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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938692/effectiveness-and-safety-of-pd-1-pd-l1-inhibitors-in-the-treatment-of-solid-tumors-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#1
REVIEW
Xiaohui Wang, Zhengqiang Bao, Xiaoju Zhang, Fei Li, Tianwen Lai, Chao Cao, Zhihua Chen, Wen Li, Huahao Shen, Songmin Ying
BACKGROUND: PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitors have been implicated as potentially effective anti-cancer therapies. Some clinical randomized controlled trials (RCTs) have been completed for a variety of PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitors to treat various malignancies, and more RCTs are still under way. We carried out this systematic meta-analysis to evaluate the efficacy and safety of PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitors in the treatment of solid tumors. METHODS: We searched PubMed, EMBASE, clinical trial registers, conference reports, and related reviews...
August 29, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938663/transcatheter-hepatic-arterial-chemoembolization-and-sorafenib-for-hepatocellular-carcinoma-a-meta-analysis-of-randomized-double-blind-controlled-trials
#2
Jun Li, Wenhui Liu, Wenhua Zhu, Yinqiao Wu, Benyan Wu
We performed a meta-analysis of transcatheter hepatic arterial chemoembolization (TACE) combined with sorafenib for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), which included 4 double-blind, randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that investigated the effects of TACE combined with sorafenib (experimental groups) on time to disease progression (TTP), overall survival (OS), and various sorafenib-related adverse events, compared to those in the placebo (control) groups. A total of 877 HCC cases from 14 countries, including China and the USA, were included in our meta-analysis...
August 29, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938446/vitamin-d-and-testosterone-in-healthy-men-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#3
Elisabeth Lerchbaum, Stefan Pilz, Christian Trummer, Verena Schwetz, Oliver Pachernegg, Annemieke C Heijboer, Barbara Obermayer-Pietsch
Context: Available evidence shows an association of vitamin D with androgen levels in men. However, results from preliminary randomized controlled trials (RCTs) are conflicting. Objective: To evaluate whether vitamin D supplementation increases total testosterone (TT) levels in healthy men. Design: The Graz Vitamin D&TT-RCT is a single-center, double-blind, randomized placebo-controlled trial conducted between December 2012 and January 2017...
August 29, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938439/single-dose-metformin-enhances-bile-acid-induced-glp-1-secretion-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes
#4
Andreas Brønden, Anders Albér, Ulrich Rohde, Jens F Rehfeld, Jens J Holst, Tina Vilsbøll, Filip K Knop
Context: Despite a position as the first-line pharmacotherapy in type 2 diabetes, the glucose-lowering mechanisms of metformin remain to be fully clarified. Gut-derived modes of action, including suppression of bile acid reabsorption and a resulting increase in GLP-1 secretion, has been proposed. Objective: The aim of this study was to assess the GLP-1 secretory and gluco-metabolic effects of endogenously released bile, with and without concomitant single-dose administration of metformin in patients with type 2 diabetes...
August 18, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938283/effect-of-tranexamic-acid-on-transfusion-a-randomized-clinical-trial-in-acetabular-fracture-surgery
#5
William D Lack, Brett D Crist, Rachel B Seymour, William Harvin, Madhav A Karunakar
OBJECTIVES: Given the increasing evidence that minimizing blood loss and limiting allogeneic transfusion can improve patient outcome, we are performing a randomized controlled trial of the use of tranexamic acid (TXA) during acetabular fracture surgery. DESIGN: Prospective, multicenter, and randomized. SETTING: Two level I trauma centers. PARTICIPANTS: Eighty-eight patients underwent randomization, with 42 assigned to the TXA group and 46 assigned to the placebo group...
October 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Trauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938282/efficacy-and-safety-of-tranexamic-acid-in-orthopaedic-fracture-surgery-a-meta-analysis-and-systematic-literature-review
#6
Kamil M Amer, Saqib Rehman, Kamal Amer, Christopher Haydel
BACKGROUND: Tranexamic acid (TXA) is an antifibrinolytic drug that has been shown to be effective in reducing blood loss and the need for transfusions after several orthopaedic surgeries. However, the effectiveness of TXA use in orthopaedic fracture surgeries still remains unclear. The purpose of this meta-analysis was to review existing literature with interest in the effectiveness and safety of TXA treatment in reducing total blood loss and transfusion rates for patients who underwent surgery for fracture repairs...
