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Thyroid resistance

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911598/type-3-deiodinase-role-on-central-thyroid-hormone-action-affects-the-leptin-melanocortin-system-and-circadian-activity
#1
Zhaofei Wu, M Elena Martinez, Donald L St Germain, Arturo Hernandez
The role of thyroid hormones (TH) in the central regulation of energy balance is increasingly appreciated. Mice lacking the type 3 deiodinase (DIO3), which inactivates TH, have decreased circulating TH levels relative to control mice due to defects in the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis. However, we have shown that the TH status of the adult Dio3(-/-) brain is opposite that of the serum, exhibiting enhanced levels of TH action. Since the brain, specially the hypothalamus, harbors important circuitries that regulate metabolism, we aimed to examine the energy balance phenotype of Dio3(-/-) mice and determine whether it is associated with hypothalamic abnormalities...
December 2, 2016: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904772/mir-101-targets-usp22-to-inhibit-the-tumorigenesis-of-papillary-thyroid-carcinoma
#2
Huadong Zhao, Haili Tang, Qike Huang, Bo Qiu, Xiaomin Liu, Dong Fan, Li Gong, Hang Guo, Chong Chen, Shixiong Lei, Lu Yang, Jianguo Lu, Guoqiang Bao
Increasing evidence suggests that microRNA-101 (miR-101) is involved in the progression of various human cancers, including papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC). However, the biological functions of miR-101 and underlying molecular mechanisms in PTC remain largely unknown. In this study, we demonstrated that miR-101 underexpression in PTC tissue was associated with lymph node metastasis and poor prognosis of PTC patients. MiR-101 reduced PTC cell proliferation, apoptosis resistance, and invasion. Ubiquitin-specific protease 22 (USP22) was confirmed as a direct target of miR-101...
2016: American Journal of Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901182/does-insulin-resistance-increase-thyroid-volume-in-patients-with-polycystic-ovary-syndrome
#3
Murat Sahin, Didem Demircioglu, Ayten Oguz, Dilek Tuzun, Mehmet Akif Sarica, Elif Inanc, Kamile Gul
Objective: To investigate the effect of gonadotropin, sex hormone levels and insulin resistance (IR) on thyroid functions and thyroid volume (TV) in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Subjects and methods: 69 new diagnosed PCOS patients (age 24.82 ± 6.17) and 56 healthy control female (age 26.69 ± 5.25) were involved to the study. Fasting plasma glucose, lipid profile, insulin, thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), free thyroxine (fT4), estradiol (E2), luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle stimulating hormone levels and urine iodine were measured in all participants...
November 24, 2016: Archives of Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899417/emerging-roles-of-glis3-in-neonatal-diabetes-type-1-and-type-2-diabetes
#4
Xianjie Wen, Yisheng Yang
GLI-similar 3 (GLIS3), a member of the Krüppel-like zinc finger protein subfamily, is predominantly expressed in the pancreas, thyroid, and kidney. Glis3 mRNA can be initially detected in mouse pancreas at embryonic day 11.5 and is largely restricted to β cells, pancreatic polypeptide-expressing cells, as well as ductal cells at later stage of pancreas development. Mutations in GLIS3 cause a neonatal diabetes syndrome, characterized by neonatal diabetes, congenital hypothyroidism, and polycystic kidney. Importantly, genome-wide association studies showed that variations of GLIS3 are strongly associated with both type 1 diabetes (T1D) and type 2 diabetes (T2D) in multiple populations...
November 29, 2016: Journal of Molecular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896639/seom-clinical-guideline-for-bone-metastases-from-solid-tumours-2016
#5
C Grávalos, C Rodríguez, A Sabino, M Á Seguí, J A Virizuela, A Carmona, J Cassinello, D Isla, C Jara, M Martín
Bone metastases are common in many advanced solid tumours, being breast, prostate, thyroid, lung, and renal cancer the most prevalent. Bone metastases can produce skeletal-related events (SREs), defined as pathological fracture, spinal cord compression, need of bone irradiation or need of bone surgery, and hypercalcaemia. Patients with bone metastases experience pain, functional impairment and have a negative impact on their quality of life. Several imaging techniques are available for diagnosis of this disease...
