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Microbiome cancer

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808878/role-of-intestinal-microbiome-in-american-ginseng-mediated-colon-cancer-protection-in-high-fat-diet-fed-aom-dss-mice
#1
C-Z Wang, W-H Huang, C-F Zhang, J-Y Wan, Y Wang, C Yu, S Williams, T-C He, W Du, M W Musch, E B Chang, C-S Yuan
OBJECTIVE: Chronic intestinal inflammation is a risk factor for colorectal cancer (CRC) initiation and development. Diets that are rich in Western style fats have been shown to promote CRC. This study was conducted to investigate the role of intestinal microbiome in American ginseng-mediated CRC chemoprevention in a mouse model. The population and diversity of enteric microbiome were evaluated after the ginseng treatment. METHODS: Using an azoxymethane (AOM)/dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced gut inflammation and tumorigenesis mouse model, the effects of oral American ginseng on high fat diet-associated enteric pathology were determined...
August 14, 2017: Clinical & Translational Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807841/racial-disparity-in-gastrointestinal-cancer-risk
#2
REVIEW
Hassan Ashktorab, Sonia S Kupfer, Hassan Brim, John M Carethers
Cancer from the gastrointestinal tract and its associated excretory organs will occur in over 300,000 Americans in 2017, with colorectal cancer responsible for over forty percent of that burden; there will be over 150,000 deaths from this group of cancers in the same time period. Disparities among subgroups related to these cancers' incidence and mortality exist. The epidemiology and risk factors associated with each cancer bear out differences for racial groups in the United States. Esophageal adenocarcinoma is more frequent in Non-Hispanic Whites, whereas esophageal squamous cell carcinoma with risk factors of tobacco and alcohol is more frequent among Blacks...
August 11, 2017: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801429/multicentric-randomised-study-of-helicobacter-pylori-eradication-and-pepsinogen-testing-for-prevention-of-gastric-cancer-mortality-the-gistar-study
#3
Marcis Leja, Jin Young Park, Raul Murillo, Inta Liepniece-Karele, Sergejs Isajevs, Ilze Kikuste, Dace Rudzite, Petra Krike, Sergei Parshutin, Inese Polaka, Arnis Kirsners, Daiga Santare, Valdis Folkmanis, Ilva Daugule, Martyn Plummer, Rolando Herrero
INTRODUCTION: Population-based eradication of Helicobacter pylori has been suggested to be cost-effective and is recommended by international guidelines. However, the potential adverse effects of widespread antibiotic use that this would entail have not been sufficiently studied. An alternative way to decrease gastric cancer mortality is by non-invasive search for precancerous lesions, in particular gastric atrophy; pepsinogen tests are the best currently available alternative. The primary objective of GISTAR is to determine whether H pylori eradication combined with pepsinogen testing reduces mortality from gastric cancer among 40-64-year-old individuals...
August 11, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797931/changes-in-the-gut-microbial-communities-following-addition-of-walnuts-to-the-diet
#4
Lauri O Byerley, Derrick Samuelson, Eugene Blanchard, Meng Luo, Brittany N Lorenzen, Shelia Banks, Monica A Ponder, David A Welsh, Christopher M Taylor
Walnuts are rich in omega-3 fatty acids, phytochemicals and antioxidants making them unique compared to other foods. Consuming walnuts has been associated with health benefits including a reduced risk of heart disease and cancer. Dysbiosis of the gut microbiome has been linked to several chronic diseases. One potential mechanism by which walnuts may exert their health benefit is through modifying the gut microbiome. This study identified the changes in the gut microbial communities that occur following the inclusion of walnuts in the diet...
July 9, 2017: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797714/profiling-the-urinary-microbiome-in-men-with-positive-versus-negative-biopsies-for-prostate-cancer
#5
Eva Shrestha, James R White, Shu-Han Yu, Ibrahim Kulac, Onur Ertunc, Angelo M De Marzo, Srinivasan Yegnasubramanian, Leslie A Mangold, Alan W Partin, Karen S Sfanos
PURPOSE: Studies demonstrating bacterial DNA and cultivable bacteria in urine samples have challenged the clinical dogma that urine is sterile. Furthermore, studies now indicate that dysbiosis of the urinary microbiome is associated with pathological conditions. We propose that the urinary microbiome may influence chronic inflammation observed in the prostate, leading to prostate cancer development and progression. We therefore aimed to profile the urinary microbiome in men with positive versus negative biopsies for prostate cancer...