October 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Trauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937886/effectiveness-of-biology-based-methods-for-inhibiting-orthodontic-tooth-movement-a-systematic-review
#7
M Cadenas de Llano-Pérula, R M Yañez-Vico, E Solano-Reina, J C Palma-Fernandez, A Iglesias-Linares
INTRODUCTION: Several experimental studies in the literature have tested different biology-based methods for inhibiting or decreasing orthodontic tooth movement (OTM) in humans. This systematic review investigated the effects of these interventions on the rate of tooth movement. STUDY DESIGN: Electronic [MedLine; SCOPUS; Cochrane Library; OpenGrey;Web of Science] and manual searches were conducted up to January 26th, 2016 in order to identify publications of clinical trials that compared the decreasing or inhibiting effects of different biology-based methods over OTM in humans...
September 22, 2017: Journal of Clinical Pediatric Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937706/durability-of-therapeutic-response-with-long-term-aripiprazole-lauroxil-treatment-following-successful-resolution-of-an-acute-episode-of-schizophrenia
#8
Joseph P McEvoy, Robert Risinger, Serhiy Mykhnyak, Yangchun Du, Chih-Chin Liu, Arielle D Stanford, Peter J Weiden
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate durability of therapeutic effect of long-term treatment with aripiprazole lauroxil in patients with schizophrenia following successful treatment of an acute psychotic episode. METHODS: This post hoc analysis assessed long-term outcomes for a subgroup of patients who entered a 52-week extension study after being successfully stabilized with one of 2 doses of aripiprazole lauroxil (441 or 882 mg) in a pivotal 12-week, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trial...
September 19, 2017: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937334/optimal-threshold-estimator-of-a-prognostic-marker-by-maximizing-a-time-dependent-expected-utility-function-for-a-patient-centered-stratified-medicine
#9
Etienne Dantan, Yohann Foucher, Marine Lorent, Magali Giral, Philippe Tessier
Defining thresholds of prognostic markers is essential for stratified medicine. Such thresholds are mostly estimated from purely statistical measures regardless of patient preferences potentially leading to unacceptable medical decisions. Quality-Adjusted Life-Years are a widely used preferences-based measure of health outcomes. We develop a time-dependent Quality-Adjusted Life-Years-based expected utility function for censored data that should be maximized to estimate an optimal threshold. We performed a simulation study to compare estimated thresholds when using the proposed expected utility approach and purely statistical estimators...
October 20, 2016: Statistical Methods in Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936905/microwave-diathermy-and-transcutaneous-electrical-nerve-stimulation-effects-in-primary-dysmenorrhea-clinical-trial-protocol
#10
Aline Fernanda Perez Machado, Monica Rodrigues Perracini, Ariane da Cruz Saraiva de Morais, Bruna Oliveira da Silva, Patricia Driusso, Richard Eloin Liebano
The aim of this study will be to analyze the effects of microwave diathermy (MWD) and transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) on primary dysmenorrhea. Eighty eight women, age range 18-44 years, with no previous pregnancy, no practice physical activities, a BMI of ≤29.9 kg/m(2), a regular menstrual cycle and a diagnosis of primary dysmenorrhea, with menstrual pain ranging from mild to severe, will be selected. The participants will be randomized into four groups: MWD and TENS, MWD and placebo TENS, placebo MWD and TENS, and placebo MWD and placebo TENS...
September 22, 2017: Pain Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936902/maternal-obesity-is-associated-with-chorioamnionitis-and-earlier-indicated-preterm-delivery-among-expectantly-managed-women-with-preterm-premature-rupture-of-membranes
#11
Emily E Hadley, Andrea Discacciati, Maged M Costantine, Mary B Munn, Luis D Pacheco, George R Saade, Giuseppe Chiossi
OBJECTIVE: To determine the association between maternal obesity and delivery due to chorioamnionitis prior to labor onset, among expectantly managed women with preterm premature rupture of membranes (pPROM). METHODS: This was a secondary analysis of a multicenter randomized trial of magnesium sulfate versus placebo to prevent cerebral palsy or death among offspring of women with anticipated delivery at 24-31-week gestation. After univariable analysis, Cox proportional hazard evaluated the association between maternal obesity and chorioamnionitis, while Laplace regression investigated how obesity affects the gestational age at delivery of the first 20% of women developing the outcome of interest...
