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Thyroid resistance

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928829/braf-v600e-mutation-contributes-papillary-thyroid-carcinoma-and-hashimoto-thyroiditis-with-resistance-to-thyroid-hormone-a-case-report-and-literature-review
#1
Wanjia Xing, Xiaohong Liu, Qingqing He, Zongjing Zhang, Zhaoshun Jiang
Resistance to thyroid hormone (RTH) is a rare autosomal hereditary disorder characterized by increased serum thyroid hormone (TH) levels with unsuppressed or increased thyrotropin concentration. It remains unknown whether the coexistence of RTH with papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) and Hashimoto thyroiditis (HT) is incidental or whether it possesses a genetic or pathophysiological association. In the present study, a case of RTH with PTC and HT in an 11-year-old Chinese patient was examined and the clinical presentation of RTH with PTC was discussed...
September 2017: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920531/role-of-kr%C3%A3-ppel-like-factor-4-in-the-maintenance-of-chemoresistance-of-anaplastic-thyroid-cancer
#2
Su In Lee, Dae Kyoung Kim, Eun Jin Seo, Eun Jung Choi, Yang Woo Kwon, Il Ho Jang, Jin Choon Lee, Hyun Yul Kim, Minho Shong, Jae Ho Kim, Seong-Jang Kim
BACKGROUND: Anaplastic thyroid cancer (ATC) has a very poor prognosis due to its aggressive nature and resistance to conventional treatment. Radiotherapy and chemotherapy are not fully effective because of the undifferentiated phenotype and enhanced drug resistance of ATC. The objective of this study was to evaluate the involvement of Krüppel-like factor 4 (KLF4), a stemness-associated transcription factor, in the undifferentiated phenotype and drug resistance of ATC. METHODS: ATC cells were compared with papillary thyroid cancer cells in drug resistance and gene expression...
September 16, 2017: Thyroid: Official Journal of the American Thyroid Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911684/a-randomized-double-blind-clinical-study-to-determine-the-effect-of-ankascin-568-plus-on-blood-glucose-regulation
#3
Yin-Ruei Wang, Sheng-Fu Liu, You-Cheng Shen, Chien-Li Chen, Chine-Ning Huang, Tzu-Ming Pan, Chin-Kun Wang
Diabetes is the fourth major cause of death in Taiwan. High blood glucose can lead to macrovascular diseases, small vessel diseases (retinopathy, kidney disease), and neuropathy. This study aimed to investigate whether Monascus-fermented products (ANKASCIN 568 plus) can regulate blood glucose and blood lipids. This study enrolled 39 patients with a fasting blood glucose level between 100 mg/dL and 180 mg/dL, and a glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) level of <9%. All patients were randomly divided into placebo (n=20) and experimental (n=19) groups...
April 2017: Journal of Food and Drug Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911146/anemia-in-patients-with-resistance-to-thyroid-hormone-%C3%AE-a-role-for-thyroid-hormone-receptor-%C3%AE-in-human-erythropoiesis
#4
Anja L M van Gucht, Marcel E Meima, Carla Moran, Maura Agostini, Anna Tylki-Szymanska, Malgorzata-Walasek Krajewska, Krystyna Chrzanowska, Alexandra Efthymiadou, Dionisios Chrysis, Korcan Demir, W Edward Visser, Theo J Visser, Krishna Chatterjee, Thamar B van Dijk, Robin P Peeters
Context: Patients with resistance to thyroid hormone (TH) α (RTHα) are characterized by growth retardation, macrocephaly, constipation, and abnormal thyroid function tests. In addition, almost all RTHα patients have mild anemia, the pathogenesis of which is unknown. Animal studies suggest an important role for TH and TH receptor (TR)α in erythropoiesis. Objective: To investigate whether a defect in TRα affects the maturation of red blood cells in RTHα patients...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910997/paediatric-nuclear-medicine-imaging
#5
Lorenzo Biassoni, Marina Easty
Background: Nuclear medicine imaging explores tissue viability and function by using radiotracers that are taken up at cellular level with different mechanism. This imaging technique can also be used to assess blood flow and transit through tubular organs. Nuclear medicine imaging has been used in paediatrics for decades and this field is continuously evolving. Sources of data: The data presented comes from clinical experience and some milestone papers on the subject...
