. Through evaluating the hepatoprotective effects of the co-occurring substances present in oleanolic acid tablets which have been used in China for decades as an adjuvant therapy for acute and chronic hepatitis, auriculatone was found to protect HL-7702 cells from APAP-induced liver injury comparable to NAC at the concentration of 10μM...
July 10, 2017: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725183/bile-acid-mediated-sphingosine-1-phosphate-receptor-2-signaling-promotes-neuroinflammation-during-hepatic-encephalopathy-in-mice
#10
Matthew McMillin, Gabriel Frampton, Stephanie Grant, Shamyal Khan, Juan Diocares, Anca Petrescu, Amy Wyatt, Jessica Kain, Brandi Jefferson, Sharon DeMorrow
Hepatic encephalopathy (HE) is a neuropsychiatric complication that occurs due to deteriorating hepatic function and this syndrome influences patient quality of life, clinical management strategies and survival. During acute liver failure, circulating bile acids increase due to a disruption of the enterohepatic circulation. We previously identified that bile acid-mediated signaling occurs in the brain during HE and contributes to cognitive impairment. However, the influences of bile acids and their downstream signaling pathways on HE-induced neuroinflammation have not been assessed...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722594/fatal-leptospira-spp-zika-virus-coinfection-puerto-rico-2016
#11
Paige Neaterour, Aidsa Rivera, Renee L Galloway, Myriam Garcia Negrón, Brenda Rivera-Garcia, Tyler M Sharp
Coinfection with pathogens that cause acute febrile illness (AFI) can complicate patient diagnosis and management. This report describes a fatal case of Leptospira spp./Zika virus (ZIKV) coinfection in Puerto Rico. The patient presented with a 5-day history of AFI; reported behavioral risk factors for leptospirosis; was diagnosed with possible leptospirosis, dengue, chikungunya, or ZIKV disease; and received appropriate treatment of leptospirosis and dengue. Following a 3-day hospitalization, the patient died due to acute gastrointestinal hemorrhage, and kidney and liver failure...
June 26, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719075/fibrosis-in-small-syngeneic-rat-liver-grafts-due-to-damaged-bone-marrow-stem-cells-from-chronic-alcohol-consumption
#12
Masayuki Hisada, Xiuying Zhang, Yoshihiro Ota, Andrew M Cameron, James Burdick, Bin Gao, George Melville Williams, Zhaoli Sun
A patient with liver failure due to chronic and acute alcohol abuse under consideration for an urgent liver transplant shortly after stopping alcohol may have residual abnormalities that threaten transplant success, particularly for a small graft. To address this, we studied a model in which reduced size (50%) Lewis rat livers are transplanted into green fluorescence protein (GFP) transgenic Lewis recipients after they are fed alcohol or a control diet for 5 weeks. Here we show that normal small Lewis grafts transplanted to alcohol fed Lewis hosts developed fibrosis whereas no fibrosis was observed in control fed recipients...
July 18, 2017: Liver Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717089/an-autopsy-case-of-fulminant-hepatitis-in-a-patient-with-multiple-sclerosis-treated-by-interferon-beta-1a
#13
Yuichi Yamazaki, Aya Suzuki, Kimitoshi Hirayanagi, Yusuke Tsukagoshi, Ryota Uehara, Kazuhiko Horiguchi, Tatsuya Ohyama, Takuya Tomaru, Norio Horiguchi, Sumihito Nobusawa, Hayato Ikota, Ken Sato, Satoru Kakizaki, Motoyasu Kusano, Yoshio Ikeda, Hideaki Yokoo, Masanobu Yamada
A 44-year-old woman with multiple sclerosis (MS) receiving interferon (IFN)-beta-1a treatment was admitted to a local hospital for severe icterus and liver injury. She was transferred to our university hospital because fulminant hepatitis (FH) was suspected. She was diagnosed with acute-type FH based on hepatic coma, severe liver injury and liver failure, and she received plasma exchange and continuous hemodiafiltration therapy. On hospital day 6, she died from liver failure despite intensive care. An autopsy revealed histological findings consistent with FH...
2017: Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714083/acute-liver-failure-with-amiodarone-infusion-a-case-report-and-systematic-review
#14
P Jaiswal, B M Attar, J E Yap, K Devani, R Jaiswal, Y Wang, R Szynkarek, D Patel, M Demetria
WHAT IS KNOWN AND OBJECTIVE: Amiodarone, a commonly used class III antiarrhythmic agent notable for a relatively long half-life of up to 6 months and its pronounced adverse effect profile, is used for both acute and chronic management of cardiac arrhythmias. Chronic use of amiodarone has been associated with asymptomatic hepatotoxicity; however, acute toxicity is thought to be uncommon. There are only six reported cases of acute liver failure (ALF) secondary to amiodarone. In all these cases the outcome of death during the same hospitalization resulted...
