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Microbiome prebiotics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790546/dietary-fibers-prebiotics-and-exopolysaccharides-produced-by-lactic-acid-bacteria-potential-health-benefits-with-special-regard-to-cholesterol-lowering-effects
#1
REVIEW
E Korcz, Z Kerényi, L Varga
The gastrointestinal (GIT) microbiota, which plays a crucial role in human health, is influenced by a number of factors including diet. Consumption of specific dietary ingredients, such as dietary fibers and prebiotics, is an avenue by which the microbiota can be positively modulated. These substances may also reduce serum cholesterol levels through various mechanisms. Interest has increased in methods of reducing blood cholesterol level, because dyslipidemia is recognized as a contributory risk factor for the development of cardiovascular diseases...
May 23, 2018: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29748817/the-role-of-the-microbiome-for-human-health-from-basic-science-to-clinical-applications
#2
M Hasan Mohajeri, Robert J M Brummer, Robert A Rastall, Rinse K Weersma, Hermie J M Harmsen, Marijke Faas, Manfred Eggersdorfer
The 2017 annual symposium organized by the University Medical Center Groningen in The Netherlands focused on the role of the gut microbiome in human health and disease. Experts from academia and industry examined interactions of prebiotics, probiotics, or vitamins with the gut microbiome in health and disease, the development of the microbiome in early-life and the role of the microbiome on the gut-brain axis. The gut microbiota changes dramatically during pregnancy and intrinsic factors (such as stress), in addition to extrinsic factors (such as diet, and drugs) influence the composition and activity of the gut microbiome throughout life...
May 10, 2018: European Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29743938/dysbiotic-drift-and-biopsychosocial-medicine-how-the-microbiome-links-personal-public-and-planetary-health
#3
Susan L Prescott, Ganesa Wegienka, Alan C Logan, David L Katz
The emerging concept of planetary health emphasizes that the health of human civilization is intricately connected to the health of natural systems within the Earth's biosphere; here, we focus on the rapidly progressing microbiome science - the microbiota-mental health research in particular - as a way to illustrate the pathways by which exposure to biodiversity supports health. Microbiome science is illuminating the ways in which stress, socioeconomic disadvantage and social polices interact with lifestyle and behaviour to influence the micro and macro-level biodiversity that otherwise mediates health...
2018: BioPsychoSocial Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29731182/effect-of-probiotic-and-prebiotic-vs-placebo-on-psychological-outcomes-in-patients-with-major-depressive-disorder-a-randomized-clinical-trial
#4
Asma Kazemi, Ahmad Ali Noorbala, Kamal Azam, Mohammad Hadi Eskandari, Kurosh Djafarian
BACKGROUND: Disturbance in the equilibrium of the gut microbiota has been involved in the pathophysiology of depression. Probiotics have the potential to healthfully modulate the gut microbiome. Prebiotics could also be effective by stimulation of growth of some bacterial species in the gut microbiota. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this double blind clinical trial, was to compare the effect of supplementation with the probiotic and prebiotic on the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) score as a primary outcome as well as the kynurenine/tryptophan ratio and tryptophan/branch chain amino acids (BCAAs) ratio as secondary outcomes in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD)...
April 24, 2018: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29725395/the-association-between-inflammation-the-microbiome-and-urethane-induced-pulmonary-adenocarcinoma
#5
Zenghua Deng, Zhihui Li, Changqing Sun, Hui Xie, Zhengang Chen, Jinbo Liu, Hui Wang, Chenggang Zhang, Guangshun Wang
Lung cancer is amongst the most common types of cancer throughout the world. The overall 5-year survival rate is ~17%. A number of studies have demonstrated that the microbiome existing within the host may affect the level of inflammation, and consequently contribute to the carcinogenesis of certain types of cancer. To investigate the role of inflammation and the microbiome in the carcinogenesis of lung cancer, an intervention study involving mice, including a control group (C; n=5), a urethane-induced pulmonary adenocarcinoma group (U; n=5) and a prebiotics intervention group (P; n=5) was carried out...
