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Microbiome autoimmune

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895415/factoring-the-intestinal-microbiome-into-the-pathogenesis-of-autoimmune-hepatitis
#1
EDITORIAL
Albert J Czaja
The intestinal microbiome is a reservoir of microbial antigens and activated immune cells. The aims of this review were to describe the role of the intestinal microbiome in generating innate and adaptive immune responses, indicate how these responses contribute to the development of systemic immune-mediated diseases, and encourage investigations that improve the understanding and management of autoimmune hepatitis. Alterations in the composition of the intestinal microflora (dysbiosis) can disrupt intestinal and systemic immune tolerances for commensal bacteria...
November 14, 2016: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27860030/imbalance-of-bacteriome-profiles-within-the-finnish-diabetes-prediction-and-prevention-study-parallel-use-of-16s-profiling-and-virome-sequencing-in-stool-samples-from-children-with-islet-autoimmunity-and-matched-controls
#2
Ondrej Cinek, Lenka Kramna, Jake Lin, Sami Oikarinen, Katerina Kolarova, Jorma Ilonen, Olli Simell, Riitta Veijola, Reija Autio, Heikki Hyöty
BACKGROUND: We set out to explore associations between the stool bacteriome profiles and early-onset islet autoimmunity, taking into account the interactions with the virus component of the microbiome. METHODS: Serial stool samples were longitudinally collected from 18 infants and toddlers with early-onset islet autoimmunity (median age 17.4 months) followed by type 1 diabetes, and 18 tightly matched controls from the Finnish Diabetes Prediction and Prevention (DIPP) cohort...
November 17, 2016: Pediatric Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855721/the-lung-microbiota-in-early-rheumatoid-arthritis-and-autoimmunity
#3
Jose U Scher, Vijay Joshua, Alejandro Artacho, Shahla Abdollahi-Roodsaz, Johan Öckinger, Susanna Kullberg, Magnus Sköld, Anders Eklund, Johan Grunewald, Jose C Clemente, Carles Ubeda, Leopoldo N Segal, Anca I Catrina
BACKGROUND: Airway abnormalities and lung tissue citrullination are found in both rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients and individuals at-risk for disease development. This suggests the possibility that the lung could be a site of autoimmunity generation in RA, perhaps in response to microbiota changes. We therefore sought to test whether the RA lung microbiome contains distinct taxonomic features associated with local and/or systemic autoimmunity. METHODS: 16S rRNA gene high-throughput sequencing was utilized to compare the bacterial community composition of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BAL) in patients with early, disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARD)-naïve RA, patients with lung sarcoidosis, and healthy control subjects...
November 17, 2016: Microbiome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27846901/a-method-for-automated-pathogenic-content-estimation-with-application-to-rheumatoid-arthritis
#4
Xiaoyuan Zhou, Christine Nardini
BACKGROUND: Sequencing technologies applied to mammals' microbiomes have revolutionized our understanding of health and disease. Hence, to assess diseases' progression as well as therapies longterm effects, the impact of maladies and drugs on the gut-intestinal (GI) microbiome has to be evaluated. Typical metagenomic analyses are run to associate to a condition (disease, therapy, diet) a pool of bacteria, whose eubiotic/dysbiotic potential is assessed either by α-diversity, a measure of the varieties populating the microbiome, or by Firmicutes to Bacteroides ratio, associated to systemic inflammation, and finally by manual and direct inspection of bacteria's biological functions, when known...
November 15, 2016: BMC Systems Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27824805/the-emerging-role-of-the-gut-microbiome-in-adult-patients-with-multiple-sclerosis
#5
Pamela K Newland, Margaret Heitkemper, Yanjiao Zhou
BACKGROUND: Approximately 2.3 million people worldwide are currently living with multiple sclerosis (MS). The pathophysiologic mechanism of MS is not well known. It has been suggested that alterations in the normal gut flora may contribute to MS etiology and symptoms. OBJECTIVE: The aims of this review are to describe the data suggesting a role for the gut microbiome in MS research and address its implications for practice. METHODS: A literature search of the following databases (PubMed, CINAHL, Cochrane library database, MEDLINE, Scopus, and Psychology and Behavioral Sciences) was conducted to find published studies relevant to gut microbiome in patients with MS...
December 2016: Journal of Neuroscience Nursing: Journal of the American Association of Neuroscience Nurses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27816476/sex-specific-modulation-of-the-gut-microbiome-and-behavior-in-siberian-hamsters
#6
Kristyn E Sylvia, Cathleen P Jewell, Nikki M Rendon, Emma A St John, Gregory E Demas
The gut microbiome is a diverse, host-specific, and symbiotic bacterial environment that is critical for mammalian survival and exerts a surprising yet powerful influence on brain and behavior. Gut dysbiosis has been linked to a wide range of physical and psychological disorders, including autism spectrum disorders and anxiety, as well as autoimmune and inflammatory disorders. A wealth of information on the effects of dysbiosis on anxiety and depression has been reported in laboratory model systems (e.g., germ-free mice); however, the effects of microbiome disruption on social behaviors (e...
