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Microbiome cancer

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633955/the-microbiome-and-transfusion-in-cancer-patients
#1
REVIEW
Hadi Goubran, Jerard Seghatchian, Julia Radosevic, Gaafar Ragab, Thierry Burnouf
Our microbiota is determined by many variables including ABO blood groups. The microbiota is not only confined to the gut and skin but is also recoverable from blood of healthy donors. The microbiota shape our immune system through cross reactivity with antigens, the expression of direct molecular patterns, the release of cytokines, the effects on nutrients and micronutrients and even through an interplay with epigenetics. It is likely, therefore, that a donor's microbiota could alter the antigenicity of blood and its components and potentially contribute to transfusion-related immune modulation [TRIM]...
June 3, 2017: Transfusion and Apheresis Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625867/understanding-the-holobiont-how-microbial-metabolites-affect-human-health-and-shape-the-immune-system
#2
REVIEW
Thomas Siegmund Postler, Sankar Ghosh
The human gastrointestinal tract is populated by a diverse, highly mutualistic microbial flora, which is known as the microbiome. Disruptions to the microbiome have been shown to be associated with severe pathologies of the host, including metabolic disease, cancer, and inflammatory bowel disease. Mood and behavior are also susceptible to alterations in the gut microbiota. A particularly striking example of the symbiotic effects of the microbiome is the immune system, whose cells depend critically on a diverse array of microbial metabolites for normal development and behavior...
June 14, 2017: Cell Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619710/heme-oxygenase-1-production-by-intestinal-cx3cr1-macrophages-helps-to-resolve-inflammation-and-prevents-carcinogenesis
#3
Giulia Marelli, Marco Erreni, Achille Anselmo, Valentina Taverniti, Simone Guglielmetti, Alberto Mantovani, Paola Allavena
CX3CR1(+) macrophages in the intestinal lamina propria contribute to gut homeostasis through the immunomodulatory interleukin IL-10, but there is little knowledge on how these cells or the CX3CR1 receptor may affect colorectal carcinogenesis. In this study, we show that CX3CR1-deficient mice fail to resolve gut inflammation despite high production of IL-10 and have increased colitis and adenomatous polyps in chemical and genetic models of colon carcinogenesis. Mechanistically, CX3CL1-mediated engagement of the CX3CR1 receptor induced upregulation of hemoxygenase-1 (HMOX-1), an antioxidant and anti-inflammatory enzyme...
June 15, 2017: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611768/innate-immunity-and-breast-milk
#4
REVIEW
Nicole Theresa Cacho, Robert M Lawrence
Human milk is a dynamic source of nutrients and bioactive factors; unique in providing for the human infant's optimal growth and development. The growing infant's immune system has a number of developmental immune deficiencies placing the infant at increased risk of infection. This review focuses on how human milk directly contributes to the infant's innate immunity. Remarkable new findings clarify the multifunctional nature of human milk bioactive components. New research techniques have expanded our understanding of the potential for human milk's effect on the infant that will never be possible with milk formulas...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28610958/sulfate-nitrate-and-blood-pressure-an-epic-interaction-between-sulfur-and-nitrogen
#5
Gunter G Kuhnle, Robert Luben, Kay-Tee Khaw, Martin Feelisch
Nitrate (NO3(-))-rich foods such as green leafy vegetables are not only part of a healthy diet, but increasingly marketed for primary prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and used as ergogenic aids by competitive athletes. While there is abundant evidence for mild hypotensive effects of nitrate on acute application there is limited data on chronic intake in humans, and results from animal studies suggest no long-term benefit. This is important as nitrate can also promote the formation of nitrosamines...