May 2018: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29693729/inflammatory-bowel-disease-and-immunonutrition-novel-therapeutic-approaches-through-modulation-of-diet-and-the-gut-microbiome
#6
REVIEW
Larissa S Celiberto, Franziska A Graef, Genelle R Healey, Else S Bosman, Kevan Jacobson, Laura M Sly, Bruce A Vallance
Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) is a chronic inflammatory condition of the gastrointestinal tract, thought to at least in part reflect an aberrant immune response to gut bacteria. IBD is increasing in incidence, particularly in populations that have recently immigrated to Western countries. This suggests that environmental factors are involved in its pathogenesis. We hypothesize that the increase in IBD rates might reflect the consumption of an unhealthy Western diet, containing excess calories and lacking in key nutritional factors, such as fiber and vitamin D...
April 25, 2018: Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29683848/effects-of-hiv-art-and-prebiotics-on-the-active-fraction-of-the-gut-microbiota
#7
Simon Deusch, Sergio Serrano-Villar, David Rojo, Mónica Martínez-Martínez, Rafael Bargiela, Jorge F Vázquez-Castellanos, Talía Sainz, Coral Barbas, Andrés Moya, Santiago Moreno, María J Gosalbes, Vicente Estrada, Jana Seifert, Manuel Ferrer
OBJECTIVE: In a recent blinded randomized study, we found that in HIV individuals a short supplementation with prebiotics (scGOS/lcFOS/glutamine) ameliorates dysbiosis of total gut bacteria, particularly among viremic untreated patients. Our study goal was to determine the fraction of the microbiota that becomes active during the intervention and that could provide additional functional information. DESIGN: A total of six healthy individuals, and 16 HIV-infected patients comprising viremic untreated patients (n = 5) and antiretroviral therapy-treated (ART) patients that are further divided into immunological responders (n = 7) and immunological nonresponders (n = 4) completed the 6-week course of prebiotic treatment, including six patients receiving a placebo...
April 19, 2018: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676858/effects-of-prebiotic-fiber-xylooligosaccharide-in-adenine-induced-nephropathy-in-mice
#8
Jieping Yang, Qing Li, Susanne M Henning, Jin Zhong, Mark Hsu, Rupo Lee, Jianfeng Long, Brenda Chan, Glenn T Nagami, David Heber, Zhaoping Li
SCOPE: We evaluated the effect of the prebiotic fiber xylooligosaccharide (XOS) on kidney function and gut microbiome in mice with adenine-induced chronic kidney disease (CKD). METHOD AND RESULTS: Mice were fed the control diet containing adenine for three weeks to induce CKD and switched to XOS supplemented (2 or 7%) or control diets for another 3 weeks. Mice with CKD exhibited increased BUN, creatinine and kidney histopathology. XOS significantly reversed kidney injuries in CKD mice...
April 20, 2018: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669931/targeting-the-gut-microbiome-to-treat-the-osteoarthritis-of-obesity
#9
Eric M Schott, Christopher W Farnsworth, Alex Grier, Jacquelyn A Lillis, Sarah Soniwala, Gregory H Dadourian, Richard D Bell, Madison L Doolittle, David A Villani, Hani Awad, John P Ketz, Fadia Kamal, Cheryl Ackert-Bicknell, John M Ashton, Steven R Gill, Robert A Mooney, Michael J Zuscik
Obesity is a risk factor for osteoarthritis (OA), the greatest cause of disability in the US. The impact of obesity on OA is driven by systemic inflammation, and increased systemic inflammation is now understood to be caused by gut microbiome dysbiosis. Oligofructose, a nondigestible prebiotic fiber, can restore a lean gut microbial community profile in the context of obesity, suggesting a potentially novel approach to treat the OA of obesity. Here, we report that - compared with the lean murine gut - obesity is associated with loss of beneficial Bifidobacteria, while key proinflammatory species gain in abundance...
