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Microbiome prebiotics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912759/intestinal-dysbiosis-and-allogeneic-hematopoietic-progenitor-cell-transplantation
#1
REVIEW
Vikram M Raghunathan, Iris Sheng, Seah H Lim
The intestinal microbiota is a diverse and dynamic ecosystem that is increasingly understood to play a vital role in human health. Hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients undergo prolonged exposure to antimicrobials, chemotherapeutic agents, and immunosuppressants, resulting in profound shifts in the gut microbiome. A growing body of research has revealed the ways in which these microbiologic shifts shape immune modulation, affecting susceptibility to infections and graft-versus-host disease, the two major post-transplant complications in this population...
December 3, 2016: Journal of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910783/recent-advances-and-challenges-in-studies-of-control-of-cancer-stem-cells-and-the-gut-microbiome-by-the-trametes-derived-polysaccharopeptide-psp-review
#2
Joseph M Wu, Barbara B Doonan, Tze-Chen Hsieh, Qingyao Yang, Xiao-Tong Yang, Ming-Tat Ling
The medicinal mushroom Trametes versicolor has been well recognized for its activity in maintaining the general health of the population and in managing and treating human diseases in various cultures. Its use has been recently gaining acceptance and popularity in Western countries. The reported health benefits of T. versicolor led to a search for the identity of its bioactive ingredients. These efforts have resulted in the isolation of the polysaccharopeptide PSP from cultured mycelia of strain Cov-1, which expresses large amounts of PSP...
2016: International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893069/new-medical-and-surgical-insights-into-neonatal-necrotizing-enterocolitis-a-review
#3
Brandy L Frost, Biren P Modi, Tom Jaksic, Michael S Caplan
Importance: Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) has long remained a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in neonatal intensive care units. While the mainstay of treatment for this devastating condition remains largely supportive, research efforts continue to be directed toward understanding pathophysiology as well as how best to approach surgical management when indicated. Observations: In this review, we first examine recent medical observations, including overviews on the microbiome and a brief review of the use of probiotics...
November 21, 2016: JAMA Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892611/towards-a-bacterial-treatment-for-armpit-malodour
#4
Chris Callewaert, Jo Lambert, Tom Van de Wiele
Axillary malodour is a frustrating condition for many people. It can lead to significant discomforts and various psychological effects. The underarm microbiome generally plays a major role in axillary malodour formation. Not only the bacteria on the armpit epidermis, but especially those living in the sweat glands, sweat pores and hair follicles play a pivotal role in malodour development. In order to treat underarm malodour, this viewpoint paper envisions a bacterial treatment. Replacing the autochthonous malodour causing microbiome with a non-odour causing microbiome, through an armpit bacterial transplantation or direct application of probiotics/non-odour causing bacteria could resolve the condition...
November 28, 2016: Experimental Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872611/hypocholesterolemic-and-prebiotic-effects-of-a-whole-grain-oat-based-granola-breakfast-cereal-in-a-cardio-metabolic-at-risk-population
#5
Michael L Connolly, Xenofon Tzounis, Kieran M Tuohy, Julie A Lovegrove
Meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials (RTC) have confirmed the hypocholesterolaemic effect of oats and oat based fibers. However, the mechanisms by which oats or oat fractions lower cholesterol is not totally clear. Recognizing the important role of the gut microbiome in metabolism and metabolic disease risk, we examined the impact of whole grain oat Granola (WGO) on the human gut microbiota and cardio-metabolic risk factors using a randomized crossover dietary intervention in at risk individuals (ClinicalTrials...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864534/microbiome-and-nutrition-in-autism-spectrum-disorder-current-knowledge-and-research-needs
#6
Kirsten Berding, Sharon M Donovan
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is the fastest growing neurodevelopmental disorder in the United States. Besides genetic risks, environmental factors have been suggested to contribute to the increase in ASD diagnosis over the past decade. Several studies have reported abnormalities in microbiota composition and differences in microbial metabolites in children with ASD. Gastrointestinal discomfort is commonly reported in children with ASD. Additionally, food selectivity and picky eating patterns are commonly reported...
December 2016: Nutrition Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27808595/nutrition-and-the-gut-microbiome-in-the-elderly
#7
Nuria Salazar, Lorena Valdés-Varela, Sonia González, Miguel Gueimonde, Clara G de Los Reyes-Gavilán
The gut microbiota is the assembly of microorganisms living in our intestine and their genomes are known as the microbiome. The correct composition and functionality of this microbiome is essential for maintaining a "healthy status." Aging is related to changes in the gut microbiota which are frequently associated with physiological modifications of the gastrointestinal tract, as well as, to changes in dietary patterns, together with a concomitant decline in cognitive and immune function, all together contributing to frailty...
