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Marjorie M Walker, Michael Potter, Nicholas J Talley
Under normal physiological conditions, eosinophils are present throughout the gastrointestinal tract distal to the squamous oesophagus. Increases in their numbers signify primary and secondary eosinophilic conditions. The rare primary eosinophilic diseases eosinophilic gastroenteritis and eosinophilic colitis affect fewer than ten in 100 000 people, and are characterised by numerous mucosal eosinophils, distributed in sheets and sometimes extending from the mucosa into the submucosa. Pathogenesis of these diseases is poorly understood, but food allergies and intestinal dysbiosis have been implicated...
April 2018: Lancet. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
Úna C Mc Menamin, Andrew T Kunzmann, Michael B Cook, Brian T Johnston, Liam J Murray, Andrew D Spence, Marie M Cantwell, Chris R Cardwell
Incidence of upper gastrointestinal cancers of the oesophagus and stomach show a strong unexplained male predominance. Hormonal and reproductive factors have been associated with upper gastrointestinal cancers in women but there is little available data on men. To investigate this, we included 219,425 men enrolled in the UK Biobank in 2006-2010. Baseline assessments provided information on hormonal and reproductive factors (specifically hair baldness, number of children fathered, relative age at first facial hair and relative age voice broke) and incident oesophageal or gastric cancers were identified through linkage to UK cancer registries...
March 13, 2018: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
T H Taft, J R Triggs, D A Carlson, L Guadagnoli, K N Tomasino, L Keefer, J E Pandolfino
BACKGROUND: Oesophageal hypervigilance and anxiety can drive symptom experience in chronic oesophageal conditions, including gastro-oesophageal reflux disease, achalasia and functional oesophageal disorders. To date, no validated self-report measure exists to evaluate oesophageal hypervigilance and anxiety. AIMS: This study aims to develop a brief and reliable questionnaire assessing these constructs, the oesophageal hypervigilance and anxiety scale (EHAS). METHODS: Questions for the EHAS were drawn from 4 existing validated measures that assessed hypervigilance and anxiety adapted for the oesophagus...
March 12, 2018: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
F M Gür, S Timurkaan, B Gençer Tarakçi, M H Yalçin, Z E Özkan, S B Baygeldi, S Yilmaz, H Eröksüz
Irisin is mainly secreted by heart and skeletal muscle cells. It is an exercise-induced protein that converts white adipose tissue to brown. Increased irisin expression was lead to weight loss and improved glucose tolerance. We investigated irisin immunoreactivity in various tissues of the dwarf hamsters (Phodopus roborovskii). Tissues were processed, embedded in paraffin, sectioned at 5 μm and stained immunohistochemically for irisin. In the retina, irisin was found almost all layers, except outer nuclear layer...
April 2018: Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia
Jade Brown, Wyn G Lewis, Antonio Foliaki, Geoffrey W B Clark, Guy R J C Blackshaw, David S Y Chan
BACKGROUND: Colonic interposition is a second-line option after oesophagectomy when a gastric neo-oesophagus is not viable. There is no consensus on the optimum anatomical colonic conduit (right or left), or route of placement (posterior mediastinal, retrosternal or subcutaneous). The aim of this review was to determine the optimum site and route of neo-oesophageal conduit after adult oesophagectomy. METHODS: PubMed, MEDLINE, and the Cochrane Library (January 1985 to January 2017) were systematically searched for studies which reported outcomes following colonic interposition in adults...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery: Official Journal of the Society for Surgery of the Alimentary Tract
Ester Comellas, Facundo J Bellomo, Iván Rosales, Luis F Del Castillo, Ricardo Sánchez, Pau Turon, Sergio Oller
Endoluminal vacuum-assisted closure (E-VAC) is a promising therapy to treat anastomotic leakages of the oesophagus and bowel which are associated with high morbidity and mortality rates. An open-pore polyurethane foam is introduced into the leakage cavity and connected to a device that applies a suction pressure to accelerate the closure of the defect. Computational analysis of this healing process can advance our understanding of the biomechanical mechanisms at play. To this aim, we use a dual-stage finite-element analysis in which (i) the structural problem addresses the cavity reduction caused by the suction and (ii) a new constitutive formulation models tissue healing via permanent deformations coupled to a stiffness increase...
