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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723981/intestinal-microbiota-in-digestive-diseases
#1
Maria do Carmo Friche Passos, Joaquim Prado Moraes-Filho
BACKGROUND: In recent years, especially after the development of sophisticated metagenomic studies, research on the intestinal microbiota has increased, radically transforming our knowledge about the microbiome and its association with health maintenance and disease development in humans. Increasing evidence has shown that a permanent alteration in microbiota composition or function (dysbiosis) can alter immune responses, metabolism, intestinal permeability, and digestive motility, thereby promoting a proinflammatory state...
July 6, 2017: Arquivos de Gastroenterologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722709/regulation-of-inflammation-by-microbiota-interactions-with-the-host
#2
REVIEW
J Magarian Blander, Randy S Longman, Iliyan D Iliev, Gregory F Sonnenberg, David Artis
The study of the intestinal microbiota has begun to shift from cataloging individual members of the commensal community to understanding their contributions to the physiology of the host organism in health and disease. Here, we review the effects of the microbiome on innate and adaptive immunological players from epithelial cells and antigen-presenting cells to innate lymphoid cells and regulatory T cells. We discuss recent studies that have identified diverse microbiota-derived bioactive molecules and their effects on inflammation within the intestine and distally at sites as anatomically remote as the brain...
July 19, 2017: Nature Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719392/intestinal-microbiome-in-scleroderma-recent-progress
#3
Elizabeth R Volkmann
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Our evolving understanding of how gut microbiota affects immune function and homeostasis has led many investigators to explore the potentially pathologic role of gut microbiota in autoimmune diseases. This review will discuss the rapidly advancing field of microbiome research in systemic sclerosis (SSc), an incurable autoimmune disease with significant gastrointestinal morbidity and mortality. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent reports have identified common perturbations in gut microbiota across different SSc cohorts...
July 15, 2017: Current Opinion in Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710658/global-disparities-and-their-implications-in-the-occurrence-and-outcome-of-autoimmune-hepatitis
#4
REVIEW
Albert J Czaja
Autoimmune hepatitis has a variable occurrence, clinical phenotype, and outcome, and the factors contributing to this variability are uncertain. The goals of this review are to examine the global disparities in the occurrence and outcome of autoimmune hepatitis, suggest bases for these disparities, and encourage investigations that extend beyond single-center experiences. Disparities in the incidence and prevalence of autoimmune hepatitis in different age groups, genders, ethnicities, and geographical regions suggest that factors other than genetic predisposition are involved...
July 14, 2017: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708466/a-bidirectional-association-between-the-gut-microbiota-and-cns-disease-in-a-biphasic-murine-model-of-multiple-sclerosis
#5
Sara L Colpitts, Eli J Kasper, Abigail Keever, Caleb Liljenberg, Trevor Kirby, Krisztian Magori, Lloyd H Kasper, Javier Ochoa-Repáraz
The gut microbiome plays an important role in the development of inflammatory disease as shown using experimental models of central nervous system (CNS) demyelination. Gut microbes influence the response of regulatory immune cell populations in the gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT), which drive protection in acute and chronic experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). Recent observations suggest that communication between the host and the gut microbiome is bidirectional. We hypothesized that the gut microbiota differs between the acute inflammatory and chronic progressive stages of a murine model of secondary-progressive multiple sclerosis (SP-MS)...
July 14, 2017: Gut Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696303/intestinal-virome-changes-precede-autoimmunity-in-type-i-diabetes-susceptible-children
#6
Guoyan Zhao, Tommi Vatanen, Lindsay Droit, Arnold Park, Aleksandar D Kostic, Tiffany W Poon, Hera Vlamakis, Heli Siljander, Taina Härkönen, Anu-Maaria Hämäläinen, Aleksandr Peet, Vallo Tillmann, Jorma Ilonen, David Wang, Mikael Knip, Ramnik J Xavier, Herbert W Virgin
Viruses have long been considered potential triggers of autoimmune diseases. Here we defined the intestinal virome from birth to the development of autoimmunity in children at risk for type 1 diabetes (T1D). A total of 220 virus-enriched preparations from serially collected fecal samples from 11 children (cases) who developed serum autoantibodies associated with T1D (of whom five developed clinical T1D) were compared with samples from controls. Intestinal viromes of case subjects were less diverse than those of controls...
July 10, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696139/gut-microbiome-in-multiple-sclerosis-the-players-involved-and-the-roles-they-play
#7
Shailesh K Shahi, Samantha N Freedman, Ashutosh K Mangalam
The human gut contains trillions of bacteria (microbiome) that play a major role in maintaining a healthy state for the host. Perturbation of this healthy gut microbiome might be an important environmental factor in the pathogenesis of inflammatory autoimmune diseases such as multiple sclerosis (MS). Others and we have recently reported that MS patients have gut microbial dysbiosis (altered microbiota) with the depletion of some and enrichment of other bacteria. However, the significance of gut bacteria that show lower or higher abundance in MS is unclear...