November 3, 2016: Gut Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27802157/gut-microbiome-and-liver-diseases
#8
REVIEW
Herbert Tilg, Patrice D Cani, Emeran A Mayer
The gut microbiota has recently evolved as a new important player in the pathophysiology of many intestinal and extraintestinal diseases. The liver is the organ which is in closest contact with the intestinal tract, and is exposed to a substantial amount of bacterial components and metabolites. Various liver disorders such as alcoholic liver disease, non-alcoholic liver disease and primary sclerosing cholangitis have been associated with an altered microbiome. This dysbiosis may influence the degree of hepatic steatosis, inflammation and fibrosis through multiple interactions with the host's immune system and other cell types...
October 8, 2016: Gut
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27795585/the-gut-microbiome-and-its-role-in-obesity
#9
Cindy D Davis
The human body is host to a vast number of microbes, including bacterial, fungal and protozoal microoganisms, which together constitute our microbiota. Evidence is emerging that the intestinal microbiome is intrinsically linked with overall health, including obesity risk. Obesity and obesity-related metabolic disorders are characterized by specific alterations in the composition and function of the human gut microbiome. Mechanistic studies have indicated that the gastrointestinal microbiota can influence both sides of the energy balance equation; namely, as a factor influencing energy utilization from the diet and as a factor that influences host genes that regulate energy expenditure and storage...
July 2016: Nutrition Today
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27793434/psychobiotics-and-the-manipulation-of-bacteria-gut-brain-signals
#10
REVIEW
Amar Sarkar, Soili M Lehto, Siobhán Harty, Timothy G Dinan, John F Cryan, Philip W J Burnet
Psychobiotics were previously defined as live bacteria (probiotics) which, when ingested, confer mental health benefits through interactions with commensal gut bacteria. We expand this definition to encompass prebiotics, which enhance the growth of beneficial gut bacteria. We review probiotic and prebiotic effects on emotional, cognitive, systemic, and neural variables relevant to health and disease. We discuss gut-brain signalling mechanisms enabling psychobiotic effects, such as metabolite production. Overall, knowledge of how the microbiome responds to exogenous influence remains limited...
November 2016: Trends in Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27793220/the-influence-of-prebiotics-on-neurobiology-and-behavior
#11
A C C Kao, S Harty, P W J Burnet
Manipulating the intestinal microbiota for the benefit of the brain is a concept that has become widely acknowledged. Prebiotics are nondigestible nutrients (i.e., fibers, carbohydrates, or various saccharides) that proliferate intrinsic, beneficial gut bacteria, and so provide an alternative strategy for effectively altering the enteric ecosystem, and thence brain function. Rodent studies demonstrating neurobiological changes following prebiotic intake are slowly emerging, and have thus far revealed significant benefits in disease models, including antiinflammatory and neuroprotective actions...
2016: International Review of Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27774001/the-significance-of-the-enteric-microbiome-on-the-development-of-childhood-disease-a-review-of-prebiotic-and-probiotic-therapies-in-disorders-of-childhood
#12
John Slattery, Derrick F MacFabe, Richard E Frye
Recent studies have highlighted the fact that the enteric microbiome, the trillions of microbes that inhabit the human digestive tract, has a significant effect on health and disease. Methods for manipulating the enteric microbiome, particularly through probiotics and microbial ecosystem transplantation, have undergone some study in clinical trials. We review some of the evidence for microbiome alteration in relation to childhood disease and discuss the clinical trials that have examined the manipulation of the microbiome in an effort to prevent or treat childhood disease with a primary focus on probiotics, prebiotics, and/or synbiotics (ie, probiotics + prebiotics)...
2016: Clinical Medicine Insights. Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27743467/therapeutic-modulation-of-the-gut-microbiota-in-ibd-more-questions-to-be-answered
#13
Yu Qi Qiao, Chen Wen Cai, Zhi Hua Ran
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients exhibit impaired control of the microbiome in the gut. "Dysbiosis" is commonly observed. A Western diet is a risk factor for the development of IBD but may have different effects on the gut microbiota in IBD and non-IBD individuals. Exclusive enteral nutrition (EEN) can induce remission in pediatric Crohn's disease (CD) with a decrease in gut microbiome diversity after EEN treatment. Although there are some theoretical benefits, the actual treatment effects of prebiotics and probiotics in IBD patients can vary...
October 15, 2016: Journal of Digestive Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27702710/fructans-in-the-first-1000-days-of-life-and-beyond-and-for-pregnancy
#14
Agus Firmansyah, Nalinee Chongviriyaphan, Drupadi Hs Dillon, Nguyen Cong Khan, Tatsuya Morita, Kraisid Tontisirin, Le Danh Tuyen, Weiping Wang, Jacques Bindels, Paul Deurenberg, Sherlin Ong, Jo Hautvast, Diederick Meyer, Elaine E Vaughan
Inulin-based prebiotics are non-digestible polysaccharides that influence the composition of the gut microbiota in infants and children, notably eliciting a bifidogenic effect with high short chain fatty acid levels. Inulin, a generic term that comprises β-(2,1)-linked linear fructans, is typically isolated from the chicory plant root, and derivatives such as oligofructose and long chain inulin appear to have different physiological properties. The first 1000 days of a child's life are increasingly recognized as a critical timeframe for health also into adulthood, whereby nutrition plays a key role...