November 28, 2016: Clinical & Translational Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27880942/acquired-resistance-to-braf-inhibition-induces-epithelial-to-mesenchymal-transition-in-braf-v600e-mutant-thyroid-cancer-by-c-met-mediated-akt-activation
#6
Hyung Kwon Byeon, Hwi Jung Na, Yeon Ju Yang, Sooah Ko, Sun Och Yoon, Minhee Ku, Jaemoon Yang, Jae Wook Kim, Myung Jin Ban, Ji-Hoon Kim, Da Hee Kim, Jung Min Kim, Eun Chang Choi, Chang-Hoon Kim, Joo-Heon Yoon, Yoon Woo Koh
Previously, the authors have identified that c-Met mediates reactivation of the PI3K/AKT pathway following BRAF inhibitor treatment in BRAF (V600E) mutant anaplastic thyroid cancer, thereby contributing to the acquired drug resistance. Therefore dual inhibition of BRAF and c-Met led to sustained treatment response, thereby maximizing the specific anti-tumor effect of targeted therapy. The present study goes one step further and aims to investigate the effect of acquired resistance of BRAF inhibitor on epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in BRAF mutant thyroid cancer cells and the effect of dual inhibition from combinatorial therapy...
November 21, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872141/differential-roles-of-ret-isoforms-in-medullary-and-papillary-thyroid-carcinomas
#7
Eric Y Lian, Sarah M Maritan, Jessica G Cockburn, Katayoon Kasaian, Mathieu Jf Crupi, David Hurlbut, Steven Jones, Sam Wiseman, Lois M Mulligan
The RET receptor tyrosine kinase mediates cell proliferation, survival and migration in embryogenesis, and is implicated in transformation and tumour progression in multiple cancers. RET is frequently mutated and constitutively activated in familial and sporadic thyroid carcinomas. As a result of alternative splicing, RET is expressed as two protein isoforms, RET9 and RET51, which differ in their unique C-terminal amino acids. These isoforms have distinct intracellular trafficking and associated signaling complexes, but functional differences are not well defined...
November 21, 2016: Endocrine-related Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866718/mutational-analysis-of-metastatic-lymph-nodes-from-papillary-thyroid-carcinoma-in-adult-and-pediatric-patients
#8
Alexander L Shifrin, Michele Fischer, Trevor Paul, Brian Erler, Katherine Gheysens, Prachi Baodhankar, Joanna W Song-Yang, Samantha Taylor, Venkata Arun Timmaraju, Arthur Topilow, Alidad Mireskandari, Gyanendra Kumar
BACKGROUND: Limited data are available on the analysis of somatic mutations in metastatic lymph nodes in adult and pediatric patients with papillary thyroid carcinomas. METHODS: A total of 92, microdissected, formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue specimens from 39 patients were analyzed for the presence of somatic mutations utilizing the ThyGenX next-generation sequencing test. RESULTS: Somatic mutations were detected in 67% of papillary thyroid carcinoma specimens...
November 17, 2016: Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856930/effects-of-thyroid-hormone-withdrawal-on-metabolic-and-cardiovascular-parameters-during-radioactive-iodine-therapy-in-differentiated-thyroid-cancer
#9
Jee Hyun An, Kee-Ho Song, Dong-Lim Kim, Suk Kyeong Kim
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the cardiometabolic effects of a severe hypothyroid state induced by withdrawal of thyroid hormone replacement before radioactive iodine therapy. METHODS: Patients with thyroid cancer who were scheduled to receive radioactive iodine ablation were enrolled. Cardiometabolic parameters were measured using blood samples taken immediately before levothyroxine withdrawal, 4 weeks following withdrawal (on radiotherapy day), and 4 weeks following reinstitution of levothyroxine...
November 17, 2016: Journal of International Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853625/targeting-of-slug-sensitizes-anaplastic-thyroid-carcinoma-sw1736-cells-to-doxorubicin-via-puma-upregulation
#10
Anbing Dong, Xuelong Jiao, Dong Chen, Fengyun Hao, Kejun Zhang
Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC) is one of the most aggressive human cancers and often shows resistance to multimodal therapeutic approaches. It has been shown that the transcriptional repressor Slug inhibits the chemotherapeutic agent-induced apoptosis of cancer cells. We evaluated whether targeting of Slug could augment doxorubicin (DOX)-induced apoptosis of ATC cells. We also determined changes in PUMA (p53-upregulated modulator of apoptosis) expression levels to identify possible mechanisms of their combined actions...