July 16, 2017: Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714072/survival-of-patients-with-cirrhosis-and-acute-peptic-ulcer-bleeding-compared-with-variceal-bleeding-using-current-first-line-therapies
#15
Alba Ardevol, Gemma Ibañez-Sanz, Joaquim Profitos, Carles Aracil, Josep M Castellvi, Edilmar Alvarado, Alba Cachero, Diana Horta, Josep Miñana, Bárbara Gomez-Pastrana, Oana Pavel, Eva Dueñas, Meritxell Casas, Montserrat Planella, Jose Castellote J, Candid Villanueva
The presence of cirrhosis increases the mortality of patients with peptic ulcer bleeding (PUB). Both acute variceal bleeding (AVB) and PUB are associated with substantial mortality in cirrhosis. This multicenter cohort study was performed to assess whether the mortality of cirrhotic patients with PUB is different from that of those with AVB. Patients with cirrhosis and acute gastrointestinal bleeding were consecutively included and treated with somatostatin and PPI infusion from admission and with antibiotic prophylaxis...
July 17, 2017: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709622/genipin-protects-d-galactosamine-and-lipopolysaccharide-induced-hepatic-injury-through-suppression-of-the-necroptosis-mediated-inflammasome-signaling
#16
Min-Jong Seo, Jeong-Min Hong, Seok-Joo Kim, Sun-Mee Lee
Acute liver failure (ALF) is a life-threatening syndrome resulting from massive inflammation and hepatocyte death. Necroptosis, a programmed cell death controlled by receptor-interacting protein kinase (RIP) 1 and RIP3, has been shown to play an important role in regulating inflammation via crosstalk between other intracellular signaling. The inflammasome is a major intracellular multiprotein that induces inflammatory responses by mediating immune cell infiltration, thus potentiating injury. Genipin, a major active compound of the gardenia fruit, exhibits anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and anti-apoptotic properties...
July 11, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708813/application-and-interpretation-of-histocompatibility-data-in-liver-transplantation
#17
Russell N Wesson, Eric W Etchill, Jacqueline Garonzik-Wang
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: There has been a resurgence of interest in histocompatibility as it applies to liver transplantation. The association of persistent and de-novo donor specific antibody (DSA) and outcomes after liver transplantation continues to be investigated. RECENT FINDINGS: Consensus continues to evolve regarding the existence of acute and chronic antibody-mediated rejection (AMR) and pathogenicity of DSA and associated pathologic findings after liver transplantation...
July 13, 2017: Current Opinion in Organ Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706981/outcomes-of-liver-transplant-recipients-with-autoimmune-liver-disease-using-long-term-dual-immunosuppression-regimen-without-corticosteroid
#18
Sanjaya K Satapathy, Ollie D Jones, Jason M Vanatta, Faisal Kamal, Satish K Kedia, Yu Jiang, Satheesh P Nair, James D Eason
BACKGROUND: Liver transplant (LT) recipients with autoimmune liver disease (primary sclerosing cholangitis, primary biliary cholangitis, autoimmune hepatitis) are at increased risk of developing acute cellular rejection (ACR), and in many cases graft failure due to recurrent disease. We describe our experience with dual immunosuppression without steroid maintenance and analyze its effect on disease recurrence; ACR; patient and graft survivals; and complications, such as sepsis and de novo malignancy...
July 2017: Transplantation Direct
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706961/multiple-myeloma-presenting-as-acute-liver-failure
#19
Stephanie Cull, David J Westrich, Ruchi Bhatia, Jinping Lai, Alex S Befeler
Liver failure is rarely caused by multiple myeloma (MM). We present an unusual case of MM initially presenting as acute liver injury. A 79-year-old man with new-onset fatigue, decreased appetite, and no history of liver disease was found to have evidence of hepatic decompensation. Liver biopsy demonstrated diffuse plasma cell infiltration, and MM was confirmed with bone marrow biopsy. Chemotherapy was initiated, but the patient decompensated and died due to respiratory failure. MM should be considered on the differential for acute decompensated liver disease...
2017: ACG Case Reports Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706581/early-acute-kidney-injury-after-liver-transplantation-predisposing-factors-and-clinical-implications
#20
Suehana Rahman, Brian R Davidson, Susan V Mallett
AIM: To investigate the additional clinical impact of hepatic ischaemia reperfusion injury (HIRI) on patients sustaining acute kidney injury (AKI) following liver transplantation. METHODS: This was a single-centre retrospective study of consecutive adult patients undergoing orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) between January 2013 and June 2014. Early AKI was identified by measuring serum creatinine at 24 h post OLT (> 1.5 × baseline) or by the use of continuous veno-venous haemofiltration (CVVHF) during the early post-operative period...
June 28, 2017: World Journal of Hepatology
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