June 10, 2017: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602713/interplay-between-viruses-and-bacterial-microbiota-in-cancer-development
#6
REVIEW
Dariia Vyshenska, Khiem C Lam, Natalia Shulzhenko, Andrey Morgun
During the last few decades we have become used to the idea that viruses can cause tumors. It is much less thought of and discussed, however, that most people infected with oncoviruses will never develop cancer. Therefore, the genetic and environmental factors that tips the scales from clearance of viral infection to development of cancer is currently an area of active investigation. Microbiota has recently emerged as a potentially critical factor that would affect this balance by increasing or decreasing the ability of viral infection to promote carcinogenesis...
June 8, 2017: Seminars in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28590950/systematic-review-the-impact-of-cancer-treatment-on-the-gut-and-vaginal-microbiome-in-women-with-a-gynecological-malignancy
#7
Ann Muls, Jervoise Andreyev, Susan Lalondrelle, Alexandra Taylor, Christine Norton, Ailsa Hart
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Worldwide, 1,470,900 women are diagnosed yearly with a gynecological malignancy (21,000 in the UK). Some patients treated with pelvic radiotherapy develop chronic changes in their bowel function. This systematic review summarizes current research on the impact of cancer treatment on the gut and vaginal microbiome in women with a gynecological malignancy. METHODS: The Preferred reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses guidelines for systematic reviews were used to ensure transparent and complete reporting...
June 6, 2017: International Journal of Gynecological Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587343/alteration-of-stomach-microbiota-compositions-in-the-progression-of-gastritis-induces-nitric-oxide-in-gastric-cell
#8
Tianyi Dong, Qiang Feng, Fengyan Liu, Lap Kam Chang, Xiangyu Zhou, Mingyong Han, Xingsong Tian, Ning Zhong, Shili Liu
Atrophic gastritis is considered to be an antecedent to intestinal metaplasia and gastric cancer. A previous study identified that Helicobacter pylori was absent at the severe atrophic gastritis stage, and alterations in the gastric microbial composition resembled those in gastric cancer. To explore the role of the bacteria absence of H. pylori in gastric carcinogenesis, in the current study, we compared the microbiota of clinically collected H. pylori-free gastric fluids from 30 patients with non-atrophic gastritis (N) and 22 patients with severe atrophic gastritis (S)...
June 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28582482/fusobacterium-and-colorectal-cancer-causal-factor-or-passenger-results-from-a-large-colorectal-cancer-screening-study
#9
Efrat L Amitay, Simone Werner, Marius Vital, Dietmar H Pieper, Daniela Höfler, Indra-Jasmin Gierse, Julia Butt, Yesilda Balavarca, Katarina Cuk, Hermann Brenner
Colorectal cancer is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide in both men and women. The gut microbiome is increasingly recognized as having an important role in human health and disease. Fusobacterium has been identified in former studies as a leading gut bacterium associated with colorectal cancer but it is still not clear if it plays an oncogenic role. In the current study, fecal samples were collected prior to bowel preparation from participants of screening colonoscopy in the German BliTz study...
June 5, 2017: Carcinogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542458/a-pilot-study-using-metagenomic-sequencing-of-the-sputum-microbiome-suggests-potential-bacterial-biomarkers-for-lung-cancer
#10
Simon J S Cameron, Keir E Lewis, Sharon A Huws, Matthew J Hegarty, Paul D Lewis, Justin A Pachebat, Luis A J Mur
Lung cancer (LC) is the most prevalent cancer worldwide, and responsible for over 1.3 million deaths each year. Currently, LC has a low five year survival rates relative to other cancers, and thus, novel methods to screen for and diagnose malignancies are necessary to improve patient outcomes. Here, we report on a pilot-sized study to evaluate the potential of the sputum microbiome as a source of non-invasive bacterial biomarkers for lung cancer status and stage. Spontaneous sputum samples were collected from ten patients referred with possible LC, of which four were eventually diagnosed with LC (LC+), and six had no LC after one year (LC-)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536537/-gestaltomics-systems-biology-schemes-for-the-study-of-neuropsychiatric-diseases
#11
REVIEW
Nora A Gutierrez Najera, Osbaldo Resendis-Antonio, Humberto Nicolini
The integration of different sources of biological information about what defines a behavioral phenotype is difficult to unify in an entity that reflects the arithmetic sum of its individual parts. In this sense, the challenge of Systems Biology for understanding the "psychiatric phenotype" is to provide an improved vision of the shape of the phenotype as it is visualized by "Gestalt" psychology, whose fundamental axiom is that the observed phenotype (behavior or mental disorder) will be the result of the integrative composition of every part...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529325/anticancer-effects-of-the-microbiome-and-its-products
#12
REVIEW
Laurence Zitvogel, Romain Daillère, María Paula Roberti, Bertrand Routy, Guido Kroemer
The human gut microbiome modulates many host processes, including metabolism, inflammation, and immune and cellular responses. It is becoming increasingly apparent that the microbiome can also influence the development of cancer. In preclinical models, the host response to cancer treatment has been improved by modulating the gut microbiome; this is known to have an altered composition in many diseases, including cancer. In addition, cancer treatment with microbial agents or their products has the potential to shrink tumours...
