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Microbiome cancer

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163445/in-silico-analysis-of-putrefaction-pathways-in-bacteria-and-its-implication-in-colorectal-cancer
#1
Harrisham Kaur, Chandrani Das, Sharmila S Mande
Fermentation of undigested proteins in human gastrointestinal tract (gut) by the resident microbiota, a process called bacterial putrefaction, can sometimes disrupt the gut homeostasis. In this process, essential amino acids (e.g., histidine, tryptophan, etc.) that are required by the host may be utilized by the gut microbes. In addition, some of the products of putrefaction, like ammonia, putrescine, cresol, indole, phenol, etc., have been implicated in the disease pathogenesis of colorectal cancer (CRC). We have investigated bacterial putrefaction pathways that are known to be associated with such metabolites...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162924/dysbiosis-of-the-microbiome-in-gastric-carcinogenesis
#2
Natalia Castaño-Rodríguez, Khean-Lee Goh, Kwong Ming Fock, Hazel M Mitchell, Nadeem O Kaakoush
The gastric microbiome has been proposed as an etiological factor in gastric carcinogenesis. We compared the gastric microbiota in subjects presenting with gastric cancer (GC, n = 12) and controls (functional dyspepsia (FD), n = 20) from a high GC risk population in Singapore and Malaysia. cDNA from 16S rRNA transcripts were amplified (515F-806R) and sequenced using Illumina MiSeq 2 × 250 bp chemistry. Increased richness and phylogenetic diversity but not Shannon's diversity was found in GC as compared to controls...
November 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158828/oral-microbiome-a-new-biomarker-reservoir-for-oral-and-oropharyngeal-cancers
#3
REVIEW
Yenkai Lim, Makrina Totsika, Mark Morrison, Chamindie Punyadeera
Current biomarkers (DNA, RNA and protein) for oral cavity and oropharyngeal cancers demonstrate biological variations between individuals, rendering them impractical for clinical translation. Whilst these biomarkers originate from the host, there is not much information in the literature about the influence of oral microbiota on cancer pathogenesis, especially in oral cancers. Oral microbiotas are known to participate in disease initiation and progression not only limited to the oral cavity, but also at other distant sites...
2017: Theranostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152146/breast-tissue-oral-and-urinary-microbiomes-in-breast-cancer
#4
Hannah Wang, Jessica Altemus, Farshad Niazi, Holly Green, Benjamin C Calhoun, Charles Sturgis, Stephen R Grobmyer, Charis Eng
It has long been proposed that the gut microbiome contributes to breast carcinogenesis by modifying systemic estrogen levels. This is often cited as a possible mechanism linking breast cancer and high-fat, low-fiber diets as well as antibiotic exposure, associations previously identified in population-based studies. More recently, a distinct microbiome has been identified within breast milk and tissue, but few studies have characterized differences in the breast tissue microbiota of patients with and without cancer, and none have investigated distant body-site microbiomes outside of the gut...
October 20, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151903/fusobacterium-nucleatum-in-gastroenterological-cancer-evaluation-of-measurement-methods-using-quantitative-polymerase-chain-reaction-and-a-literature-review
#5
Kensuke Yamamura, Yoshifumi Baba, Keisuke Miyake, Kenichi Nakamura, Hironobu Shigaki, Kosuke Mima, Junji Kurashige, Takatsugu Ishimoto, Masaaki Iwatsuki, Yasuo Sakamoto, Yoichi Yamashita, Naoya Yoshida, Masayuki Watanabe, Hideo Baba
The human microbiome Fusobacterium nucleatum, which primarily inhabits the oral cavity, causes periodontal disease and has also been implicated in the development of colorectal cancer. However, whether F. nucleatum is present in other gastroenterological cancer tissues remains to be elucidated. The present study evaluated whether quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assays were able to detect F. nucleatum DNA and measure the quantity of F. nucleatum DNA in esophageal, gastric, pancreatic and liver cancer tissues...