July 11, 2017: Gut Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696008/sustainable-therapies-by-engineered-bacteria
#8
Beatriz Álvarez, Luis Ángel Fernández
The controlled in situ delivery of biologics (e.g. enzymes, cytokines, antibodies) by engineered bacteria of our microbiome will allow the sustainable production of these complex and expensive drugs locally in the human body, overcoming many of the technical and economical barriers currently associated with the global use of these potent medicines. We provide examples showing how engineered bacteria can be effective treatments against multiple pathologies, including autoimmune and inflammatory diseases, metabolic disorders, diabetes, obesity, infectious diseases and cancer, hence contributing to achieve the Global Sustainable Goal 3: ensure healthy lives and promote well-being for all at all ages...
July 11, 2017: Microbial Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28658542/the-nutrition-gut-microbiome-physiology-axis-and-allergic-diseases
#9
REVIEW
Craig McKenzie, Jian Tan, Laurence Macia, Charles R Mackay
Dietary and bacterial metabolites influence immune responses. This raises the question whether the increased incidence of allergies, asthma, some autoimmune diseases, cardiovascular disease, and others might relate to intake of unhealthy foods, and the decreased intake of dietary fiber. In recent years, new knowledge on the molecular mechanisms underpinning a 'diet-gut microbiota-physiology axis' has emerged to substantiate this idea. Fiber is fermented to short chain fatty acids (SCFAs), particularly acetate, butyrate, and propionate...
July 2017: Immunological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642887/dynamic-regulation-of-serum-aryl-hydrocarbon-receptor-agonists-in-ms
#10
Veit Rothhammer, Davis M Borucki, Maria Isabel Garcia Sanchez, Maria Antonietta Mazzola, Christopher C Hemond, Keren Regev, Anu Paul, Pia Kivisäkk, Rohit Bakshi, Guillermo Izquierdo, Howard L Weiner, Francisco J Quintana
OBJECTIVE: Several factors influence the clinical course of autoimmune inflammatory diseases such as MS and inflammatory bowel disease. Only recently, the complex interaction between the gut microbiome, dietary factors, and metabolism has started to be appreciated with regard to its potential to modulate acute and chronic inflammation. One of the molecular sensors that mediates the effects of these environmental signals on the immune response is the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR), a ligand-activated transcription factor with key functions in immune cells...
July 2017: Neurology® Neuroimmunology & Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543188/cd44-deletion-leading-to-attenuation-of-experimental-autoimmune-encephalomyelitis-results-from-alterations-in-gut-microbiome-in-mice
#11
Kumaraswamy Naidu Chitrala, Hongbing Guan, Narendra P Singh, Brandon Busbee, Alexa Gandy, Pegah Mehrpouya-Bahrami, Mitra S Ganewatta, Chuanbing Tang, Saurabh Chatterjee, Prakash Nagarkatti, Mitzi Nagarkatti
Dysbiosis in gut microbiome has been shown to be associated with inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. Previous studies from our laboratory demonstrated the pivotal role played by CD44 in the regulation of EAE, a murine model of multiple sclerosis. In the current study, we determined whether these effects resulted from an alteration in gut microbiota and the short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) production in CD44 knockout (CD44KO) mice. Fecal transfer from naïve CD44KO but not C57BL/6 wild type (CD44WT) mice, into EAE-induced CD44WT mice, led to significant amelioration of EAE...
May 23, 2017: European Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540475/-intestinal-microbiota-in-individualized-therapies
#12
REVIEW
T Witte, D H Pieper, B Heidrich
During recent years, the analysis of the human microbiota has been receiving more and more scientific focus. Deep sequencing analysis enables characterization of microbial communities in different environments without the need of culture-based methods. Hereby, information about microbial communities is increasing enormously. Numerous studies in humans and animal models revealed the important role of the microbiome in emergence and natural course of diseases such as autoimmune diseases and metabolic disorders, e...
May 24, 2017: Der Internist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28458095/the-shrinking-human-gut-microbiome
#13
REVIEW
Andrew H Moeller
Mammals harbor complex assemblages of gut bacteria that are deeply integrated with their hosts' digestive, immune, and neuroendocrine systems. Recent work has revealed that there has been a substantial loss of gut bacterial diversity from humans since the divergence of humans and chimpanzees. This bacterial depauperation began in humanity's ancient evolutionary past and has accelerated in recent years with the advent of modern lifestyles. Today, humans living in industrialized societies harbor the lowest levels of gut bacterial diversity of any primate for which metagenomic data are available, a condition that may increase risk of infections, autoimmune disorders, and metabolic syndrome...