April 19, 2018: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29643029/-a-machine-learning-model-based-on-initial-gut-microbiome-data-for-predicting-changes-of-bifidobacterium-after-prebiotics-consumption
#10
Yue-Mei Luo, Fei-Tong Liu, Mu-Xuan Chen, Wen-Li Tang, Yue-Lian Yang, Xi-Lan Tan, Hong-Wei Zhou
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of prebiotics supplementation for 9 days on gut microbiota structure and function and establish a machine learning model based on the initial gut microbiota data for predicting the variation of Bifidobacterium after prebiotic intake. METHODS: With a randomized double-blind self-controlled design, 35 healthy volunteers were asked to consume fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS) or galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS) for 9 days (16 g per day)...
March 20, 2018: Nan Fang Yi Ke da Xue Xue Bao, Journal of Southern Medical University
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29547587/dietary-alteration-of-the-gut-microbiome-and-its-impact-on-weight-and-fat-mass-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#11
REVIEW
George Kunnackal John, Lin Wang, Julie Nanavati, Claire Twose, Rajdeep Singh, Gerard Mullin
Dietary alteration of the gut microbiome is an important target in the treatment of obesity. Animal and human studies have shown bidirectional weight modulation based on the probiotic formulation used. In this study, we systematically reviewed the literature and performed a meta-analysis to assess the impact of prebiotics, probiotics and synbiotics on body weight, body mass index (BMI) and fat mass in adult human subjects. We searched Medline (PubMed), Embase, the Cochrane Library and the Web of Science to identify 4721 articles, of which 41 were subjected to full-text screening, yielding 21 included studies with 33 study arms...
March 16, 2018: Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29523750/altered-microbiome-in-chronic-kidney-disease-systemic-effects-of-gut-derived-uremic-toxins
#12
REVIEW
Wei Ling Lau, Javad Savoj, Michael B Nakata, Nosratola D Vaziri
In chronic kidney disease (CKD), influx of urea and other retained toxins exerts a change in the gut microbiome. There is decreased number of beneficial bacteria that produce short-chain fatty acids, an essential nutrient for the colonic epithelium, concurrent with an increase in bacteria that produce uremic toxins such as indoxyl sulphate, p -cresyl sulphate, and trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO). Due to intestinal wall inflammation and degradation of intercellular tight junctions, gut-derived uremic toxins translocate into the bloodstream and exert systemic effects...
March 15, 2018: Clinical Science (1979-)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29496274/gut-microbiota-alterations-and-dietary-modulation-in-childhood-malnutrition-the-role-of-short-chain-fatty-acids
#13
REVIEW
Ceyda Tugba Pekmez, Lars Ove Dragsted, Lena Kirchner Brahe
The gut microbiome affects the health status of the host through different mechanisms and is associated with a wide variety of diseases. Both childhood undernutrition and obesity are linked to alterations in composition and functionality of the gut microbiome. One of the possible mechanisms underlying the interplay between microbiota and host metabolism is through appetite-regulating hormones (including leptin, ghrelin, glucagon-like peptide-1). Short chain fatty acids, the end product of bacterial fermentation of non-digestible carbohydrates, might be able to alter energy harvest and metabolism through enteroendocrine cell signaling, adipogenesis and insulin-like growth factor-1 production...
February 17, 2018: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29493330/fecal-microbiota-transplantation-for-managing-irritable-bowel-syndrome
#14
Magdy El-Salhy, Tarek Mazzawi
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a widespread gastrointestinal disorder affecting 11.2% of the world adult population. The intestinal microbiome is thought to play a pivotal role in the pathophysiology of IBS. The composition of the fecal microbiome in IBS patients differs from that in healthy individuals, but the exact bacteria species involved in the development of IBS remain to be determined. There is also an imbalance between useful and harmful bacteria (dysbiosis) in the intestinal microbiome in patients with IBS...