August 7, 2017: Journal of Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783896/liver-fluke-associated-biliary-tract-cancer
#6
REVIEW
Piyapan Prueksapanich, Panida Piyachaturawat, Prapimphan Aumpansub, Wiriyaporn Ridtitid, Roongruedee Chaiteerakij, Rungsun Rerknimitr
Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) is an aggressive cancer arising from epithelial cells of the bile duct. Most patients with CCA have an unresectable tumor at the time of diagnosis. In Western countries, the risk of CCA increases in patients with primary sclerosing cholangitis, whereas liver fluke infection appears to be the major risk factor for CCA in Asian countries. A diagnosis of liver fluke infection often relies on stool samples, including microscopic examination, polymerase chain reaction-based assays, and fluke antigen detection...
August 9, 2017: Gut and Liver
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28766918/the-skin-microbiome-and-immune-system-potential-target-for-chemoprevention
#7
REVIEW
Mohammad Asif Sherwani, Saba Tufail, Anum Fatima Muzaffar, Nabiha Yusuf
There has been increasing interest in understanding the role of the human microbiome in skin diseases. Microbiome studies are being utilized in skin cancer research in numerous ways. Commensal bacteria are being studied as a potential tool to judge the biggest environmental risk of skin cancer, ultraviolet (UV) radiation. Owing to the recognized link of skin microbes in the process of inflammation, there have been theories linking commensal bacteria to skin cancer. Viral metagenomics has also provided insight into virus linked forms of skin cancers...
August 2, 2017: Photodermatology, Photoimmunology & Photomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28765474/mucosal-microbiome-dysbiosis-in-gastric-carcinogenesis
#8
Olabisi Oluwabukola Coker, Zhenwei Dai, Yongzhan Nie, Guijun Zhao, Lei Cao, Geicho Nakatsu, William Kk Wu, Sunny Hei Wong, Zigui Chen, Joseph J Y Sung, Jun Yu
OBJECTIVES: We aimed to characterise the microbial changes associated with histological stages of gastric tumourigenesis. DESIGN: We performed 16S rRNA gene analysis of gastric mucosal samples from 81 cases including superficial gastritis (SG), atrophic gastritis (AG), intestinal metaplasia (IM) and gastric cancer (GC) from Xi'an, China, to determine mucosal microbiome dysbiosis across stages of GC. We validated the results in mucosal samples of 126 cases from Inner Mongolia, China...
August 1, 2017: Gut
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28753805/the-urinary-tract-microbiome-in-health-and-disease
#9
REVIEW
Isabel M Aragón, Bernardo Herrera-Imbroda, María I Queipo-Ortuño, Elisabeth Castillo, Julia Sequeira-García Del Moral, Jaime Gómez-Millán, Gozde Yucel, María F Lara
CONTEXT: The urinary tract, previously considered a sterile body niche, has emerged as the host of an array of bacteria in healthy individuals, revolutionizing the urology research field. OBJECTIVE: To review the literature on microbiome implications in the urinary tract and the usefulness of probiotics/prebiotics and diet as treatment for urologic disorders. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: A systematic review was conducted using PubMed and Medline from inception until July 2016...