May 22, 2017: Nature Reviews. Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527946/the-microbiome-and-hepatobiliary-pancreatic-cancers
#13
Kosuke Mima, Shigeki Nakagawa, Hiroshi Sawayama, Takatsugu Ishimoto, Katsunori Imai, Masaaki Iwatsuki, Daisuke Hashimoto, Yoshifumi Baba, Yo-Ichi Yamashita, Naoya Yoshida, Akira Chikamoto, Hideo Baba
The human intestinal microbiome encompasses at least 100 trillion microorganisms that can influence host immunity and disease conditions, including cancer. Hepatobiliary and pancreatic cancers have been associated with poor prognosis owing to their high level of tumor invasiveness, distant metastasis, and resistance to conventional treatment options, such as chemotherapy. Accumulating evidence from animal models suggests that specific microbes and microbial dysbiosis can potentiate hepatobiliary-pancreatic tumor development by damaging DNA, activating oncogenic signaling pathways, and producing tumor-promoting metabolites...
May 17, 2017: Cancer Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501083/the-gastric-microbiome-and-its-influence-on-gastric-carcinogenesis-current-knowledge-and-ongoing-research
#14
REVIEW
Chao Zhang, Sarah Ellen Powell, Doron Betel, Manish A Shah
Gastric malignancies are a leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. At least 2 microbial species are currently linked to carcinogenesis and the development of cancer within the human stomach. These include the bacterium Helicobacter pylori and the Epstein-Barr virus. In recent years, there has been increasing evidence that within the human gastrointestinal tract it is not only pathogenic microbes that impact human health but also the corresponding autochthonous microbial communities. This article reviews the gastrointestinal microbiome as it relates primarily to mechanisms of disease and carcinogenesis within the upper gastrointestinal tract...
June 2017: Hematology/oncology Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494874/molecular-subtype-specific-biomarkers-improve-prediction-of-prognosis-in-colorectal-cancer
#15
Jesper Bertram Bramsen, Mads Heilskov Rasmussen, Halit Ongen, Trine Block Mattesen, Mai-Britt Worm Ørntoft, Sigrid Salling Árnadóttir, Juan Sandoval, Teresa Laguna, Søren Vang, Bodil Øster, Philippe Lamy, Mogens Rørbæk Madsen, Søren Laurberg, Manel Esteller, Emmanouil Theophilos Dermitzakis, Torben Falck Ørntoft, Claus Lindbjerg Andersen
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is characterized by major inter-tumor diversity that complicates the prediction of disease and treatment outcomes. Recent efforts help resolve this by sub-classification of CRC into natural molecular subtypes; however, this strategy is not yet able to provide clinicians with improved tools for decision making. We here present an extended framework for CRC stratification that specifically aims to improve patient prognostication. Using transcriptional profiles from 1,100 CRCs, including >300 previously unpublished samples, we identify cancer cell and tumor archetypes and suggest the tumor microenvironment as a major prognostic determinant that can be influenced by the microbiome...
