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Microbiome autoimmune

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147991/the-role-of-the-gut-microbiome-in-multiple-sclerosis-risk-and-progression-towards-characterization-of-the-ms-microbiome
#1
REVIEW
Anne-Katrin Pröbstel, Sergio E Baranzini
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is the prototypic complex disease, in which both genes and the environment contribute to its pathogenesis. To date, > 200 independent loci across the genome have been associated with MS risk. However, these only explain a fraction of the total phenotypic variance, suggesting the possible presence of additional genetic factors, and, most likely, also environmental factors. New DNA sequencing technologies have enabled the sequencing of all kinds of microorganisms, including those living in and around humans (i...
November 16, 2017: Neurotherapeutics: the Journal of the American Society for Experimental NeuroTherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143823/salt-responsive-gut-commensal-modulates-th17-axis-and-disease
#2
Nicola Wilck, Mariana G Matus, Sean M Kearney, Scott W Olesen, Kristoffer Forslund, Hendrik Bartolomaeus, Stefanie Haase, Anja Mähler, András Balogh, Lajos Markó, Olga Vvedenskaya, Friedrich H Kleiner, Dmitry Tsvetkov, Lars Klug, Paul I Costea, Shinichi Sunagawa, Lisa Maier, Natalia Rakova, Valentin Schatz, Patrick Neubert, Christian Frätzer, Alexander Krannich, Maik Gollasch, Diana A Grohme, Beatriz F Côrte-Real, Roman G Gerlach, Marijana Basic, Athanasios Typas, Chuan Wu, Jens M Titze, Jonathan Jantsch, Michael Boschmann, Ralf Dechend, Markus Kleinewietfeld, Stefan Kempa, Peer Bork, Ralf A Linker, Eric J Alm, Dominik N Müller
A Western lifestyle with high salt consumption can lead to hypertension and cardiovascular disease. High salt may additionally drive autoimmunity by inducing T helper 17 (TH17) cells, which can also contribute to hypertension. Induction of TH17 cells depends on gut microbiota; however, the effect of salt on the gut microbiome is unknown. Here we show that high salt intake affects the gut microbiome in mice, particularly by depleting Lactobacillus murinus. Consequently, treatment of mice with L. murinus prevented salt-induced aggravation of actively induced experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis and salt-sensitive hypertension by modulating TH17 cells...
November 15, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142301/alteration-of-the-intestinal-microbiome-characterizes-preclinical-inflammatory-arthritis-in-mice-and-its-modulation-attenuates-established-arthritis
#3
Rebecca Rogier, Heather Evans-Marin, Julia Manasson, Peter M van der Kraan, Birgitte Walgreen, Monique M Helsen, Liduine A van den Bersselaar, Fons A van de Loo, Peter L van Lent, Steven B Abramson, Wim B van den Berg, Marije I Koenders, Jose U Scher, Shahla Abdollahi-Roodsaz
Perturbations of the intestinal microbiome have been observed in patients with new-onset and chronic autoimmune inflammatory arthritis. However, it is currently unknown whether these alterations precede the development of arthritis or are rather a consequence of disease. Modulation of intestinal microbiota by oral antibiotics or germ-free condition can prevent arthritis in mice. Yet, the therapeutic potential of modulation of the microbiota after the onset of arthritis is not well characterized. We here show that the intestinal microbial community undergoes marked changes in the preclinical phase of collagen induced arthritis (CIA)...