September 1, 2017: British Medical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892990/prevalence-of-acanthosis-nigricans-and-related-factors-in-iranian-obese-children
#6
Fatemeh Sayarifard, Azadeh Sayarifard, Bahar Allahverdi, Sara Ipakchi, Mastaneh Moghtaderi, Bahareh Yaghmaei
INTRODUCTION: Recognition of Acanthosis nigricans (AN) provides important opportunities for screening of obesity syndrome, dyslipidemia, hypertension and insulin resistance with diabetes mellitus 2. Considering the high prevalence of obesity among Iranian children, we designed this study to estimate the prevalence of AN and related laboratory factors in Iranian obese children. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Seventy-one obese children were enrolled in this study. Diagnosis of AN was done by clinical examination...
July 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28868249/should-subclinical-hypothyroidism-be-an-exclusion-criterion-for-the-diagnosis-of-polycystic-ovary-syndrome
#7
Sebastião Freitas de-Medeiros, Márcia Marly Winck Yamamoto, Matheus Antônio Souto de-Medeiros, Jacklyne Silva Barbosa, Robert John Norman
BACKGROUND: The purpose of the study was to examine whether patients with subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH) should be excluded before making a diagnosis of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). METHODS: Seven hundred sixteen patients, 462 with true PCOS, 31 with PCOS-SCH, and 223 normal cycling women were enrolled. Clinical, metabolic, and hormonal parameters among the groups were investigated. Continuous variables were compared by one-way analysis of variance. Proportions were compared using Z test...
April 2017: Journal of Reproduction & Infertility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28864479/vegfr-inhibitor-resistant-thyroid-cancer-responds-to-cabozantinib
#8
(no author information available yet)
Cabozantinib achieved partial responses in 40% of patients with differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC).
September 1, 2017: Cancer Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28855863/thyroid-hormone-availability-and-action-during-brain-development-in-rodents
#9
Soledad Bárez-López, Ana Guadaño-Ferraz
Thyroid hormones (THs) play an essential role in the development of all vertebrates; in particular adequate TH content is crucial for proper neurodevelopment. TH availability and action in the brain are precisely regulated by several mechanisms, including the secretion of THs by the thyroid gland, the transport of THs to the brain and neural cells, THs activation and inactivation by the metabolic enzymes deiodinases and, in the fetus, transplacental passage of maternal THs. Although these mechanisms have been extensively studied in rats, in the last decade, models of genetically modified mice have been more frequently used to understand the role of the main proteins involved in TH signaling in health and disease...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28853052/thyroid-diseases-and-bone-health
#10
REVIEW
G R Williams, J H D Bassett
Thyroid hormones are essential for skeletal development and are important regulators of bone maintenance in adults. Childhood hypothyroidism causes delayed skeletal development, retarded linear growth and impaired bone mineral accrual. Epiphyseal dysgenesis is evidenced by classic features of stippled epiphyses on X-ray. In severe cases, post-natal growth arrest results in a complex skeletal dysplasia. Thyroid hormone replacement stimulates catch-up growth and bone maturation, but recovery may be incomplete dependent on the duration and severity of hypothyroidism prior to treatment...
August 29, 2017: Journal of Endocrinological Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28843268/effects-of-a-phosphoinositide-3-kinase-inhibitor-on-anaplastic-thyroid-cancer-stem-cells
#11
Farzaneh Bozorg-Ghalati, Mehdi Hedayati, Mehdi Dianatpour, Fereidoun Azizi, Nariman Mosaffa, Davood Mehrabani
Background: Thyroidectomy, radioactive iodine therapy, chemotherapy, or their combination are treatments of choice for thyroid cancers. However, cancer stem cells (CSCs) may become resistant to therapy, and mutations in somatic genes affect radioiodine uptake. This study determined the effect of a phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor on anaplastic thyroid CSCs. Materials and Methods: The magnetic-activated cell sorting assay was used for segregating CD133-positive CSCs from three anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC) cell lines (C643, SW1736, and 8305C)...