May 9, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482684/21st-century-diseases-commonly-rare-and-rarely-common
#16
Sylvia Daunert, Gurusingham Sitta Sittampalam, Pascal Joseph Goldschmidt-Clermont
Alzheimer's drugs are failing at a rate of 99.6%, and success rate for drugs designed to help patients with this form of dementia is 47 times less than for drugs designed to help patients with cancers (https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/why-alzheimer-s-drugs-keep-failing/ 2014.). How can it be so difficult to produce a valuable drug for Alzheimer's disease? Each human has a unique genetic and epigenetic makeup, thus endowing individuals with a highly unique complement of genes, polymorphisms, mutations, RNAs, proteins, lipids, and complex sugars, resulting in distinct genome, proteome, metabolome, and also microbiome identity...
May 8, 2017: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481406/the-role-of-the-microbiome-in-cancer-development-and-therapy
#17
REVIEW
Aadra P Bhatt, Matthew R Redinbo, Scott J Bultman
Answer questions and earn CME/CNE The human body harbors enormous numbers of microbiota that influence cancer susceptibility, in part through their prodigious metabolic capacity and their profound influence on immune cell function. Microbial pathogens drive tumorigenesis in 15% to 20% of cancer cases. Even larger numbers of malignancies are associated with an altered composition of commensal microbiota (dysbiosis) based on microbiome studies using metagenomic sequencing. Although association studies cannot distinguish whether changes in microbiota are causes or effects of cancer, a causative role is supported by rigorously controlled preclinical studies using gnotobiotic mouse models colonized with one or more specific bacteria...
May 8, 2017: CA: a Cancer Journal for Clinicians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28471193/-molecular-pathology-of-colorectal-cancer-microsatellite-instability-the-detection-the-relationship-to-the-pathophysiology-and-prognosis
#18
V Brychtová, R Šefr, R Hrstka, P Vídeňská, B Bencsiková, B Hanáková, L Zdražilová Dubská, R Nenutil, E Budinská
BACKGROUND: Colorectal carcinoma (CRC) is third most common cancer worldwide with very heterogenous character. In most cases, it is caused by sporadic events leading to disruption of epithelial cells of the colon. The minority evolves from germline mutations associated with hereditary cancer syndromes. Mechanisms leading to mutations of oncogenes, tumour suppressors and genes of DNA repair mechanisms include: 1. chromosomal instability, 2. microsatellite instability and 3. CpG island methylator phenotype...
2017: Klinická Onkologie: Casopis Ceské a Slovenské Onkologické Spolecnosti
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28465070/microbiome-and-colorectal-cancer-unraveling-host-microbiota-interactions-in-colitis-associated-colorectal-cancer-development
#19
REVIEW
Mingsong Kang, Alberto Martin
Dysbiosis of gut microbiota occurs in many human chronic immune-mediated diseases, such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and colitis-associated colorectal cancer (CAC). Reciprocally, uncontrolled immune responses, that may or may not be induced by dysbiosis, are central to the development of IBD and CAC. There has been a surge of interest in investigating the relationship between microbiota, inflammation and CAC. In this review, we discuss recent findings related to gut microbiota and chronic immune-mediated diseases, such as IBD and CAC...
April 29, 2017: Seminars in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28460795/obesity-and-associated-comorbidities-in-people-and-companion-animals-a-one-health-perspective
#20
REVIEW
M Chandler, S Cunningham, E M Lund, C Khanna, R Naramore, A Patel, M J Day
This article reviews the biology, prevalence and risks for obesity in people and companion dogs and cats, and explores the links between obesity and diabetes mellitus and cancer across these species. Obesity is a major healthcare problem in both human and veterinary medicine and there is an increasing prevalence of obesity in people and pets. In people and animals, obesity is a complex disorder involving diet, level of physical activity, behavioural factors, socioeconomic factors, environment exposures, genetics, metabolism and the microbiome...
April 28, 2017: Journal of Comparative Pathology
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