April 27, 2017: Current Opinion in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418589/a-distinct-cutaneous-microbiota-pofile-in-autoimmune-bullous-disease-patients
#14
Mor Miodovnik, Axel Künstner, Ewan A Langan, Detlef Zillikens, Regine Gläser, Eli Sprecher, John F Baines, Enno Schmidt, Saleh M Ibrahim
Bullous Pemphigoid (BP) is the most common autoimmune blistering disease in Europe. As both the incidence of the disease and the relative proportion of the elderly population continue to rise, it represents a significant medical burden. Whereas some progress has been achieved in defining genetic risk factors for autoimmune blistering diseases, no environmental agent has been conclusively identified. Emerging evidence suggests that host immunity may influence the skin microbiota while the latter modulates cutaneous immunity...
April 18, 2017: Experimental Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406324/evolving-paradigm-of-treatment-for-autoimmune-hepatitis
#15
Albert J Czaja
Current medications for autoimmune hepatitis have broad anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive actions, and their effects are short-lived and inconsistent. The goals of this review were to describe the actions and shortcomings of these medications, indicate the key pathogenic mechanisms that might be targeted by site-directed interventions, and present the pivotal studies supporting development of these alternative agents. Areas covered: Abstracts cited in PubMed from April 1964 to February 2017 were identified using the search words 'treatment of autoimmune hepatitis'...
April 21, 2017: Expert Review of Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394824/from-microbiome-to-infectome-in-autoimmunity
#16
Dimitrios P Bogdanos, Lazaros I Sakkas
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The current review discusses the pros and cons of the microbiome studies conducted in search of the association between microbiota and autoimmunity. RECENT FINDINGS: We focus on the role of infectome and autoinfectome as a bridge to link the findings of microbiome studies with those emerging from investigations of the role of specific viruses and antiviral responses as triggers of autoimmunity (through various mechanisms such as molecular mimicry)...
July 2017: Current Opinion in Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386263/adaptive-immunity-is-the-key-to-the-understanding-of-autoimmune-and-paraneoplastic-inflammatory-central-nervous-system-disorders
#17
REVIEW
Robert Weissert
There are common aspects and mechanisms between different types of autoimmune diseases such as multiple sclerosis (MS), neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (NMOSDs), and autoimmune encephalitis (AE) as well as paraneoplastic inflammatory disorders of the central nervous system. To our present knowledge, depending on the disease, T and B cells as well as antibodies contribute to various aspects of the pathogenesis. Possibly the events leading to the breaking of tolerance between the different diseases are of great similarity and so far, only partially understood...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28376066/the-gut-microbiota-a-possible-factor-influencing-systemic-lupus-erythematosus
#18
Hadar Neuman, Omry Koren
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune disease of unknown cause. In recent years, with the emergence of microbiome research, changes in the gut microbiota composition have been correlated with a variety of autoimmune disorders, and several mechanisms linking these together have been suggested, including the hygiene theory, immune system activation and hormonal effects. It has therefore been suggested that gut microbiota may play a role in SLE. In this review, we summarize recent findings on the SLE-related microbiota compositions in both humans and rodents...
July 2017: Current Opinion in Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342734/integration-of-microbiome-and-epigenome-to-decipher-the-pathogenesis-of-autoimmune-diseases
#19
REVIEW
Beidi Chen, Luxi Sun, Xuan Zhang
The interaction between genetic predisposition and environmental factors are of great significance in the pathogenesis and development of autoimmune diseases (AIDs). The human mucosa is the most frequent site that interacts with the exterior environment, and commensal microbiota at the gut and other human mucosal cavities play a crucial role in the regulation of immune system. Growing evidence has shown that the compositional and functional changes of mucosal microbiota are closely related to AIDs. Gut dysbiosis not only influence the expression level of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) of antigen presenting cells, but also contribute to Th17/Treg imbalance...
March 23, 2017: Journal of Autoimmunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321459/-the-microbiome-and-autoimmunity
#20
T Schröder, S Ibrahim
An abundant and diverse set of commensal microbial communities covers the body's surfaces, collectively so-called microbiome. It has a functional impact on various immune processes and modulates many health-related processes, including autoimmunity. An active site of microorganism-host interplay is the intestinal mucosa. Growing evidence has helped us to learn how a specific microbiota composition and its functionality determine the intestinal barrier function and, furthermore, modulate pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory immune mechanisms in remote organs...
March 20, 2017: Der Internist
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