2016: International Journal of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853381/h%C3%A3-rthle-cell-carcinoma-current-perspectives
#11
REVIEW
Sara Ahmadi, Michael Stang, Xiaoyin Sara Jiang, Julie Ann Sosa
Hürthle cell carcinoma (HCC) can present either as a minimally invasive or as a widely invasive tumor. HCC generally has a more aggressive clinical behavior compared with the other differentiated thyroid cancers, and it is associated with a higher rate of distant metastases. Minimally invasive HCC demonstrates much less aggressive behavior; lesions <4 cm can be treated with thyroid lobectomy alone, and without radioactive iodine (RAI). HCC has been observed to be less iodine-avid compared with other differentiated thyroid cancers; however, recent data have demonstrated improved survival with RAI use in patients with HCC >2 cm and those with nodal and distant metastases...
2016: OncoTargets and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853072/resistance-to-thyroid-hormone-complicated-with-type-2-diabetes-and-cardiomyopathy-in-a-patient-with-a-tr%C3%AE-mutation
#12
Hisao Wakasaki, Miyuki Matsumoto, Shinya Tamaki, Kaori Miyata, Shohei Yamamoto, Takamasa Minaga, Yoshitaka Hayashi, Kenichi Komukai, Toshio Imanishi, Hiroyuki Yamaoka, Shohei Matsuno, Masahiro Nishi, Takashi Akamizu
Resistance to thyroid hormone (RTH) is a genetic disorder characterized by reduced tissue responsiveness to thyroid hormone. We herein describe a 60-year old man who presented with the clinical features of cardiomyopathy, diabetes mellitus and elevated thyroid hormones with unsuppressed thyroid stimulating hormone. A genetic analysis of thyroid hormone receptor (TR) revealed a missense mutation (A268D) in the TRβ gene. Clinical manifestations of RTH may be variable due to different tissue distributions of TR subtypes and different actions of mutant receptors...
2016: Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27843862/not-all-elevated-hormones-are-toxic-a-case-of-thyroid-hormone-resistance
#13
Rajeev Philip, Mohan Krishnakumar Padikal, Altaf Alinausad, Charamelsankaran Keshavan
Resistance to thyroid hormone syndrome (RTH) is a rare disorder and is usually inherited as dominantly negative autosomal trait. RTH is caused by mutations in the thyroid hormone receptor beta. Patients with RTH usually do not have signs and symptoms of thyrotoxicosis, but the thyroid function test shows an elevated T3 and T4, which get misinterpreted as hyperthyroidism, resulting in unnecessary treatment.
April 2016: Journal of Family Medicine and Primary Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27837466/thyroid-disruption-by-perfluorooctane-sulfonate-pfos-and-perfluorooctanoate-pfoa
#14
REVIEW
F Coperchini, O Awwad, M Rotondi, F Santini, M Imbriani, L Chiovato
BACKGROUND: Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) are two fluorinated compounds widely used in industry because of their useful chemical characteristics. They were identified as endocrine disruptors due to their ability to interfere with thyroid function. The resistance of PFOA and PFOS to environmental degradation, their bio-accumulation in food chains, and their long half-life raised concern in the scientific community, and several studies were performed with the aim to establish the real dangerousness of these compounds for the human health...
November 11, 2016: Journal of Endocrinological Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27837029/digitalis-like-compounds-facilitate-non-medullary-thyroid-cancer-redifferentiation-through-intracellular-ca2-fos-and-autophagy-dependent-pathways
#15
Marika H Tesselaar, Thomas Crezee, Herman G Swarts, Danny Gerrits, Otto C Boerman, Jan B Koenderink, Hendrik G Stunnenberg, Mihai G Netea, Jan Wa Smit, Romana T Netea-Maier, Theo S Plantinga
Up to 20-30% of patients with metastatic non-medullary thyroid cancer have persistent or recurrent disease resulting from tumour dedifferentiation. Tumour redifferentiation to restore sensitivity to radioactive iodide (RAI) therapy is considered a promising strategy to overcome RAI resistance. Autophagy has emerged as an important mechanism in cancer dedifferentiation. Here, we demonstrate the therapeutic potential of autophagy activators for redifferentiation of thyroid cancer cell lines. Five autophagy activating compounds, all known as digitalis-like compounds, restored hNIS expression and iodide uptake in TC cell lines...