November 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118761/immunological-and-clinical-effect-of-diet-modulation-of-the-gut-microbiome-in-multiple-sclerosis-patients-a-pilot-study
#4
Marina Saresella, Laura Mendozzi, Valentina Rossi, Franca Mazzali, Federica Piancone, Francesca LaRosa, Ivana Marventano, Domenico Caputo, Giovanna E Felis, Mario Clerici
Pathogenesis of autoimmune disorders, including multiple sclerosis (MS), has been linked to an alteration of the resident microbial commensal community and of the interplay between the microbiota and the immune system. Dietary components such as fiber, acting on microbiota composition, could, in principle, result in immune modulation and, thus, could be used to obtain beneficial outcomes for patients. We verified this hypothesis in a pilot study involving two groups of clinically similar relapsing-remitting (RR) MS patients who had undergone either a high-vegetable/low-protein diet (HV/LP diet group; N = 10) or a "Western Diet" (WD group; N = 10) for at least 12 months...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29084144/bipolar-disorder-and-immune-dysfunction-epidemiological-findings-proposed-pathophysiology-and-clinical-implications
#5
REVIEW
Joshua D Rosenblat, Roger S McIntyre
Bipolar disorder (BD) is strongly associated with immune dysfunction. Replicated epidemiological studies have demonstrated that BD has high rates of inflammatory medical comorbidities, including autoimmune disorders, chronic infections, cardiovascular disease and metabolic disorders. Cytokine studies have demonstrated that BD is associated with chronic low-grade inflammation with further increases in pro-inflammatory cytokine levels during mood episodes. Several mechanisms have been identified to explain the bidirectional relationship between BD and immune dysfunction...
October 30, 2017: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29083538/functional-dyspepsia-and-duodenal-eosinophilia-a-new-disease-model
#6
REVIEW
Kening Fan, Nicholas J Talley
Functional dyspepsia (FD) is a highly prevalent disorder that affects more than 10% of the population. In the past decade, the conceptual underpinning of FD has begun to change, and new data are unraveling the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms of this disorder with a focus on the duodenum. The Rome IV criteria were published in 2016, and notably suggests that gastroesophageal reflux disease and irritable bowel syndrome may all be part of the same disease spectrum as FD. Helicobacter pylori explains a minority of FD cases and in Rome IV is considered a separate entity...
October 30, 2017: Journal of Digestive Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29083070/breastfeeding-and-autoimmunity-programing-health-from-the-beginning
#7
REVIEW
Vânia Vieira Borba, Kassem Sharif, Yehuda Shoenfeld
Breast milk is not only a completely adapted nutrition source for the newborn but also an impressive array of immune-active molecules that afford protection against infections and shape mucosal immune responses. Decisive imprinting events might be modulated during the first months of life with potential health long-term effects, enhancing the importance of breastfeeding as a major influence on the immune system correct development and modifying disease susceptibility. The aim of this review was to clarify the link between breastfeeding and autoimmune diseases, inquiring the related mechanisms, based on data available in the literature...
October 30, 2017: American Journal of Reproductive Immunology: AJRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29082264/role-of-the-gastrointestinal-tract-microbiome-in-the-pathophysiology-of-diabetes-mellitus
#8
REVIEW
Muhammad U Sohail, Asmaa Althani, Haseeb Anwar, Roberto Rizzi, Hany E Marei
The incidence of diabetes mellitus is rapidly increasing throughout the world. Although the exact cause of the disease is not fully clear, perhaps, genetics, ethnic origin, obesity, age, and lifestyle are considered as few of many contributory factors for the disease pathogenesis. In recent years, the disease progression is particularly linked with functional and taxonomic alterations in the gastrointestinal tract microbiome. A change in microbial diversity, referred as microbial dysbiosis, alters the gut fermentation profile and intestinal wall integrity and causes metabolic endotoxemia, low-grade inflammation, autoimmunity, and other affiliated metabolic disorders...
2017: Journal of Diabetes Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29064808/-the-role-of-the-human-microbiom-in-the-pathogenesis-of-rheumatoid-arthritis-a-literature-review
#9
Magdalena Krajewska-Włodarczyk
Rheumatoid arthritis is a chronic, progressive, autoimmune disease with numerous articular, extra-articular and systemic manifestations. The cause of rheumatoid arthritis is multifactorial including genetic and environmental factors. Recent advantages in sequencing techniques have allowed the deep characterization of the human microbiota. Available evidence confirms the existence of an association between dysbiosis and rheumatoid arthritis but it still remains unclear whether alterations in the microbiome are a pathogenic cause or an effect of autoimmune disease...