December 2017: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143101/candidate-biomarkers-in-the-cervical-vaginal-fluid-for-the-self-diagnosis-of-cervical-precancer
#6
REVIEW
Xaveer Van Ostade, Martin Dom, Wiebren Tjalma, Geert Van Raemdonck
PURPOSE: Despite improvement in vaccines against human papilloma virus (HPV), the causative agent of cervical cancer, screening women for cervical precancer will remain indispensable in the coming 30-40 years. A simple test that could be performed at home or at a doctor's practice and that informs the woman whether she is at risk would significantly help make a broader group of patients who aware that they need medical treatment. Cervical vaginal fluid (CVF) is a body fluid that is very well suited for such a test...
November 15, 2017: Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141918/wild-microbiome-stems-tumorigenesis-in-lab-mice
#7
(no author information available yet)
Replacing laboratory mice's gut microbiomes with the microbial communities of their wild counterparts alters the lab animals' immune systems and boosts their resistance to colorectal cancer development and influenza.
November 15, 2017: Cancer Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127758/-physical-activity-the-holy-grail-of-modern-medicine
#8
Vladimír Tuka, Martina Daňková, Karel Riegel, Martin Matoulek
Movement is the basic attribute of life. It is not surprising that the return to regular physical activity is a very effective and cheap means of preventing and treating most non-cummunicable diseases. Therefore, every physician should be able to prescribe a suitable physical activity. The minimum amount of physical activity with proven effects in primary prevention of chronic diseases is relatively low: 150 minutes of moderate physical activity or 75 minutes of high intensity exercise per week or a combination of the two...
2017: Vnitr̆ní Lékar̆ství
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120399/a-microbiomic-analysis-in-african-americans-with-colonic-lesions-reveals-streptococcus-sp-vt162-as-a-marker-of-neoplastic-transformation
#9
Hassan Brim, Shibu Yooseph, Edward Lee, Zaki Sherif, Muneer Abbas, Adeyinka O Laiyemo, Sudhir Varma, Manolito Torralba, Scot E Dowd, Karen E Nelson, Wimal Pathmasiri, Susan Sumner, Willem de Vos, Qiaoyi Liang, Jun Yu, Erwin Zoetendal, Hassan Ashktorab
Increasing evidence suggests a role of the gut microbiota in colorectal carcinogenesis (CRC). To detect bacterial markers of colorectal cancer in African Americans a metabolomic analysis was performed on fecal water extracts. DNA from stool samples of adenoma and healthy subjects and from colon cancer and matched normal tissues was analyzed to determine the microbiota composition (using 16S rDNA) and genomic content (metagenomics). Metagenomic functions with discriminative power between healthy and neoplastic specimens were established...
November 9, 2017: Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107046/pharmacological-efficacy-toxicity-of-drugs-a-comprehensive-update-about-the-dynamic-interplay-of-microbes
#10
REVIEW
J A Gimenez-Bastida, L Martinez, A Moya-Pérez, J M Laparra
Oral ingestion is a common, easy to access, route for therapeutic drugs to be delivered. The conception of the gastrointestinal tract as a passive physiological compartment has evolved towards a dynamic perspective of the same. Thus, microbiota plays an important role in contributing with additional metabolic capacities to its host as well as to its phenotypic heterogeneity. These adaptations in turn influence the efficacy and toxicity of a broad range of drugs. Notwithstanding, xenobiotics and therapeutic drugs affecting the microbiome's activity also significantly impact metabolism affecting different organs and tissues, and thereby drugs' toxicity/efficacy effects...
October 26, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104759/human-microbiome-signatures-of-differential-colorectal-cancer-drug-metabolism
#11
Leah Guthrie, Sanchit Gupta, Johanna Daily, Libusha Kelly
It is well appreciated that microbial metabolism of drugs can influence treatment efficacy. Microbial β-glucuronidases in the gut can reactivate the excreted, inactive metabolite of irinotecan, a first-line chemotherapeutic for metastatic colorectal cancer. Reactivation causes adverse drug responses, including severe diarrhea. However, a direct connection between irinotecan metabolism and the composition of an individual's gut microbiota has not previously been made. Here, we report quantitative evidence of inter-individual variability in microbiome metabolism of the inactive metabolite of irinotecan to its active form...