August 27, 2017: Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention: APJCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28838947/key-signaling-pathways-in-thyroid-cancer
#12
REVIEW
Miguel A Zaballos, Pilar Santisteban
Whole genome sequencing approaches have provided unprecedented insights into the genetic lesions responsible for the onset, progression and dedifferentiation of various types of thyroid carcinomas. Through these efforts, the MAPK and PI3K signaling cascades have emerged as the main activation pathways implicated in thyroid tumorigenesis. The nature of these essential pathways is highly complex, with hundreds of components, multiple points of crosstalk, different subcellular localizations and with the ability to potentially regulate many cellular processes...
November 2017: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28836113/association-of-obesity-and-diabetes-with-thyroid-nodules
#13
Silvio Buscemi, Fatima Maria Massenti, Sonya Vasto, Fabio Galvano, Carola Buscemi, Davide Corleo, Anna Maria Barile, Giuseppe Rosafio, Nadia Rini, Carla Giordano
AIM: There are conflicting data concerning the possibility that obesity and diabetes raise the risk of thyroid nodules. The incidence of thyroid nodules is increasing, as is that of obesity and diabetes; therefore, understanding whether these metabolic and nutritional disorders influence nodular thyroid disease is important for organizing prevention strategies. This study investigated the association between thyroid nodules, obesity, diabetes, and dietary habits. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cohort of randomly selected adults (455 males, 746 females; age: 18-90 years) living in Palermo (Italy), a mild iodine deficiency area, was cross-sectionally investigated...
August 23, 2017: Endocrine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28835974/-hypercalcemic-crisis-and-hypocalcemic-tetany
#14
REVIEW
C Kasperk
A serum calcium level >3.5 mmol/l together with clinical symptoms such as muscle weakness, fatigue, nausea, vomiting, pancreatitis or even coma are characteristic for a hypercalcemic crisis (HC). Primary hyperparathyroidism (1HPT) and malignancy-associated hypercalcemia are the most frequent causal diseases for a HC. The analysis of serum levels for calcium, phosphorous, intact parathyroid hormone, electrophoresis and renal function parameters indicate which further radiological, scintigraphic or serum diagnostic steps are adequate to identify the cause of the patient's acute situation (i...
August 23, 2017: Der Internist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28828971/molecular-biomarkers-of-anaplastic-thyroid-carcinoma
#15
F Bozorg-Ghalati, M Hedayati
Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma is the rarest but extremely aggressive thyroid cancer subtype. This neoplasia is composed of undifferentiated tumor cells with poor prognosis and resistant to common thyroid cancer therapy. Early stage identification of this cancer for prompt treatment is very vital. Presently, cytological evaluation of fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) which is known as invasive recognition assay, is the standard diagnostic method for the diagnosis of malignant thyroid tumors. Frequent studies have suggested that using the molecular biomarkers of thyroid cancer tissue alongside cytological examination, increase the accuracy of diagnostic tests...
August 21, 2017: Current Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28823142/oncogenes-mitochondrial-metabolism-and-quality-control-in-differentiated-thyroid-cancer
#16
REVIEW
Hyon-Seung Yi, Joon Young Chang, Koon Soon Kim, Minho Shong
Thyroid cancer is one of the most common malignancies of endocrine organs, and its incidence rate has increased steadily over the past several decades. Most differentiated thyroid tumors derived from thyroid epithelial cells exhibit slow-growing cancers, and patients with these tumors can achieve a good prognosis with surgical removal and radioiodine treatment. However, a small proportion of patients present with advanced thyroid cancer and are unusually resistant to current drug treatment modalities. Thyroid tumorigenesis is a complex process that is regulated by the activation of oncogenes, inactivation of tumor suppressors, and alterations in programmed cell death...
