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Microbiome autoimmune

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418589/a-distinct-cutaneous-microbiota-pofile-in-autoimmune-bullous-disease-patients
#1
Mor Miodovnik, Axel Künstner, Ewan A Langan, Detlef Zillikens, Regine Gläser, Eli Sprecher, John F Baines, Enno Schmidt, Saleh M Ibrahim
Bullous Pemphigoid (BP) is the most common autoimmune blistering disease in Europe. As both the incidence of the disease and the relative proportion of the elderly population continue to rise, it represents a significant medical burden. Whereas some progress has been achieved in defining genetic risk factors for autoimmune blistering diseases, no environmental agent has been conclusively identified. Emerging evidence suggests that host immunity may influence the skin microbiota while the latter modulates cutaneous immunity...
April 18, 2017: Experimental Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406324/evolving-paradigm-of-treatment-for-autoimmune-hepatitis
#2
Albert J Czaja
Current medications for autoimmune hepatitis have broad anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive actions, and their effects are short-lived and inconsistent. The goals of this review were to describe the actions and shortcomings of these medications, indicate the key pathogenic mechanisms that might be targeted by site-directed interventions, and present the pivotal studies supporting development of these alternative agents. Areas covered: Abstracts cited in PubMed from April 1964 to February 2017 were identified using the search words "treatment of autoimmune hepatitis"...
April 13, 2017: Expert Review of Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394824/from-microbiome-to-infectome-in-autoimmunity
#3
Dimitrios P Bogdanos, Lazaros I Sakkas
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The current review discusses the pros and cons of the microbiome studies conducted in search of the association between microbiota and autoimmunity. RECENT FINDINGS: We focus on the role of infectome and autoinfectome as a bridge to link the findings of microbiome studies with those emerging from investigations of the role of specific viruses and antiviral responses as triggers of autoimmunity (through various mechanisms such as molecular mimicry)...
April 7, 2017: Current Opinion in Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386263/adaptive-immunity-is-the-key-to-the-understanding-of-autoimmune-and-paraneoplastic-inflammatory-central-nervous-system-disorders
#4
REVIEW
Robert Weissert
There are common aspects and mechanisms between different types of autoimmune diseases such as multiple sclerosis (MS), neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (NMOSDs), and autoimmune encephalitis (AE) as well as paraneoplastic inflammatory disorders of the central nervous system. To our present knowledge, depending on the disease, T and B cells as well as antibodies contribute to various aspects of the pathogenesis. Possibly the events leading to the breaking of tolerance between the different diseases are of great similarity and so far, only partially understood...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28376066/the-gut-microbiota-a-possible-factor-influencing-systemic-lupus-erythematosus
#5
Hadar Neuman, Omry Koren
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune disease of unknown cause. In recent years, with the emergence of microbiome research, changes in the gut microbiota composition have been correlated with a variety of autoimmune disorders, and several mechanisms linking these together have been suggested, including the hygiene theory, immune system activation and hormonal effects. It has therefore been suggested that gut microbiota may play a role in SLE. In this review, we summarize recent findings on the SLE-related microbiota compositions in both humans and rodents...
April 1, 2017: Current Opinion in Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342734/integration-of-microbiome-and-epigenome-to-decipher-the-pathogenesis-of-autoimmune-diseases
#6
REVIEW
Beidi Chen, Luxi Sun, Xuan Zhang
The interaction between genetic predisposition and environmental factors are of great significance in the pathogenesis and development of autoimmune diseases (AIDs). The human mucosa is the most frequent site that interacts with the exterior environment, and commensal microbiota at the gut and other human mucosal cavities play a crucial role in the regulation of immune system. Growing evidence has shown that the compositional and functional changes of mucosal microbiota are closely related to AIDs. Gut dysbiosis not only influence the expression level of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) of antigen presenting cells, but also contribute to Th17/Treg imbalance...
March 23, 2017: Journal of Autoimmunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321459/-the-microbiome-and-autoimmunity
#7
T Schröder, S Ibrahim
An abundant and diverse set of commensal microbial communities covers the body's surfaces, collectively so-called microbiome. It has a functional impact on various immune processes and modulates many health-related processes, including autoimmunity. An active site of microorganism-host interplay is the intestinal mucosa. Growing evidence has helped us to learn how a specific microbiota composition and its functionality determine the intestinal barrier function and, furthermore, modulate pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory immune mechanisms in remote organs...