2017: NPJ Biofilms and Microbiomes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102920/gastric-microbial-community-profiling-reveals-a-dysbiotic-cancer-associated-microbiota
#12
Rui M Ferreira, Joana Pereira-Marques, Ines Pinto-Ribeiro, Jose L Costa, Fatima Carneiro, Jose C Machado, Ceu Figueiredo
OBJECTIVE: Gastric carcinoma development is triggered by Helicobacter pylori. Chronic H. pylori infection leads to reduced acid secretion, which may allow the growth of a different gastric bacterial community. This change in the microbiome may increase aggression to the gastric mucosa and contribute to malignancy. Our aim was to evaluate the composition of the gastric microbiota in chronic gastritis and in gastric carcinoma. DESIGN: The gastric microbiota was retrospectively investigated in 54 patients with gastric carcinoma and 81 patients with chronic gastritis by 16S rRNA gene profiling, using next-generation sequencing...
November 4, 2017: Gut
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29100781/estrogens-and-female-liver-health
#13
Karen L Chen, Zeynep Madak-Erdogan
Due to declining estrogen levels during menopause, NAFLD prevalence is higher in postmenopausal women compared to in premenopausal women or in men. Postmenopausal women are more susceptible to weight gain, fat redistribution and dyslipidemia, all major hallmarks of metabolic syndrome associated with increased NAFLD risk. Gut microbiota plays important roles in development of gastrointestinal tract, metabolism and immunity. Host-microbe interactions allows regulation of a wide range of pathways that affect healthy and diseased physiology...
November 1, 2017: Steroids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29097494/gut-microbiome-influences-efficacy-of-pd-1-based-immunotherapy-against-epithelial-tumors
#14
Bertrand Routy, Emmanuelle Le Chatelier, Lisa Derosa, Connie P M Duong, Maryam Tidjani Alou, Romain Daillère, Aurélie Fluckiger, Meriem Messaoudene, Conrad Rauber, Maria P Roberti, Marine Fidelle, Caroline Flament, Vichnou Poirier-Colame, Paule Opolon, Christophe Klein, Kristina Iribarren, Laura Mondragón, Nicolas Jacquelot, Bo Qu, Gladys Ferrere, Céline Clémenson, Laura Mezquita, Jordi Remon Masip, Charles Naltet, Solenn Brosseau, Coureche Kaderbhai, Corentin Richard, Hira Rizvi, Florence Levenez, Nathalie Galleron, Benoit Quinquis, Nicolas Pons, Bernhard Ryffel, Véronique Minard-Colin, Patrick Gonin, Jean-Charles Soria, Eric Deutsch, Yohann Loriot, François Ghiringhelli, Gérard Zalcman, François Goldwasser, Bernard Escudier, Matthew D Hellmann, Alexander Eggermont, Didier Raoult, Laurence Albiges, Guido Kroemer, Laurence Zitvogel
Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICI) targeting the PD-1/PD-L1 axis induce sustained clinical responses in a sizeable minority of cancer patients. Here, we show that primary resistance to ICI can be due to abnormal gut microbiome composition. Antibiotics (ATB) inhibited the clinical benefit of ICI in patients with advanced cancer. Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) from cancer patients who responded to ICI (but not from non-responding patients) into germ-free or ATB-treated mice ameliorated the antitumor effects of PD-1 blockade...
November 2, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29097493/gut-microbiome-modulates-response-to-anti-pd-1-immunotherapy-in-melanoma-patients
#15
V Gopalakrishnan, C N Spencer, L Nezi, A Reuben, M C Andrews, T V Karpinets, P A Prieto, D Vicente, K Hoffman, S C Wei, A P Cogdill, L Zhao, C W Hudgens, D S Hutchinson, T Manzo, M Petaccia de Macedo, T Cotechini, T Kumar, W S Chen, S M Reddy, R Szczepaniak Sloane, J Galloway-Pena, H Jiang, P L Chen, E J Shpall, K Rezvani, A M Alousi, R F Chemaly, S Shelburne, L M Vence, P C Okhuysen, V B Jensen, A G Swennes, F McAllister, E Marcelo Riquelme Sanchez, Y Zhang, E Le Chatelier, L Zitvogel, N Pons, J L Austin-Breneman, L E Haydu, E M Burton, J M Gardner, E Sirmans, J Hu, A J Lazar, T Tsujikawa, A Diab, H Tawbi, I C Glitza, W J Hwu, S P Patel, S E Woodman, R N Amaria, M A Davies, J E Gershenwald, P Hwu, J E Lee, J Zhang, L M Coussens, Z A Cooper, P A Futreal, C R Daniel, N J Ajami, J F Petrosino, M T Tetzlaff, P Sharma, J P Allison, R R Jenq, J A Wargo
Pre-clinical mouse models suggest that the gut microbiome modulates tumor response to checkpoint blockade immunotherapy; however, this has not been well-characterized in human cancer patients. Here we examined the oral and gut microbiome of melanoma patients undergoing anti-PD-1 immunotherapy (n=112). Significant differences were observed in the diversity and composition of the patient gut microbiome of responders (R) versus non-responders (NR). Analysis of patient fecal microbiome samples (n=43, 30R, 13NR) showed significantly higher alpha diversity (p<0...