May 2018: Expert Review of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29487425/potential-functional-bakery-products-as-delivery-systems-for-prebiotics-and-probiotics-health-enhancers
#15
S Longoria-García, M A Cruz-Hernández, M I M Flores-Verástegui, J C Contreras-Esquivel, J C Montañez-Sáenz, R E Belmares-Cerda
Several health benefits have been associated to probiotics and prebiotics, most of these are involved in the regulation of the host's gut microbiome. Their incorporation to diverse food products has been done to develop potential functional foods. In the case of bakery products, their incorporation has been seen to improve several technological parameters such as volume, specific volume, texture along with sensorial parameters such as flavor and aroma. Scientific literature in this topic has been divided in three main research branches: nutrition, physical quality and sensory analyzes, however, studies rarely cover all of them...
March 2018: Journal of Food Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29460474/specific-synbiotics-in-early-life-protect-against-diet-induced-obesity-in-adult-mice
#16
Mona Mischke, Tulika Arora, Sebastian Tims, Eefje Engels, Nina Sommer, Kees van Limpt, Annemarie Baars, Raish Oozeer, Annemarie Oosting, Fredrik Bäckhed, Jan Knol
AIMS: The metabolic state of human adults is associated with their gut microbiome. The symbiosis between host and microbiome is initiated at birth, and early life microbiome perturbation can disturb health throughout life. Here, we determined how beneficial microbiome interventions in early life affect metabolic health in adulthood. METHODS: Postnatal diets were supplemented with either prebiotics (scGOS/lcFOS) or synbiotics (scGOS/lcFOS with Bifidobacterium breve M-16 V) until post-natal (PN) day 42 in a well-established rodent model for nutritional programming...
February 20, 2018: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29425888/understanding-the-microbiome-emerging-biomarkers-for-exploiting-the-microbiota-for-personalized-medicine-against-cancer
#17
REVIEW
Meenakshi Rajpoot, Anil K Sharma, Anil Sharma, Girish Kumar Gupta
The human body is a home to more than 1 trillion microbes with a diverse variety of commensal microbes that play a crucial role towards the health of the individual. These microbes occupy different habitats such as gut, skin, vagina, oral etc. Not only the types and abundance of microbes are different in different organs, but also these may differ in different individuals. The genome of these microbiota and their ecosystem constitute to form a microbiome. Factors such as diet, environment, host genetics etc...
February 6, 2018: Seminars in Cancer Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29417446/linking-the-gut-microbiota-to-bone-health-in-anorexia-nervosa
#18
REVIEW
Nicole C Aurigemma, Kristen J Koltun, Hannah VanEvery, Connie J Rogers, Mary Jane De Souza
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to examine the anorexia nervosa-microbiota-bone relationship, offering a compilation of the relevant human and animal studies that may contribute to a more comprehensive understanding of potential mechanisms involved. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent studies have implicated fermentation by-products of the gut microbiota in bone metabolism. Compromised bone health often accompanies anorexia nervosa due to energy deficiency and hypoestrogenism...
February 2018: Current Osteoporosis Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29413010/nutritional-interventions-in-the-patient-with-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#19
REVIEW
Berkeley N Limketkai, Andrea Wolf, Alyssa M Parian
Nutritional strategies have been explored as primary or adjunct therapies for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Exclusive enteral nutrition is effective for the induction of remission in Crohn disease and is recommended as a first-line therapy for children. Dietary strategies focus on adjusting the ratio of consumed nutrients that are proinflammatory or antiinflammatory. Treatments with dietary supplements focus on the antiinflammatory effects of the individual supplements (eg, curcumin, omega-3 fatty acids, vitamin D) or their positive effects on the intestinal microbiome (eg, prebiotics, probiotics)...
March 2018: Gastroenterology Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29410981/diet-and-microbiota-linked-in-health-and-disease
#20
REVIEW
T Requena, M C Martínez-Cuesta, C Peláez
Diet has shaped microbiota profiles through human evolution. Traditional gut microbiomes are described to be driven by high levels of Prevotella. In the present, however, it is consistently described a lower microbial richness in urban industrialized populations compared with individuals living in rural settings, Bacteroides being predominant among urban-industrial gut microbiomes. Components of diet are highly influential in shaping the gut microbiota, being fiber, fat, proteins, polyphenols and micronutrients differentially metabolized by generalist and specialized microorganisms alone or through the phenomenon of cross-feeding...
February 21, 2018: Food & Function
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