November 2, 2016: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27791958/one-year-in-review-2016-beh%C3%A3-et-s-syndrome
#7
REVIEW
Gulen Hatemi, Emire Seyahi, Izzet Fresko, Rosaria Talarico, Vedat Hamuryudan
Several articles highlighting the epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical features, treatment modalities and disease assessment of Behçet's syndrome (BS) have been published during the last year. Clinical and radiological features of lower extremity deep vein thrombosis due to BS can be quite different than those found in thrombosis due to other causes; additionally, frequency of post-thrombotic syndrome is significantly increased in BS. Some clinical and colonoscopic features are useful in differentiating BS from Crohn's disease...
September 2016: Clinical and Experimental Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27785127/exploring-relationships-between-host-genome-and-microbiome-new-insights-from-genome-wide-association-studies
#8
REVIEW
Muslihudeen A Abdul-Aziz, Alan Cooper, Laura S Weyrich
As our understanding of the human microbiome expands, impacts on health and disease continue to be revealed. Alterations in the microbiome can result in dysbiosis, which has now been linked to subsequent autoimmune and metabolic diseases, highlighting the need to identify factors that shape the microbiome. Research has identified that the composition and functions of the human microbiome can be influenced by diet, age, sex, and environment. More recently, studies have explored how human genetic variation may also influence the microbiome...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27763707/il-17-overview-and-role-in-oral-immunity-and-microbiome
#9
Loreto Abusleme, Niki M Moutsopoulos
Interleukin-17 (IL-17) is a multifaceted cytokine with diverse roles both in immune-protection and also immunopathology. IL-17 has a well-recognized role in immune surveillance at mucosal and barrier surfaces (Miossec & Kolls, 2012, Song et al., 2016) but also has been increasingly implicated as a driver of immunopathology in settings of autoimmunity and chronic inflammation (Gaffen et al., 2014). This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
October 20, 2016: Oral Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27735094/microbiome-in-healthy-skin-update-for-dermatologists
#10
B Dréno, E Araviiskaia, E Berardesca, G Gontijo, M Sanchez Viera, L F Xiang, R Martin, T Bieber
The skin is a complex barrier organ made of a symbiotic relationship between microbial communities and host tissue via complex signals provided by the innate and the adaptive immune systems. It is constantly exposed to various endogenous and exogenous factors which impact this balanced system potentially leading to inflammatory skin conditions comprising infections, allergies or autoimmune diseases. Unlike the gut and stool microbiome which has been studied and described for many years, investigations on the skin or scalp microbiome only started recently...
October 13, 2016: Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology: JEADV
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27717092/the-autoimmunity-oral-microbiome-connection
#11
N Nikitakis, W Papaioannou, L I Sakkas, E Kousvelari
To date there is a major effort in deciphering the role of complex microbial communities, especially the oral and gut microbiomes, in the pathogenesis of various diseases. Increasing evidence indicates a key role for the oral microbiome in autoimmune diseases. In this review article, we discuss links of the oral microbiota to a group of autoimmune diseases, i.e., Sjögren's syndrome (SS), systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), Crohn's disease (CD), and rheumatoid arthritis (RA). We particularly focus on factors that affect the balance between the immune system and the composition of microbiota leading to dysbiosis, loss of tolerance and subsequent autoimmune disease progression and maintenance...
October 7, 2016: Oral Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27710839/environmental-control-of-autoimmune-inflammation-in-the-central-nervous-system
#12
REVIEW
Veit Rothhammer, Francisco J Quintana
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic autoimmune inflammatory demyelinating disorder of the central nervous system (CNS), which causes severe disability and requires extensive medical attention and treatment. While the infiltration of pathogenic immune cells into the CNS leads to the formation of inflammatory lesions in its initial relapsing-remitting stage, late stages of MS are characterized by progressive neuronal loss and demyelination even without continued interaction with the peripheral immune compartment...
December 2016: Current Opinion in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27703179/mining-gut-microbiome-oligopeptides-by-functional-metaproteome-display
#13
Jonas Zantow, Sarah Just, Ilias Lagkouvardos, Sigrid Kisling, Stefan Dübel, Patricia Lepage, Thomas Clavel, Michael Hust
Pathogen infections, autoimmune diseases, and chronic inflammatory disorders are associated with systemic antibody responses from the host immune system. Disease-specific antibodies can be important serum biomarkers, but the identification of antigens associated with specific immune reactions is challenging, in particular if complex communities of microorganisms are involved in the disease progression. Despite promising new diagnostic opportunities, the discovery of these serological markers becomes more difficult with increasing complexity of microbial communities...