November 14, 2016: European Urology Focus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730144/molecular-characterization-of-the-human-stomach-microbiota-in-gastric-cancer-patients
#10
Guoqin Yu, Javier Torres, Nan Hu, Rafael Medrano-Guzman, Roberto Herrera-Goepfert, Michael S Humphrys, Lemin Wang, Chaoyu Wang, Ti Ding, Jacques Ravel, Philip R Taylor, Christian C Abnet, Alisa M Goldstein
Helicobacter pylori (Hp) is the primary cause of gastric cancer but we know little of its relative abundance and other microbes in the stomach, especially at the time of gastric cancer diagnosis. Here we characterized the taxonomic and derived functional profiles of gastric microbiota in two different sets of gastric cancer patients, and compared them with microbial profiles in other body sites. Paired non-malignant and tumor tissues were sampled from 160 gastric cancer patients with 80 from China and 80 from Mexico...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728967/impact-of-the-microbiota-on-bacterial-infections-during-cancer-treatment
#11
REVIEW
Jessica Galloway-Peña, Chelcy Brumlow, Samuel Shelburne
Patients being treated for cancer are at high risk for infectious complications, generally due to colonizing organisms that gain access to sterile sites via disrupted epithelial barriers. There is an emerging understanding that the ability of bacterial pathogens, including multidrug-resistant organisms, to colonize and subsequently infect humans is largely dependent on protective bacterial species present in the microbiome. Thus, herein we review recent studies demonstrating strong correlations between the microbiome of the oncology patient and infections occurring during chemotherapy...
July 17, 2017: Trends in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722709/regulation-of-inflammation-by-microbiota-interactions-with-the-host
#12
REVIEW
J Magarian Blander, Randy S Longman, Iliyan D Iliev, Gregory F Sonnenberg, David Artis
The study of the intestinal microbiota has begun to shift from cataloging individual members of the commensal community to understanding their contributions to the physiology of the host organism in health and disease. Here, we review the effects of the microbiome on innate and adaptive immunological players from epithelial cells and antigen-presenting cells to innate lymphoid cells and regulatory T cells. We discuss recent studies that have identified diverse microbiota-derived bioactive molecules and their effects on inflammation within the intestine and distally at sites as anatomically remote as the brain...
July 19, 2017: Nature Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720679/potential-for-monitoring-gut-microbiota-for-diagnosing-infections-and-graft-versus-host-disease-in-cancer-and-stem-cell-transplant-patients
#13
Andrew Y Koh
BACKGROUND: Gut microbiota, the collective community of microorganisms inhabiting the intestine, have been shown to provide many beneficial functions for the host. Recent advances in next-generation sequencing and advanced molecular biology approaches have allowed researchers to identify gut microbiota signatures associated with disease processes and, in some cases, establish causality and elucidate underlying mechanisms. CONTENT: This report reviews 3 commonly used methods for studying the gut microbiota and microbiome (the collective genomes of the gut microorganisms): 16S rRNA gene sequencing, bacterial group or species-specific quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), and metagenomic shotgun sequencing (MSS)...
July 18, 2017: Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718724/black-raspberries-and-their-anthocyanin-and-fiber-fractions-alter-the-composition-and-diversity-of-gut-microbiota-in-f-344-rats
#14
Pan Pan, Vy Lam, Nita Salzman, Yi-Wen Huang, Jianhua Yu, Jianying Zhang, Li-Shu Wang
Natural compounds can alter the diversity and composition of the gut microbiome, potentially benefiting our health. We previously demonstrated chemopreventive effects of black raspberries (BRBs) in colorectal cancer, which is associated with gut dysbiosis. To investigate the effects of whole BRBs and their fractions on gut microbiota, we fed F-344 rats a control diet, 5% BRBs, the BRB anthocyanin fraction, or the BRB residue fraction for 6 weeks. Feces were collected at baseline and at weeks 3 and 6, and bacterial sequence counts were analyzed...
July 18, 2017: Nutrition and Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710076/opportunities-and-challenges-for-environmental-exposure-assessment-in-population-based-studies
#15
Chirag J Patel, Jacqueline Kerr, Duncan C Thomas, Bhramar Mukherjee, Beate Ritz, Nilanjan Chatterjee, Marta M Jankowska, Juliette Madan, Margaret R Karagas, Kimberly A McAllister, Leah E Mechanic, M Daniele Fallin, Christine Ladd-Acosta, Ian A Blair, Susan L Teiltelbaum, Christopher I Amos
BACKGROUND: A growing number and increasing diversity of factors are available for epidemiological studies. These measures provide new avenues for discovery and prevention yet they also raise many challenges for adoption in epidemiological investigations. METHODS: We evaluate 1) designs to investigate diseases that consider heterogeneous and multi-dimensional indicators of exposure and behavior, 2) the implementation of numerous methods to capture indicators of exposure, and 3) the analytical methods required for discovery and validation...