February 2018: Royal Society Open Science
Sara Franceschelli, Daniela Maria Pia Gatta, Mirko Pesce, Alessio Ferrone, Giuseppe Di Martino, Marta Di Nicola, Maria Anna De Lutiis, Ester Vitacolonna, Antonia Patruno, Alfredo Grilli, Mario Felaco, Lorenza Speranza
Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), a clinical condition characterized by reflux of gastroduodenal contents in the oesophagus, has proved to demonstrate a strong link between oxidative stress and the development of GERD. Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) have been universally accepted as first-line therapy for management of GERD. The potential benefits of electrolysed reduced water (ERW), rich in molecular hydrogen, in improving symptoms and systemic oxidative stress associated with GERD was assessed. The study was performed on 84 GERD patients undergoing control treatment (PPI + tap water) or experimental treatment (PPI + ERW) for 3 months...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
M A Everson, K Ragunath, P Bhandari, L Lovat, R Haidry
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 3, 2018: Gastroenterology
Constantin Ciuce, Răzvan Scurtu, Cătălin Ciuce, Raluca Apostu, Horea Bocşe, George Dindelegan
Introduction: Neoplastic invasion of the structures of the cervical region originating from a malignant tumour developed in one of the viscera of the throat may benefit from cervical exenteration. Defined as resection of the hypopharynx, cervical oesophagus, larynx and cervical trachea, exenteration has limited indications and is mandatorily accompanied by digestive tube reconstruction. The aim of this article is to highlight the indication, surgical strategy and important surgical stages illustrated by images from personal professional experience...
January 2018: Chirurgia
Sujata Biswas, Michael Quante, Simon Leedham, Marnix Jansen
Barrett's oesophagus surveillance biopsies represent a significant share of the daily workload for a busy histopathology department. Given the emphasis on endoscopic detection and dysplasia grading, it is easy to forget that the benefits of these screening programs remain unproven. The majority of patients are at low risk of progression to oesophageal adenocarcinoma, and periodic surveillance of these patients is burdensome and costly. Here, we investigate the parallels in the development of Barrett's oesophagus and other scenarios of wound healing in the intestine...
March 3, 2018: Virchows Archiv: An International Journal of Pathology
Asmaa M El-Kady, Nermean M Hussein, Amal A Hassan
Cattle are intermediate hosts for several Sarcocystis species with different definitive hosts. The present study, to our knowledge, is the first to determine the prevalence of Sarcocystis infection and morphologically and molecularly identify Sarcocystis species in cattle in Qena Governorate, Upper Egypt. The samples were collected from the heart and oesophagus muscles of 84 slaughtered cattle (76 males and 8 females) aged between 11 months and 3 years from slaughterhouses in different localities in Qena Governorate, Upper Egypt...
March 2018: Journal of Parasitic Diseases: Official Organ of the Indian Society for Parasitology
K Mounika, Sreedevi Chennuru, Venu Ravipati, Srinivasa Rao Tumati, Sudhakar Krovvidi
The present study was carried out to determine the prevalence of bovine sarcocystosis and identify the different species of Sarcocystis cysts in cattle in different regions of Chittoor district, Andhra Pradesh. A total of 150 slaughtered cattle over a period of 1 year were examined both macroscopically and microscopically for the presence of Sarcocystis infection. Out of 150 slaughtered cattle examined, macroscopic sarcocysts were observed in nine cattle and were exclusively found in oesophagus. Examination of tissue samples collected from different predilection sites from each of 150 cattle by pepsin-HCl digestion method revealed presence of live banana shaped bradyzoites under light microscopy in 134 cattle...
March 2018: Journal of Parasitic Diseases: Official Organ of the Indian Society for Parasitology
A Girardot-Miglierina, D Clerc, M Suter
Liposarcoma is the most common soft tissue sarcoma in adults. Predominant locations are the limbs and retroperitoneum. Intra-abdominal liposarcoma represents only 2% of all cases and visceral location is exceptional. Gastric liposarcoma is extremely rare, with fewer than 20 cases reported. The treatment of choice is wide en-bloc surgical resection. If the tumour arises in the area of the cardia, resection involves resection of the proximal stomach as well as the distal oesophagus. Traditional reconstruction with oesophagogastrostomy often leads to troublesome reflux...
February 27, 2018: Annals of the Royal College of Surgeons of England
Conrado A Rosi-Denadai, Melanie L Scallion, Craig G Merrett, Jayne E Yack
Insects have evolved a great diversity of sound-producing mechanisms largely attributable to their hardened exoskeleton, which can be rubbed, vibrated or tapped against different substrates to produce acoustic signals. However, sound production by forced air, while common in vertebrates, is poorly understood in insects. We report on a caterpillar that 'vocalizes' by forcing air into and out of its gut. When disturbed, larvae of the Nessus sphinx hawkmoth (Sphingidae: Amphion floridensis ) produce sound trains comprising a stereotyped pattern of long (370 ms) followed by multiple short-duration (23 ms) units...