October 5, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27650128/the-human-microbiome-and-juvenile-idiopathic-arthritis
#14
REVIEW
Anouk Verwoerd, Nienke M Ter Haar, Sytze de Roock, Sebastiaan J Vastert, Debby Bogaert
Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) is the most common rheumatic disease in childhood. The pathogenesis of JIA is thought to be the result of a combination of host genetic and environmental triggers. However, the precise factors that determine one's susceptibility to JIA remain to be unravelled. The microbiome has received increasing attention as a potential contributing factor to the development of a wide array of immune-mediated diseases, including inflammatory bowel disease, type 1 diabetes and rheumatoid arthritis...
September 20, 2016: Pediatric Rheumatology Online Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27646278/cats-are-not-small-dogs-is-there-an-immunological-explanation-for-why-cats-are-less-affected-by-arthropod-borne-disease-than-dogs
#15
REVIEW
Michael J Day
It is widely recognized that cats appear to be less frequently affected by arthropod-borne infectious diseases than dogs and share fewer zoonotic pathogens with man. This impression is supported by the relative lack of scientific publications related to feline vector-borne infections. This review explores the possible reasons for the difference between the two most common small companion animal species, including the hypothesis that cats might have a genetically-determined immunological resistance to arthropod vectors or the microparasites they transmit...
2016: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27634185/the-gut-microbiota-and-the-emergence-of-autoimmunity-relevance-to-major-psychiatric-disorders
#16
E G Severance, D Tveiten, L H Lindström, R H Yolken, K L Reichelt
BACKGROUND: Autoimmune phenotypes are prevalent in major psychiatric disorders. Disequilibria of cellular processes occurring in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract likely contribute to immune dysfunction in psychiatric disorders. As the venue of a complex community of resident microbes, the gut in a homeostatic state equates with a functional digestive system, cellular barrier stability and properly regulated recognition of self and non-self antigens. When gut processes become disrupted as a result of environmental or genetic factors, autoimmunity may ensue...
September 14, 2016: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27594308/autoimmunity-and-the-microbiome-t-cell-receptor-mimicry-of-self-and-microbial-antigens-mediates-self-tolerance-in-holobionts-the-concepts-of-holoimmunity-tcr-mediated-tolerance-for-the-holobiont-and-holoautoimmunity-loss-of-tolerance-for-the-holobiont-are-introduced
#17
Robert Root-Bernstein
I propose a T-cell receptor (TcR)-based mechanism by which immunity mediates both "genetic self" and "microbial self" thereby, connecting microbiome disease with autoimmunity. The hypothesis is based on simple principles. First, TcR are selected to avoid strong cross-reactivity with "self," resulting in selection for a TcR repertoire mimicking "genetic self." Second, evolution has selected for a "microbial self" that mimics "genetic self" so as to share tolerance. In consequence, our TcR repertoire also mimics microbiome antigenicity, providing a novel mechanism for modulating tolerance to it...
September 5, 2016: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27573830/captivity-humanizes-the-primate-microbiome
#18
Jonathan B Clayton, Pajau Vangay, Hu Huang, Tonya Ward, Benjamin M Hillmann, Gabriel A Al-Ghalith, Dominic A Travis, Ha Thang Long, Bui Van Tuan, Vo Van Minh, Francis Cabana, Tilo Nadler, Barbara Toddes, Tami Murphy, Kenneth E Glander, Timothy J Johnson, Dan Knights
The primate gastrointestinal tract is home to trillions of bacteria, whose composition is associated with numerous metabolic, autoimmune, and infectious human diseases. Although there is increasing evidence that modern and Westernized societies are associated with dramatic loss of natural human gut microbiome diversity, the causes and consequences of such loss are challenging to study. Here we use nonhuman primates (NHPs) as a model system for studying the effects of emigration and lifestyle disruption on the human gut microbiome...
September 13, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27555614/gender-aging-and-longevity-in-humans-an-update-of-an-intriguing-neglected-scenario-paving-the-way-to-a-gender-specific-medicine
#19
REVIEW
Rita Ostan, Daniela Monti, Paola Gueresi, Mauro Bussolotto, Claudio Franceschi, Giovannella Baggio
Data showing a remarkable gender difference in life expectancy and mortality, including survival to extreme age, are reviewed starting from clinical and demographic data and stressing the importance of a comprehensive historical perspective and a gene-environment/lifestyle interaction. Gender difference regarding prevalence and incidence of the most important age-related diseases, such as cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases, cancer, Type 2 diabetes, disability, autoimmunity and infections, are reviewed and updated with particular attention to the role of the immune system and immunosenescence...
October 1, 2016: Clinical Science (1979-)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27546235/sex-differences-in-immune-responses
#20
Sabra L Klein, Katie L Flanagan
Males and females differ in their immunological responses to foreign and self-antigens and show distinctions in innate and adaptive immune responses. Certain immunological sex differences are present throughout life, whereas others are only apparent after puberty and before reproductive senescence, suggesting that both genes and hormones are involved. Furthermore, early environmental exposures influence the microbiome and have sex-dependent effects on immune function. Importantly, these sex-based immunological differences contribute to variations in the incidence of autoimmune diseases and malignancies, susceptibility to infectious diseases and responses to vaccines in males and females...
October 2016: Nature Reviews. Immunology
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