March 20, 2017: Der Internist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301545/implication-of-the-intestinal-microbiome-as-a-potential-surrogate-marker-of-immune-responsiveness-to-experimental-therapies-in-autoimmune-diabetes
#8
James C Needell, Charles A Dinarello, Diana Ir, Charles E Robertson, Sarah M Ryan, Miranda E Kroehl, Daniel N Frank, Danny Zipris
Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is an autoimmune proinflammatory disease with no effective intervention. A major obstacle in developing new immunotherapies for T1D is the lack of means for monitoring immune responsiveness to experimental therapies. The LEW1.WR1 rat develops autoimmunity following infection with the parvovirus Kilham rat virus (KRV) via mechanisms linked with activation of proinflammatory pathways and alterations in the gut bacterial composition. We used this animal to test the hypothesis that intervention with agents that block innate immunity and diabetes is associated with a shift in the gut microbiota...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298911/autoantibodies-against-the-n-methyl-d-aspartate-receptor-subunit-nr1-untangling-apparent-inconsistencies-for-clinical-practice
#9
REVIEW
Hannelore Ehrenreich
This viewpoint review provides an integrative picture of seemingly contradictory work published on N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor 1 (NMDAR1) autoantibodies (AB). Based on the present state of knowledge, it gives recommendations for the clinical decision process regarding immunosuppressive treatment. Brain antigen-directed AB in general and NMDAR1-AB in particular belong to a preexisting autoimmune repertoire of mammals including humans. Specific autoimmune reactive B cells may get repeatedly (perhaps transiently) boosted by various potential stimulants (e...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292977/the-host-microbiome-regulates-and-maintains-human-health-a-primer-and-perspective-for-non-microbiologists
#10
REVIEW
Sunil Thomas, Jacques Izard, Emily Walsh, Kristen Batich, Pakawat Chongsathidkiet, Gerard Clarke, David A Sela, Alexander J Muller, James M Mullin, Korin Albert, John P Gilligan, Katherine DiGuilio, Rima Dilbarova, Walker Alexander, George C Prendergast
Humans consider themselves discrete autonomous organisms, but recent research is rapidly strengthening the appreciation that associated microorganisms make essential contributions to human health and well being. Each person is inhabited and also surrounded by his/her own signature microbial cloud. A low diversity of microorganisms is associated with a plethora of diseases, including allergy, diabetes, obesity, arthritis, inflammatory bowel diseases, and even neuropsychiatric disorders. Thus, an interaction of microorganisms with the host immune system is required for a healthy body...
April 15, 2017: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286571/we-are-not-alone-a-case-for-the-human-microbiome-in-extra-intestinal-diseases
#11
EDITORIAL
S Shivaji
BACKGROUND: "Dysbiosis" in the gut microbiome has been implicated in auto-immune diseases, in inflammatory diseases, in some cancers and mental disorders. The challenge is to unravel the cellular and molecular basis of dysbiosis so as to understand the disease manifestation. MAIN BODY: Next generation sequencing and genome enabled technologies have led to the establishment of the composition of gut microbiomes and established that "dysbiosis" is the cause of several diseases...
2017: Gut Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28260787/dysbiosis-and-the-immune-system
#12
REVIEW
Maayan Levy, Aleksandra A Kolodziejczyk, Christoph A Thaiss, Eran Elinav
Throughout the past century, we have seen the emergence of a large number of multifactorial diseases, including inflammatory, autoimmune, metabolic, neoplastic and neurodegenerative diseases, many of which have been recently associated with intestinal dysbiosis - that is, compositional and functional alterations of the gut microbiome. In linking the pathogenesis of common diseases to dysbiosis, the microbiome field is challenged to decipher the mechanisms involved in the de novo generation and the persistence of dysbiotic microbiome configurations, and to differentiate causal host-microbiome associations from secondary microbial changes that accompany disease course...
April 2017: Nature Reviews. Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28245427/microbe-microbe-and-host-microbe-interactions-drive-microbiome-dysbiosis-and-inflammatory-processes
#13
Amy D Proal, Inge A Lindseth, Trevor G Marshall
An extensive microbiome comprised of bacteria, viruses, bacteriophages, and fungi is now understood to persist in nearly every human body site, including tissue and blood. The genomes of these microbes continually interact with the human genome in order to regulate host metabolism. Many components of this microbiome are capable of both commensal and pathogenic activity. They are additionally able to persist in both 'acute' and chronic forms. Inflammatory conditions historically studied separately (autoimmune, neurological and malignant) are now repeatedly tied to a common trend: imbalance or dysbiosis of these microbial ecosystems...
January 2017: Discovery Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28240004/gut-microbiota-and-pancreatic-diseases
#14
Marianna Signoretti, Roberta Roggiolani, Caterina Stornello, Gianfranco Delle Fave, Gabriele Capurso
Changes in diet, lifestyle and exposition to environmental risk factors account for the increased incidence of pancreatic disorders, including acute and chronic pancreatitis, and pancreatic cancer. The role of the microbiome in the development of pancreatic disorders is increasingly recognized. The translocation of gut bacteria and endotoxins following gut barrier failure is a key event contributing to the severity of acute pancreatitis, while small intestine bacterial overgrowth is common in patients with chronic pancreatitis and further worsens their symptoms and malnutrition...