December 2016: Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27697693/changes-in-the-oral-ecosystem-induced-by-the-use-of-8-arginine-toothpaste
#15
Jessica E Koopman, Michel A Hoogenkamp, Mark J Buijs, Bernd W Brandt, Bart J F Keijser, Wim Crielaard, Jacob M Ten Cate, Egija Zaura
OBJECTIVE: Bacterial metabolism of arginine in the oral cavity has a pH-raising and thus, potential anti-caries effect. However, the influence of arginine on the oral microbial ecosystem remains largely unresolved. DESIGN: In this pilot study, nine healthy individuals used toothpaste containing 8% arginine for eight weeks. Saliva was collected to determine arginolytic potential and sucrose metabolic activity at the Baseline, Week 4, Week 8 and after a two weeks Wash-out period...
January 2017: Archives of Oral Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27658624/oligomannan-prebiotic-attenuates-immunological-clinical-and-behavioral-symptoms-in-mouse-model-of-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#16
Szilamér Ferenczi, Krisztián Szegi, Zsuzsanna Winkler, Teréz Barna, Krisztina J Kovács
Inflammatory bowel disease shows increasing prevalence, however its pathomechanism and treatment is not fully resolved. Prebiotics are non-digestible carbohydrates which might provide an alternative to treat inflammatory conditions in the gut due to their positive effects either on the microbiome or through their direct effect on macrophages and mucosa. To test the protective effects of an oligomannan prebiotic, yeast cell wall mannooligosaccharide (MOS) was administered in dextran-sulphate-sodium (DSS)-induced mouse model of acute colitis...
2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27647578/exploring-hypotheses-and-rationale-for-causes-of-infantile-colic
#17
M Camilleri, S-Y Park, E Scarpato, A Staiano
BACKGROUND: Infantile colic is a frequent problem in neonates and infants. This review addresses current management including the results for nutrient modifications; soy-based formulas; and prebiotics, probiotics, and synbiotics. PURPOSE: Given the evidence that there is still an unmet clinical need, as current treatments are incompletely efficacious, we have examined the evidence around three hypothetical mechanisms that could potentially be involved in etiopathogenesis of infantile colic: immaturity of bile acid mechanisms that alter intraluminal and absorptive mechanisms, immaturity in motility and alterations in the microbiome...
September 20, 2016: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27633134/gut-microbiota-and-type-2-diabetes-mellitus
#18
Araceli Muñoz-Garach, Cristina Diaz-Perdigones, Francisco J Tinahones
In recent years, many studies have related gut microbiome to development of highly prevalent diseases such as type 2 diabetes and obesity. Obesity itself is associated to changes in the composition of gut microbiome, with a trend to an overgrowth of microorganisms more efficiently obtaining energy from diet. There are several mechanisms that relate microbiota to the onset of insulin resistance and diabetes, including changes in bowel permeability, endotoxemia, interaction with bile acids, changes in the proportion of brown adipose tissue, and effects associated to use of drugs like metformin...
December 2016: Endocrinología y Nutrición: órgano de la Sociedad Española de Endocrinología y Nutrición
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27612304/an-in-vitro-approach-to-study-effects-of-prebiotics-and-probiotics-on-the-faecal-microbiota-and-selected-immune-parameters-relevant-to-the-elderly
#19
Yue Liu, Glenn R Gibson, Gemma E Walton
The aging process leads to alterations of gut microbiota and modifications to the immune response, such changes may be associated with increased disease risk. Prebiotics and probiotics can modulate microbiome changes induced by aging; however, their effects have not been directly compared. The aim of this study was to use anaerobic batch culture fermenters to assess the impact of various fermentable carbohydrates and microorganisms on the gut microbiota and selected immune markers. Elderly volunteers were used as donors for these experiments to enable relevance to an aging population...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27583251/applications-of-in-ovo-technique-for-the-optimal-development-of-the-gastrointestinal-tract-and-the-potential-influence-on-the-establishment-of-its-microbiome-in-poultry
#20
REVIEW
Stephanie M Roto, Young Min Kwon, Steven C Ricke
As the current poultry production system stands, there is a period of time when newly hatched chicks are prevented from access to feed for approximately 48-72 h. Research has indicated that this delay in feeding may result in decreased growth performance when compared to chicks that are fed immediately post-hatch. To remedy this issue, in ovo methodology may be applied in order to supply the embryo with additional nutrients prior to hatching and those nutrients will continue to be utilized by the chick post-hatch during the fasting period...
2016: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
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