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Microbiome prebiotics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925886/the-microbiota-gut-brain-axis-in-neuropsychiatric-disorders-pathophysiological-mechanisms-and-novel-treatments
#1
Yong-Ku Kim, Cheolmin Shin
BACKGROUND: The human gut microbiome comprise a huge number of microorganisms with co-evolutionary associations with humans. It has been repeatedly revealed that bidirectional communication exists between the brain and the gut and involves neural, hormonal, and immunological pathways. Evidences from neuroscience researches over the past few years suggest that microbiota is essential for the development and maturation of brain systems that are associated to stress responses. METHOD: This review provides that the summarization of the communication among microbiota, gut and brain and the results of preclinical and clinical studies on gut microbiota used in treatments for neuropsychiatric disorders...
September 15, 2017: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924143/fructooligosaccharide-fos-and-galactooligosaccharide-gos-increase-bifidobacterium-but-reduce-butyrate-producing-bacteria-with-adverse-glycemic-metabolism-in-healthy-young-population
#2
Feitong Liu, Pan Li, Muxuan Chen, Yuemei Luo, M Prabhakar, Huimin Zheng, Yan He, Qi Qi, Haoyu Long, Yi Zhang, Huafang Sheng, Hongwei Zhou
The gut microbiota has been implicated in glucose intolerance and its progression towards type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Relevant randomized clinical trial with prebiotic intervention was inadequate. We sought to evaluate the impact of fructooligosaccharides (FOS) and galactooligosaccharides (GOS) on glycemia during oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and intestinal microbiota. A randomized double-blind cross-over study was performed with 35 adults treated with FOS and GOS for 14 days (16 g/day). Faeces sampling, OGTT and anthropometric parameters were performed...
September 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914862/-liver-diseases-the-pathogenetic-role-of-the-gut-microbiome-and-the-potential-of-treatment-for-its-modulation
#3
K A Aitbaev, I T Murkamilov, V V Fomin
The paper gives an update on the role of the gut microbiome (GM) in the development of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, alcoholic liver disease, liver cirrhosis (LC), and its complications, such as hepatic encephalopathy (HE) and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), and discusses the possibilities of its correction with prebiotics, probiotics, synbiotics, antibiotics, and fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT). The pathophysiology of the liver diseases in question demonstrates some common features that are characterized by pathogenic changes in the composition of the gastrointestinal tract microflora, by intestinal barrier impairments, by development of endotoxemia, by increased liver expression of proinflammatory factors, and by development of liver inflammation...
2017: Terapevticheskiĭ Arkhiv
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28885302/postinfection-irritable-bowel-syndrome-the-links-between-gastroenteritis-inflammation-the-microbiome-and-functional-disease
#4
Ian A Downs, Olga C Aroniadis, Libusha Kelly, Lawrence J Brandt
Postinfection irritable bowel syndrome (PI-IBS) is a diarrheal disease that develops after infectious gastroenteritis (IGE). Profound alterations in the microbiota accompany IGE yet only 10% of IGE patients progress to PI-IBS. This review explores research linking IGE severity, psychological comorbidity, PI-IBS, and the microbiome in various patient populations. Selective pressures caused by inflammation and increased gastrointestinal motility during gastroenteritis can alter intestinal bacterial phyla including Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes, and Proteobacteria...
September 6, 2017: Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882708/fermentation-properties-of-isomaltooligosaccharides-are-affected-by-human-fecal-enterotypes
#5
Qinqin Wu, Xiong'e Pi, Wei Liu, Huahai Chen, Yeshi Yin, Hongwei D Yu, Xin Wang, Liying Zhu
Isomaltooligosaccharides (IMOs) are enzymatically synthesized oligosaccharides that have potential prebiotic effects. Five IMO substrates with 2-16° of polymerization (DP) were studied for their fermentation capacities using human microbiomes in an in vitro batch fermentation model. Eleven fecal slurries belonging to three enterotypes, including the Bacteroides-, Prevotella- and Mixed-type, exhibited different degradation rates for long chain IMOs (DP 7 to 16). In contrast, the degradation rates for short chain IMOs (DP 2 to 6) were not affected by enterotypes...
September 4, 2017: Anaerobe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28880224/parenteral-nutrition-associated-liver-disease-the-role-of-the-gut-microbiota
#6
REVIEW
Monika Cahova, Miriam Bratova, Petr Wohl
Parenteral nutrition (PN) provides life-saving nutritional support in situations where caloric supply via the enteral route cannot cover the necessary needs of the organism. However, it does have serious adverse effects, including parenteral nutrition-associated liver disease (PNALD). The development of liver injury associated with PN is multifactorial, including non-specific intestine inflammation, compromised intestinal permeability, and barrier function associated with increased bacterial translocation, primary and secondary cholangitis, cholelithiasis, short bowel syndrome, disturbance of hepatobiliary circulation, lack of enteral nutrition, shortage of some nutrients (proteins, essential fatty acids, choline, glycine, taurine, carnitine, etc...
September 7, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28870713/dietary-pomegranate-extract-and-inulin-affect-gut-microbiome-differentially-in-mice-fed-an-obesogenic-diet
#7
Song Zhang, Jieping Yang, Susanne M Henning, Rupo Lee, Mark Hsu, Emma Grojean, Rita Pisegna, Austin Ly, David Heber, Zhaoping Li
Growing evidence suggests that dysbiosis of gut microbiota is associated with pathogenesis of a variety of human diseases. Using dietary intervention to shape the composition and metabolism of the gut microbiota is increasingly recognized. In the present study, we investigated the effects of polysaccharide inulin and polyphenol-rich pomegranate extract (PomX) alone or in combination on the cecal microbiota composition and function in a diet induced obesity mouse model. Male C57BL/6 mice were randomly divided into four experimental groups and consumed either high-fat/high-sucrose [HF/HS (32% energy from fat, 25% energy from sucrose, 17% energy from protein)] diet, HF/HS diet supplemented with PomX (0...