February 24, 2017: Minerva Gastroenterologica e Dietologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224678/microbiome-autoimmunity-allergy-and-helminth-infection-the-importance-of-the-pregnancy-period
#15
Xian Chen, Su Liu, Qiao Tan, Yehuda Shoenfeld, Yong Zeng
Pregnancy is a special physical period in reproductive age women, which has a beneficial influence on the course of certain autoimmune diseases. It has been recently suggested that the microbiome undergoes profound changes during pregnancy that are associated with host physiological and immunological adaptations. The maternal microbiome remodeling during pregnancy is an active response of the mother, possibly to alter immune system status and to facilitate metabolic and immunological adaptations, which are needed for a successful pregnancy...
February 21, 2017: American Journal of Reproductive Immunology: AJRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178947/an-integrative-bayesian-dirichlet-multinomial-regression-model-for-the-analysis-of-taxonomic-abundances-in-microbiome-data
#16
W Duncan Wadsworth, Raffaele Argiento, Michele Guindani, Jessica Galloway-Pena, Samuel A Shelbourne, Marina Vannucci
BACKGROUND: The Human Microbiome has been variously associated with the immune-regulatory mechanisms involved in the prevention or development of many non-infectious human diseases such as autoimmunity, allergy and cancer. Integrative approaches which aim at associating the composition of the human microbiome with other available information, such as clinical covariates and environmental predictors, are paramount to develop a more complete understanding of the role of microbiome in disease development...
February 8, 2017: BMC Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28144744/food-matters-how-the-microbiome-and-gut-brain-interaction-might-impact-the-development-and-course-of-anorexia-nervosa
#17
REVIEW
Beate Herpertz-Dahlmann, Jochen Seitz, John Baines
Anorexia nervosa (AN) is one of the most common chronic illnesses in female adolescents and exhibits the highest mortality risk of all psychiatric disorders. Evidence for the effectiveness of psychotherapeutic or psychopharmacological interventions is weak. Mounting data indicate that the gut microbiome interacts with the central nervous system and the immune system by neuroendocrine, neurotransmitter, neurotrophic and neuroinflammatory afferent and efferent pathways. There is growing evidence that the gut microbiota influences weight regulation and psychopathology, such as anxiety and depression...
January 31, 2017: European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077565/mahmi-database-a-comprehensive-metahit-based-resource-for-the-study-of-the-mechanism-of-action-of-the-human-microbiota
#18
Aitor Blanco-Míguez, Alberto Gutiérrez-Jácome, Florentino Fdez-Riverola, Anália Lourenço, Borja Sánchez
The Mechanism of Action of the Human Microbiome (MAHMI) database is a unique resource that provides comprehensive information about the sequence of potential immunomodulatory and antiproliferative peptides encrypted in the proteins produced by the human gut microbiota. Currently, MAHMI database contains over 300 hundred million peptide entries, with detailed information about peptide sequence, sources and potential bioactivity. The reference peptide data section is curated manually by domain experts. The in silico peptide data section is populated automatically through the systematic processing of publicly available exoproteomes of the human microbiome...
2017: Database: the Journal of Biological Databases and Curation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069755/influence-of-the-gut-microbiome-on-autoimmunity-in-the-central-nervous-system
#19
REVIEW
Sara L Colpitts, Lloyd H Kasper
Autoimmune disorders of the CNS have complex pathogeneses that are not well understood. In multiple sclerosis and neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders, T cells destroy CNS tissue, resulting in severe disabilities. Mounting evidence suggests that reducing inflammation in the CNS may start with modulation of the gut microbiome. The lymphoid tissues of the gut are specialized for the induction of regulatory cells, which are directly responsible for the suppression of CNS-damaging autoreactive T cells. Whether cause or effect, the onset of dysbiosis in the gut of patients with multiple sclerosis and neuromyelitis optica provides evidence of communication along the gut-brain axis...
January 15, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069754/the-influence-of-the-microbiome-on-type-1-diabetes
#20
REVIEW
Alexandra Paun, Christopher Yau, Jayne S Danska
Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is characterized by the autoimmune destruction of pancreatic β cells. The rapid rise in T1D incidence during the past 50 y suggests environmental factors contribute to the disease. The trillion symbiotic microorganisms inhabiting the mammalian gastrointestinal tract (i.e., the microbiota) influence numerous aspects of host physiology. In this study we review the evidence linking perturbations of the gut microbiome to pancreatic autoimmunity. We discuss data from rodent models demonstrating the essential role of the gut microbiota on the development and function of the host's mucosal and systemic immune systems...
January 15, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
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