February 26, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
S Mantziari, C Mariette, G Piessen
A Zenker's or pharyngoesophageal diverticulum may represent a rare cause of upper digestive obstruction, or more often, cervical dysphagia, regurgitations and cough. It develops most often on the posterior left side of cervical oesophagus in elderly patients, and depending on the severity of clinical symptoms may warrant surgical or endoscopic treatment. For large lesions with a difficult endoscopic access to the diverticular neck, surgery is recommended. In our case, we illustrate a giant right-sided Zenker's diverticulum responsible for complete aphagia in a 78-year-old male patient...
February 23, 2018: Journal of Visceral Surgery
Terri-Ann T Russell, Pranitha Pinnamaraju, Maher Hamish
An aorto-gastric fistula is a catastrophic and rare cause of an upper gastrointestinal bleed. The diagnosis requires a high index of suspicion and expedient management as any delay in each of these component, will be to the detriment of the patient. We report a case of a patient with two episodes of this rare event, with haemodynamic compromise, 15 years after having had a trans-hiatal oesophagectomy for an adenocarcinoma of the oesophagus who presented on both occasions. He had thoracic endo-vascular aortic repair (TEVAR) on both presentations and survived...
February 2018: Journal of Surgical Case Reports
Sarmed S Sami, Hasan N Haboubi, Yeng Ang, Philip Boger, Pradeep Bhandari, John de Caestecker, Helen Griffiths, Rehan Haidry, Hans-Ulrich Laasch, Praful Patel, Stuart Paterson, Krish Ragunath, Peter Watson, Peter D Siersema, Stephen E Attwood
These are updated guidelines which supersede the original version published in 2004. This work has been endorsed by the Clinical Services and Standards Committee of the British Society of Gastroenterology (BSG) under the auspices of the oesophageal section of the BSG. The original guidelines have undergone extensive revision by the 16 members of the Guideline Development Group with representation from individuals across all relevant disciplines, including the Heartburn Cancer UK charity, a nursing representative and a patient representative...
February 24, 2018: Gut
Ignazio Puccio, Saif Khan, Adil Butt, David Graham, Vinay Sehgal, Dominic Patel, Marco Novelli, Laurence B Lovat, Manuel Rodriguez-Justo, Rifat A Hamoudi
Non-dysplastic Barrett's oesophagus (NDBE) occurs as a consequence of an inflammatory response triggered through prolonged gastro-oesophageal reflux and it may precede the development of oesophageal adenocarcinoma. NF-κB activation as a result of the inflammatory response has been shown in NDBE, but the possible mechanism involved in the process is unknown. The aim of this study was to assess, using immunohistochemistry, Survivin and Bcl3 expression as potential biomarkers for NF-κB activation along the oesophageal metaplasia-dysplasia-adenocarcinoma sequence...
February 23, 2018: International Journal of Experimental Pathology
Xiao-Yu Ni, Yan-Hong Zhang, Hai-Xia Zhao, Chang-Wang Pan
Quasi-static and dynamic numerical analyses are carried out by referring to computational models of commercial self-expandable braided stents with three commonly used end shapes, in order to evaluate the influence of different end shapes of stent on the biomechanical interaction between stent and oesophagus. The end shape has no influence on the equivalent stress, but has a great influence on the contact stress in the narrowest zone of the oesophagus-neoplasm system. However, the end shapes has significant effect on the equivalent stress and the contact stress in the healthy area of the oesophagus in contact with the stent ends...
February 20, 2018: International Journal for Numerical Methods in Biomedical Engineering
Małgorzata Misztal-Szkudlińska, Elżbieta Kalisińska, Piotr Szefer, Piotr Konieczka, Jacek Namieśnik
This work analyses the effect of mercury on the condition of cormorants (Phalacrocorax carbo) from an extensive breeding colony in northern Poland, the largest in Europe. A total of 55 birds (44 adults and 11 immature) were obtained. Total mercury (Hg) concentrations were measured in the liver, kidneys, breast muscles, heart, gullet (oesophagus), stomach, intestines, trachea, lungs and eyeballs. The total body mass (TBM) and empty body mass (EBM) were measured, and the body parts taken for analysis were weighed...
February 16, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
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