September 2017: Korean Journal of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817605/all-trans-retinoic-acid-suppresses-malignant-characteristics-of-cd133-positive-thyroid-cancer-stem-cells-and-induces-apoptosis
#17
Dan Mei, Bin Lv, Bo Chen, Shan Xiao, Jie Jiang, Yan Xie, Ling Jiang
Recently, diagnoses of radioiodine-refractory differentiated thyroid cancer (RAI-R DTC) have become more common; prognosis is poor. It has been suggested that cancer stem cells account for radiotherapy resistance. By flow cytometry, different expression percents of CD133 and OCT4 in thyroid cancer cell lines were detected. By real-time quantitative PCR, different mRNA expression of CD133, OCT4, GLUT1, thyroglobulin (TG), thyroperoxidase (TPO) and sodium iodine symporter (NIS) was analyzed; the localization of CD133, OCT4, and NIS expression was examined using immunofluorescence confocal microscopy...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817373/cabozantinib-as-salvage-therapy-for-patients-with-tyrosine-kinase-inhibitor-refractory-differentiated-thyroid-cancer-results-of-a-multicenter-phase-ii-international-thyroid-oncology-group-trial
#18
Maria E Cabanillas, Jonas A de Souza, Susan Geyer, Lori J Wirth, Michael E Menefee, Stephen V Liu, Komal Shah, John Wright, Manisha H Shah
Purpose Sorafenib and lenvatinib are oral multikinase inhibitors targeting vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR) and approved for radioiodine (RAI)-refractory differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC). However, there are no approved second- or third-line therapies. MET is implicated in resistance to VEGFR inhibitors. Cabozantinib is an oral multikinase inhibitor targeting MET in addition to VEGFR and is approved for medullary thyroid cancer. In a phase I study of cabozantinib, five of eight patients with DTC previously treated with a VEGFR-targeted therapy had an objective response to cabozantinib...
August 17, 2017: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816536/optimizing-lenvatinib-therapy-in-patients-with-metastatic-radioactive-iodine-resistant-differentiated-thyroid-cancers
#19
Sina Jasim, Nicole M Iniguez-Ariza, Crystal R Hilger, Ashish V Chintakuntlawar, Mabel M Ryder, John C Morris, Keith C Bible
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Lenvatinib is approved for use in advanced radioactive iodine resistant differentiated thyroid cancers (RAIR-DTCs); its efficacy is indisputable, but toxicities are great, creating daunting challenges for patients and providers. Few data regarding early adverse events and impact on quality of life (QOL) exist; we sought to add clarity to these issues by analyzing our initial post-approval lenvatinib experience. METHODS: Standardized patient education was implemented, providing detailed instructions and expert provider contacts to facilitate timely reporting of toxicities and guide responsive actions...
August 17, 2017: Endocrine Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816534/seven-familial-dysalbuminemic-hyperthyroxinemia-cases-in-three-unrelated-japanese-families-and-high-performance-liquid-chromatography-analysis-of-the-thyroxine-binding-profile
#20
Hidekazu Nagano, Yoshinori Nakagawa, Naofumi Ishikawa, Yuya Watanabe, Yui Miyabayashi, Akitoshi Nakayama, Masanori Fujimoto, Eri Komai, Akina Shiga, Ai Tamura, Takashi Kono, Tomoko Takiguchi, Seiichiro Higuchi, Ikki Sakuma, Naoko Hashimoto, Sawako Suzuki, Hisashi Koide, Kotaro Yokote, Tomoaki Tanaka
OBJECTIVE: Familial dysalbuminemic hyperthyroxinemia (FDH) is caused by abnormal human serum albumin (HSA) with an increased thyroxine (T4) affinity leading to euthyroid hyperthyroxinemia. One- and two-step immunoassay of serum samples from FDH patients (e.g., Japanese patients) with the HSA R218P mutation can yield false-positive free thyroxine (FT4) results. Therefore, it is difficult to distinguish FDH from syndrome of inappropriate secretion of thyroid-stimulating hormone (e.g., syndrome of resistance to thyroid hormone, thyroid-stimulating hormone [TSH]-producing pituitary adenoma), even when multiple assays are used...
August 17, 2017: Endocrine Practice
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