November 11, 2016: Molecular Cancer Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27833725/prediction-of-endocrine-system-affectation-in-fisher-344-rats-by-food-intake-exposed-with-malathion-applying-na%C3%A3-ve-bayes-classifier-and-genetic-algorithms
#16
Juan David Sandino Mora, Darío Amaya Hurtado, Olga Lucía Ramos Sandoval
BACKGROUND: Reported cases of uncontrolled use of pesticides and its produced effects by direct or indirect exposition, represent a high risk for human health. Therefore, in this paper, it is shown the results of the development and execution of an algorithm that predicts the possible effects in endocrine system in Fisher 344 (F344) rats, occasioned by ingestion of malathion. METHODS: It was referred to ToxRefDB database in which different case studies in F344 rats exposed to malathion were collected...
2016: International Journal of Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27821020/duox2-gene-mutation-manifesting-as-resistance-to-thyrotropin-rtsh-phenotype
#17
Panudda Srichomkwun, Junta Takamatsu, Deborah A Nickerson, Michael J Bamshad, Jessica X Chong, Samuel Refetoff
Resistance to TSH (RTSH; defined by an elevated TSH and a normal or hypoplastic thyroid gland) can be caused by mutations in genes encoding the TSH receptor and PAX8, and it has been linked to a locus on chromosome 15. In two non-consanguineous families with non-goitrous euthyroid hyperthyrotropinemia, typical of the RTSH phenotype, exome analysis identified five rare DUOX2 gene variants (p.A649E, p.P1391A, p.R885L, p.G488R and p.SF965-6SfsX29) found to be pathogenic. This form of non-goitrous dyshormonogenesis masquerades both clinically and biochemically as RTSH...
November 7, 2016: Thyroid: Official Journal of the American Thyroid Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27811940/the-endocrine-manifestations-of-anorexia-nervosa-mechanisms-and-management
#18
REVIEW
Melanie Schorr, Karen K Miller
Anorexia nervosa is a psychiatric disorder characterized by altered body image, persistent food restriction and low body weight, and is associated with global endocrine dysregulation in both adolescent girls and women. Dysfunction of the hypothalamic-pituitary axis includes hypogonadotropic hypogonadism with relative oestrogen and androgen deficiency, growth hormone resistance, hypercortisolaemia, non-thyroidal illness syndrome, hyponatraemia and hypooxytocinaemia. Serum levels of leptin, an anorexigenic adipokine, are suppressed and levels of ghrelin, an orexigenic gut peptide, are elevated in women with anorexia nervosa; however, levels of peptide YY, an anorexigenic gut peptide, are paradoxically elevated...
November 4, 2016: Nature Reviews. Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27809680/in-vivo-functional-consequences-of-human-thra-variants-expressed-in-the-zebrafish
#19
Federica Marelli, Silvia Carra, Giuditta Rurale, Franco Cotelli, Luca Persani
Heterozygous mutations in the thyroid hormone receptor alpha (THRA) gene cause Resistance to Thyroid Hormone alpha (RTHα), a disease characterized by variable manifestations reminiscent of untreated congenital hypothyroidism but a raised T3/T4 ratio and normal TSH levels. We recently described that zebrafish embryos expressing a dominant negative (DN) form of thraa recapitulate the key features of RTHα, and that zebrafish and human receptors are functionally interchangeable. In this study we expressed several human TRα variants in zebrafish embryos and analyzed the resulting phenotypes...
November 3, 2016: Thyroid: Official Journal of the American Thyroid Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27803022/transcriptional-dynamics-during-human-adipogenesis-and-its-link-to-adipose-morphology-and-distribution
#20
Anna Ehrlund, Niklas Mejhert, Christel Björk, Robin Andersson, Agné Kulyté, Gaby Åström, Masayoshi Itoh, Hideya Kawaji, Timo Lassmann, Carsten O Daub, Piero Carninci, Alistair Rr Forrest, Yoshihide Hayashizaki, Albin Sandelin, Erik Ingelsson, Fantom Consortium, Mikael Rydén, Jurga Laurencikiene, Peter Arner, Erik Arner
White adipose tissue (WAT) can develop into several phenotypes with different pathophysiological impact on type 2 diabetes. To better understand the adipogenic process, the transcriptional events that occur during in vitro differentiation of human adipocytes were investigated and the findings linked to WAT phenotypes. Single molecule transcriptional profiling provided a detailed map of the expressional changes of genes, enhancers, and long non-coding RNAs, where different types of transcripts share common dynamics during differentiation...
November 1, 2016: Diabetes
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