November 2, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29089606/the-inflammatory-microenvironment-and-microbiome-in-prostate-cancer-development
#16
REVIEW
Karen S Sfanos, Srinivasan Yegnasubramanian, William G Nelson, Angelo M De Marzo
Chronic inflammation promotes the development of several types of solid cancers and might contribute to prostate carcinogenesis. This hypothesis partly originates in the frequent observation of inflammatory cells in the prostate microenvironment of adult men. Inflammation is associated with putative prostate cancer precursor lesions, termed proliferative inflammatory atrophy. Inflammation might drive prostate carcinogenesis via oxidative stress and generation of reactive oxygen species that induce mutagenesis...
October 31, 2017: Nature Reviews. Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29063998/diabetes-mellitus-and-the-colon
#17
REVIEW
Marc S Piper, Richard J Saad
Diabetes mellitus (DM) can affect the structure and function of the colon promoting commonly encountered lower gastrointestinal symptoms such as constipation, diarrhea, abdominal distention, bloating, and abdominal pain. Specific colonic disorders for which adults with DM are at greater risk include chronic constipation, enteropathic diarrhea, colorectal cancer (CRC), inflammatory bowel disease, microscopic colitis, and Clostridium difficile colitis. Smooth muscle structure and function, density of the interstitial cells of Cajal, and the health and function of the autonomic and enteric nerves of the colon are all potential affected by DM...
December 2017: Current Treatment Options in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29061894/cooperation-and-cheating-as-innovation-insights-from-cellular-societies
#18
REVIEW
Athena Aktipis, Carlo C Maley
The capacity to innovate is often considered a defining feature of human societies, but it is not a capacity that is unique to human societies: innovation occurs in cellular societies as well. Cellular societies such as multicellular bodies and microbial communities, including the human microbiome, are capable of innovation in response to novel opportunities and threats. Multicellularity represents a suite of innovations for cellular cooperation, but multicellularity also opened up novel opportunities for cells to cheat, exploiting the infrastructure and resources of the body...
December 5, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052138/bacterial-infection-and-associated-cancers
#19
Caixia Zhu, Yuyan Wang, Cankun Cai, Qiliang Cai
Bacterial infections were traditionally not considered as major causes of cancer. However, increasing evidence in the past decades has suggested that several cancers are highly associated with bacterial infection. The bacterial infections have evolved some unique strategies including lateral gene transfer, biofilm and microbiome to induce genome instability and chronic inflammation, as well as escape of immune surveillance for carcinogenesis. Here we summarize and highlight the recent progress on understanding of how bacterial infection plays a role in tumor formation and malignancy...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045511/mechanisms-regulating-t-cell-infiltration-and-activity-in-solid-tumors
#20
E Lanitis, D Dangaj, M Irving, G Coukos
T-lymphocytes play a critical role in cancer immunity as evidenced by their presence in resected tumor samples derived from long-surviving patients, and impressive clinical responses to various immunotherapies that reinvigorate them. Indeed, tumors can upregulate a wide array of defense mechanisms, both direct and indirect, to suppress the ability of Tcells to reach the tumor bed and mount curative responses upon infiltration. In addition, patient and tumor genetics, previous antigenic experience, and the microbiome, are all important factors in shaping the T-cell repertoire and sensitivity to immunotherapy...
September 21, 2017: Annals of Oncology: Official Journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
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