2017: Wiadomości Lekarskie: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29058546/immunomodulatory-interplay-of-the-microbiome-and-therapy-of-rheumatic-diseases
#10
Barbara E Ostrov, Daniel Amsterdam
Modulation of the immune system by microbes, especially from the gastrointestinal tract, is increasingly considered a key factor in the onset, course and outcome of rheumatic diseases. The interplay of the microbiome, along with genetic predisposition and environmental exposure, is thought to be an important trigger for rheumatic diseases. Improved identification of the relationship of disease-specific genetic alterations and rheumatic diseases has potential diagnostic and therapeutic applications. Treatment of rheumatic disorders is influenced by microbial actions but this interplay can be challenging due to variable and unpredictable responses to therapies...
November 2017: Immunological Investigations
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033938/early-life-nutritional-factors-and-mucosal-immunity-in-the-development-of-autoimmune-diabetes
#11
REVIEW
Ling Xiao, Belinda Van't Land, Wouter R P H van de Worp, Bernd Stahl, Gert Folkerts, Johan Garssen
Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is an immune-mediated disease with a strong genetic basis but might be influenced by non-genetic factors such as microbiome development that "programs" the immune system during early life as well. Factors influencing pathogenesis, including a leaky intestinal mucosal barrier, an aberrant gut microbiota composition, and altered immune responsiveness, offer potential targets for prevention and/or treatment of T1D through nutritional or pharmacologic means. In this review, nutritional approaches during early life in order to protect against T1D development have been discussed...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031410/harnessing-gut-microbes-for-mental-health-getting-from-here-to-there
#12
REVIEW
Annadora J Bruce-Keller, J Michael Salbaum, Hans-Rudolf Berthoud
There has been an explosion of interest in the study of microorganisms inhabiting the gastrointestinal tract (gut microbiota) and their impact on host health and physiology. Accumulating data suggest that altered communication between gut microbiota and host systems could participate in disorders such as obesity, diabetes mellitus, and autoimmune disorders as well as neuropsychiatric disorders, including autism, anxiety, and major depressive disorders. The conceptual development of the microbiome-gut-brain axis has facilitated understanding of the complex and bidirectional networks between gastrointestinal microbiota and their host, highlighting potential mechanisms through which this environment influences central nervous system physiology...
August 30, 2017: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023853/antibiotics-gut-microbiome-and-obesity
#13
Karen S W Leong, José G B Derraik, Paul L Hofman, Wayne S Cutfield
Antibiotics have been hailed by many as 'miracle drugs' that have been effectively treating infectious diseases for over a century, leading to a marked reduction in morbidity and mortality. However, with the increasing use of antibiotics, we are now faced not only with the increasing threat of antibiotic resistance, but also with a rising concern about potential long-term effects of antibiotics on human health, including the development of obesity. The obesity pandemic continues to increase, a problem that affects both adults and children alike...
October 12, 2017: Clinical Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023380/the-gut-microbiome-feelings-of-the-brain-a-perspective-for-non-microbiologists
#14
REVIEW
Aaron Lerner, Sandra Neidhöfer, Torsten Matthias
Objectives: To comprehensively review the scientific knowledge on the gut-brain axis. Methods: Various publications on the gut-brain axis, until 31 July 2017, were screened using the Medline, Google, and Cochrane Library databases. The search was performed using the following keywords: "gut-brain axis", "gut-microbiota-brain axis", "nutrition microbiome/microbiota", "enteric nervous system", "enteric glial cells/network", "gut-brain pathways", "microbiome immune system", "microbiome neuroendocrine system" and "intestinal/gut/enteric neuropeptides"...
October 12, 2017: Microorganisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021375/maternal-high-fiber-diet-during-pregnancy-and-lactation-influences-regulatory-t-cell-differentiation-in-offspring-in-mice
#15
Akihito Nakajima, Naoko Kaga, Yumiko Nakanishi, Hiroshi Ohno, Junki Miyamoto, Ikuo Kimura, Shohei Hori, Takashi Sasaki, Keiichi Hiramatsu, Ko Okumura, Sachiko Miyake, Sonoko Habu, Sumio Watanabe
Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), the end products of dietary fiber, influence the immune system. Moreover, during pregnancy the maternal microbiome has a great impact on the development of the offspring's immune system. However, the exact mechanisms by which maternal SCFAs during pregnancy and lactation influence the immune system of offspring are not fully understood. We investigated the molecular mechanisms underlying regulatory T cell (Treg) differentiation in offspring regulated by a maternal high fiber diet (HFD)...