July 14, 2017: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706919/microbiome-in-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease
#16
REVIEW
Eduard Monsó
The introduction of culture-independent techniques for the microbiological analysis of respiratory samples has confirmed that the respiratory system hosts a large number of microorganisms, which include a wide range of bacteria. The regular exposure to tobacco smoke changes the microbiome in healthy smokers, first in the oropharynx, increasing the presence of a restricted number of genera which attain high relative abundance, a pattern that may be considered as dysbiosis. In chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), microbiome analyses of sputum samples have demonstrated an important decline in bacterial diversity, with a change to a restricted flora with an overrepresentation of the Proteobacteria phylum, which include most of the bacteria commonly considered as potentially pathogenic microorganisms, paralleled by a decline in the relative abundance of microorganisms part of the Firmicutes phylum...
June 2017: Annals of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696008/sustainable-therapies-by-engineered-bacteria
#17
Beatriz Álvarez, Luis Ángel Fernández
The controlled in situ delivery of biologics (e.g. enzymes, cytokines, antibodies) by engineered bacteria of our microbiome will allow the sustainable production of these complex and expensive drugs locally in the human body, overcoming many of the technical and economical barriers currently associated with the global use of these potent medicines. We provide examples showing how engineered bacteria can be effective treatments against multiple pathologies, including autoimmune and inflammatory diseases, metabolic disorders, diabetes, obesity, infectious diseases and cancer, hence contributing to achieve the Global Sustainable Goal 3: ensure healthy lives and promote well-being for all at all ages...
July 11, 2017: Microbial Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28692660/n-3-oxododecanoyl-l-homoserine-lactone-interactions-in-the-breast-tumor-microenvironment-implications-for-breast-cancer-viability-and-proliferation-in-vitro
#18
Brittany N Balhouse, Logan Patterson, Eva M Schmelz, Daniel J Slade, Scott S Verbridge
It is well documented that the tumor microenvironment profoundly impacts the etiology and progression of breast cancer, yet the contribution of the resident microbiome within breast tissue remains poorly understood. Tumor microenvironmental conditions, such as hypoxia and dense tumor stroma, predispose progressive phenotypes and therapy resistance, however the role of bacteria in this interplay remains uncharacterized. We hypothesized that the effect of individual bacterial secreted molecules on breast cancer viability and proliferation would be modulated by these tumor-relevant stressors differentially for cells at varying stages of progression...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686076/therapeutic-implications-of-bioactive-sphingolipids-a-focus-on-colorectal-cancer
#19
E Ramsay Camp, Logan D Patterson, Mark Kester, Christina Voelkel-Johnson
Therapy of colorectal cancer (CRC), especially a subset known as locally advanced rectal cancer, is challenged by progression and recurrence. Sphingolipids, a lipid subtype with vital roles in cellular function, play an important role in CRC and impact on therapeutic outcomes. In this review we discuss how dietary sphingolipids or the gut microbiome via alterations in sphingolipids influence CRC carcinogenesis. In addition, we discuss the expression of sphingolipid enzymes in the gastro-intestinal tract, their alterations in CRC, and the implications for therapy responsiveness...
July 7, 2017: Cancer Biology & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676707/the-gut-microbiome-and-liver-cancer-mechanisms-and-clinical-translation
#20
REVIEW
Le-Xing Yu, Robert F Schwabe
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the third leading cause of worldwide cancer mortality. HCC almost exclusively develops in patients with chronic liver disease, driven by a vicious cycle of liver injury, inflammation and regeneration that typically spans decades. Increasing evidence points towards a key role of the bacterial microbiome in promoting the progression of liver disease and the development of HCC. Here, we will review mechanisms by which the gut microbiota promotes hepatocarcinogenesis, focusing on the leaky gut, bacterial dysbiosis, microbe-associated molecular patterns and bacterial metabolites as key pathways that drive cancer-promoting liver inflammation, fibrosis and genotoxicity...
July 5, 2017: Nature Reviews. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
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