September 22, 2017: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936569/treatment-related-serious-adverse-events-and-fatal-adverse-events-with-regorafenib-in-cancer-patients-a-meta-analysis-of-phase-3-randomized-controlled-trials
#12
REVIEW
Meihui Cao, Feifei Li, Yue Wang, Jingdong Zhang
Regorafenib (Stivarga) is an oral small-molecule multikinase inhibitor commonly used against a variety of cancers. We performed a meta-analysis of all phase 3 randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of regorafenib to quantify the increased risk of SAEs and FAEs. We carried out a systematic search of electronic databases for studies published from inception to February 2017 without any restrictions. Eligibility criteria included phase 3 RCTs of tumors comparing regorafenib, alone or in combination with non-targeted chemotherapy (regorafenib arm) versus placebo or non-targeted chemotherapy (control arm)...
September 22, 2017: Investigational New Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936485/a-randomized-controlled-trial-of-lisinopril-to-decrease-lymphoid-fibrosis-in-antiretroviral-treated-hiv-infected-individuals
#13
Leslie R Cockerham, Steven A Yukl, Kara Harvill, Ma Somsouk, Sunil K Joshi, Elizabeth Sinclair, Teri Liegler, Rebecca Hoh, Sophie Lyons, Peter W Hunt, Adam Rupert, Irini Sereti, David R Morcock, Ajantha Rhodes, Claire Emson, Marc K Hellerstein, Jacob D Estes, Sharon Lewin, Steven G Deeks, Hiroyu Hatano
BACKGROUND: In HIV infection, lymphoid tissue is disrupted by fibrosis. Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors have anti-fibrotic properties. We completed a pilot study to assess whether the addition of lisinopril to antiretroviral therapy (ART) reverses fibrosis of gut tissue, and whether this leads to reduction of HIV RNA and DNA levels. METHODS: Thirty HIV-infected individuals on ART were randomized to lisinopril at 20mg daily or matching placebo for 24 weeks...
2017: Pathogens & Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936175/pharmacokinetics-and-pharmacodynamics-of-lisdexamfetamine-compared-with-d-amphetamine-in-healthy-subjects
#14
Patrick C Dolder, Petra Strajhar, Patrick Vizeli, Felix Hammann, Alex Odermatt, Matthias E Liechti
Rationale: Lisdexamfetamine is a prodrug of D-amphetamine used for the treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Lisdexamfetamine is thought to have a prolonged pharmacokinetic profile compared with oral D-amphetamine, possibly associated with lower drug liking and a lower risk of oral misuse. However, differences in the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of lisdexamfetamine and D-amphetamine have not been directly compared. Methods: Equimolar doses of D-amphetamine (40 mg) and lisdexamfetamine (100 mg), and placebo were administered in 24 healthy subjects in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over study...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936072/alleviating-stress-response-to-tracheal-extubation-in-neurosurgical-patients-a-comparative-study-of-two-infusion-doses-of-dexmedetomidine
#15
Ankur Luthra, Hemanshu Prabhakar, Girija Prasad Rath
BACKGROUND: Tracheal extubation is almost always associated with increase in sympathoadrenal activity may result in hypertension, tachycardia, and arrhythmias. Attempts have been made to oppose the pressor response by the use of various drugs. Dexmedetomidine decreases norepinephrine which reduces the blood pressure and the heart rate (HR). We hypothesize that the infusion of dexmedetomidine may produce more stable hemodynamics during extubation as compared to boluses. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ninety adult patients aged 18-65 years, the American Society of Anesthesiologists Grade I-II undergoing intracranial surgeries for various neurologic problem at All India Institute of Medical Sciences were enrolled in this randomized controlled trial...