October 11, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018409/innate-viral-receptor-signaling-determines-type-1-diabetes-onset
#16
REVIEW
Zachary J Morse, Marc S Horwitz
Heritable susceptibility of the autoimmune disorder, type 1 diabetes (T1D), only partially equates for the incidence of the disease. Significant evidence attributes several environmental stressors, such as vitamin D deficiency, gut microbiome, dietary antigens, and most notably virus infections in triggering the onset of T1D in these genetically susceptible individuals. Extensive epidemiological and clinical studies have provided credibility to this causal relationship. Infection by the enterovirus, coxsackievirus B, has been closely associated with onset of T1D and is considered a significant etiological agent for disease induction...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28948174/intestinal-dysbiosis-and-rheumatoid-arthritis-a-link-between-gut-microbiota-and-the-pathogenesis-of-rheumatoid-arthritis
#17
REVIEW
Gabriel Horta-Baas, María Del Socorro Romero-Figueroa, Alvaro José Montiel-Jarquín, María Luisa Pizano-Zárate, Jaime García-Mena, Ninfa Ramírez-Durán
Characterization and understanding of gut microbiota has recently increased representing a wide research field, especially in autoimmune diseases. Gut microbiota is the major source of microbes which might exert beneficial as well as pathogenic effects on human health. Intestinal microbiome's role as mediator of inflammation has only recently emerged. Microbiota has been observed to differ in subjects with early rheumatoid arthritis compared to controls, and this finding has commanded this study as a possible autoimmune process...
2017: Journal of Immunology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942491/modulation-of-type-1-diabetes-risk-by-the-intestinal-microbiome
#18
REVIEW
Mikael Knip, Jarno Honkanen
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to summarize potential modulations of the intestinal microbiome aimed at preventing or delaying progression to overt type 1 diabetes in the light of recently identified perturbations of the gut microbiota associated with the development of type 1 diabetes. RECENT FINDINGS: Accumulated data suggest that the gut microbiota is involved at two different steps in the evolution of type 1 diabetes. At the first step, the intestinal tract is colonized by a microbial community unable to provide an adequate education of the immune system...
September 23, 2017: Current Diabetes Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941769/a-neuro-immune-neuro-oxidative-and-neuro-nitrosative-model-of-prenatal-and-postpartum-depression
#19
REVIEW
Chutima Roomruangwong, George Anderson, Michael Berk, Drozdstoy Stoyanov, André F Carvalho, Michael Maes
A large body of evidence indicates that major affective disorders are accompanied by activated neuro-immune, neuro-oxidative and neuro-nitrosative stress (IO&NS) pathways. Postpartum depression is predicted by end of term prenatal depressive symptoms whilst a lifetime history of mood disorders appears to increase the risk for both prenatal and postpartum depression. This review provides a critical appraisal of available evidence linking IO&NS pathways to prenatal and postpartum depression. The electronic databases Google Scholar, PubMed and Scopus were sources for this narrative review focusing on keywords, including perinatal depression, (auto)immune, inflammation, oxidative, nitric oxide, nitrosative, tryptophan catabolites (TRYCATs), kynurenine, leaky gut and microbiome...
September 20, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901565/review-article-next-generation-transformative-advances-in-the-pathogenesis-and-management-of-autoimmune-hepatitis
#20
REVIEW
A J Czaja
BACKGROUND: Advances in autoimmune hepatitis that transform current concepts of pathogenesis and management can be anticipated as products of ongoing investigations driven by unmet clinical needs and an evolving biotechnology. AIM: To describe the advances that are likely to become transformative in autoimmune hepatitis, based on the direction of current investigations. METHODS: Pertinent abstracts were identified in PubMed by multiple search terms...
September 13, 2017: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
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