August 2017: Journal of Neurosciences in Rural Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935773/a-randomized-double-blinded-phase-ii-trial-of-gemcitabine-and-nab-paclitaxel-plus-apatorsen-or-placebo-in-patients-with-metastatic-pancreatic-cancer-the-rainier-trial
#16
Andrew H Ko, Patrick B Murphy, James D Peyton, Dianna L Shipley, Ahmed Al-Hazzouri, Francisco A Rodriguez, Mark S Womack, Henry Q Xiong, David M Waterhouse, Margaret A Tempero, Shuangli Guo, Cassie M Lane, Chris Earwood, Laura M DeBusk, Johanna C Bendell
LESSONS LEARNED: The addition of the heat shock protein 27 (Hsp27)-targeting antisense oligonucleotide, apatorsen, to a standard first-line chemotherapy regimen did not result in improved survival in unselected patients with metastatic pancreatic cancer.Findings from this trial hint at the possible prognostic and predictive value of serum Hsp27 that may warrant further investigation. BACKGROUND: This randomized, double-blinded, phase II trial evaluated the efficacy of gemcitabine/nab-paclitaxel plus either apatorsen, an antisense oligonucleotide targeting heat shock protein 27 (Hsp27) mRNA, or placebo in patients with metastatic pancreatic cancer...
September 21, 2017: Oncologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935614/randomized-trial-of-interventions-to-improve-childhood-asthma-in-homes-with-wood-burning-stoves
#17
Curtis W Noonan, Erin O Semmens, Paul Smith, Solomon W Harrar, Luke Montrose, Emily Weiler, Marcy McNamara, Tony J Ward
BACKGROUND: Household air pollution due to biomass combustion for residential heating adversely affects vulnerable populations. Randomized controlled trials to improve indoor air quality in homes of children with asthma are limited, and no such studies have been conducted in homes using wood for heating. OBJECTIVES: Our aims were to test the hypothesis that household-level interventions, specifically improved-technology wood-burning appliances or air-filtration devices, would improve health measures, in particular Pediatric Asthma Quality of Life Questionnaire (PAQLQ) scores, relative to placebo, among children living with asthma in homes with wood-burning stoves...
September 13, 2017: Environmental Health Perspectives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935470/efficacy-and-safety-of-a-pentavalent-live-human-bovine-reassortant-rotavirus-vaccine-rv5-in-healthy-chinese-infants-a-randomized-double-blind-placebo-controlled-trial
#18
Zhaojun Mo, Yi Mo, Mingqiang Li, Junhui Tao, Xu Yang, Jilian Kong, Dingkai Wei, Botao Fu, Xueyan Liao, Jianli Chu, Yuanzheng Qiu, Darcy A Hille, Micki Nelson, Susan S Kaplan
BACKGROUND: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled multicenter trial was conducted in healthy Chinese infants to assess the efficacy and safety of a pentavalent live human-bovine reassortant rotavirus vaccine (RotaTeq™, RV5) against rotavirus gastroenteritis (RVGE). METHODS: 4040 participants aged 6-12weeks were enrolled and randomly assigned to either 3 oral doses of RV5 (n=2020) or placebo (n=2020), administered ∼4weeks apart. The participants also received OPV and DTaP in a concomitant or staggered fashion...
September 18, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935269/randomized-trial-of-omega-3-for-autism-spectrum-disorders-effect-on-cell-membrane-composition-and-behavior
#19
Mara Parellada, Cloe Llorente, Rosa Calvo, Silvia Gutierrez, Luisa Lázaro, Montserrat Graell, Maria Guisasola, Maria Luisa Dorado, Leticia Boada, Jose Romo, Elena Dulin, Inmaculada Sanz, Celso Arango, Carmen Moreno
A high ω6/ω3 ratio [fatty acid (FA) index] in the cell membrane has been associated with inadequate brain development. It has started to be used as a biomarker of treatment efficacy in human diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate if omega-3 supplementation improves erythrocyte membrane ω6/ω3, plasma antioxidant status (TAS) and autistic behaviors. A randomized, crossover, placebo-controlled study was designed to investigate the effect of 8 weeks of supplementation with ω3 (962mg/d and 1155mg/d for children and adolescents, respectively)...
September 18, 2017: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935268/repeated-cortisol-administration-does-not-reduce-intrusive-memories-a-double-blind-placebo-controlled-experimental-study
#20
Alexandra Heike Graebener, Tanja Michael, Elena Holz, Johanna Lass-Hennemann
PTSD is a severe mental disorder, which may develop after exposure to traumatic events and is characterized by intrusive memories. Intrusions are sudden brief sensory memories of the traumatic event, that cause immense distress and impairment in every day functioning. Thus, the reduction of intrusive memories is one of the main aims of PTSD therapy. Recently, the glucocorticoid cortisol has been proposed as a pharmacological option to reduce intrusive memories, because cortisol is known to have memory retrieval inhibiting effects...
September 18, 2017: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
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