September 13, 2017: Anaerobe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28870194/a-yeast-fermentate-improves-gastrointestinal-discomfort-and-constipation-by-modulation-of-the-gut-microbiome-results-from-a-randomized-double-blind-placebo-controlled-pilot-trial
#8
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Iris Pinheiro, Larry Robinson, An Verhelst, Massimo Marzorati, Björn Winkens, Pieter Van den Abbeele, Sam Possemiers
BACKGROUND: Constipation and symptoms of gastrointestinal discomfort such as bloating are common among otherwise healthy individuals, but with significant impact on quality of life. Despite the recognized contribution of the gut microbiome to this pathology, little is known about which group(s) of microorganism(s) are playing a role. A previous study performed in vitro suggests that EpiCor® fermentate has prebiotic-like properties, being able to favorably modulate the composition of the gut microbiome...
September 4, 2017: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28866384/intestinal-microbiota-in-infants-at-high-risk-for-allergy-effects-of-prebiotics-and-role-in-eczema-development
#9
Harm Wopereis, Kathleen Sim, Alexander Shaw, John O Warner, Jan Knol, J Simon Kroll
BACKGROUND: The development of gut microbiota in infancy is important in the maturation of the immune system. Deviations in colonization patterns have been associated with allergic manifestations (e.g. eczema), but exact microbiome dysfunctions underlying allergies remain unclear. We studied the gut microbiota of 138 infants at increased risk of developing allergy, participating in a clinical trial investigating the effectiveness of a partially hydrolyzed protein formula supplemented with non-digestible oligosaccharides (pHF-OS) on the prevention of eczema...
August 30, 2017: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28865967/bugging-allergy-role-of-pre-pro-and-synbiotics-in-allergy-prevention
#10
REVIEW
Christina E West, Majda Dzidic, Susan L Prescott, Maria C Jenmalm
Large-scale biodiversity loss and complex changes in social behaviors are altering human microbial ecology. This is increasingly implicated in the global rise in inflammatory diseases, most notably the "allergy epidemic" in very early life. Colonization of human ecological niches, particularly the gastrointestinal tract, is critical for normal local and systemic immune development and regulation. Disturbances in composition, diversity and timing of microbial colonization have been associated with increased allergy risk, indicating the importance of strategies to restore a dysbiotic gut microbiota in the primary prevention of allergic diseases, including the administration of probiotics, prebiotics and synbiotics...
August 30, 2017: Allergology International: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Allergology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28842539/dietary-fibers-and-protective-lactobacilli-drive-burrata-cheese-microbiome
#11
Fabio Minervini, Amalia Conte, Matteo Alessandro Del Nobile, Marco Gobbetti, Maria De Angelis
This study aimed at improving the functional attributes and shelf-life of burrata cheese by using protective lactobacilli (Lactobacillus plantarum LPAL and Lactobacillus rhamnosus LRB), fructoligosaccharides and inulin. Six burrata cheeses were made by using: i) the traditional protocol (control); ii) addition of 0.5% fructoligosaccharides and inulin (DF cheese); iii) protective lactobacilli in milk alone (PL cheese); iv) protective lactobacilli in milk and governing liquid (2PL cheese); v) protective lactobacilli in milk and dietary fibers (DF_PL cheese); and vi) protective lactobacilli in milk, governing liquid and dietary fibers (DF_2PL cheeses)...
August 25, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28837669/comparison-of-antibiotic-supplementation-versus-a-yeast-based-prebiotic-on-the-cecal-microbiome-of-commercial-broilers
#12
Si Hong Park, Sang In Lee, Sun Ae Kim, Karen Christensen, Steven C Ricke
Prebiotics are defined as fermentable food ingredients that selectively stimulate beneficial bacteria in the lower gastrointestinal tract of the host. The purpose of this study was to assess growth performance of broilers and the cecal microbial populations of an antibiotic, BMD50, supplemented birds compared to broiler chickens fed the prebiotic, Biolex® MB40. Weight response data including feed conversion ratios (FCR), carcasses without giblets (WOG), wing, skin, white meat were collected during processing...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791292/the-role-of-supplemental-complex-dietary-carbohydrates-and-gut-microbiota-in-promoting-cardiometabolic-and-immunological-health-in-obesity-lessons-from-healthy-non-obese-individuals
#13
REVIEW
Petra C Vinke, Sahar El Aidy, Gertjan van Dijk
Dietary supplementation with complex carbohydrates is known to alter the composition of gut microbiota, and optimal implementation of the use of these so called "prebiotics" could be of great potential in prevention and possibly treatment of obesity and associated cardiometabolic and inflammatory diseases via changes in the gut microbiota. An alternative to this "microbiocentric view" is the idea that health-promoting effects of certain complex carbohydrates reside in the host, and could secondarily affect the diversity and abundance of gut microbiota...
2017: Frontiers in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774885/prebiotic-galacto-oligosaccharides-mitigate-the-adverse-effects-of-iron-fortification-on-the-gut-microbiome-a-randomised-controlled-study-in-kenyan-infants
#14
Daniela Paganini, Mary A Uyoga, Guus A M Kortman, Colin I Cercamondi, Diego Moretti, Tanja Barth-Jaeggi, Clarissa Schwab, Jos Boekhorst, Harro M Timmerman, Christophe Lacroix, Simon Karanja, Michael B Zimmermann
OBJECTIVE: Iron-containing micronutrient powders (MNPs) reduce anaemia in African infants, but the current high iron dose (12.5 mg/day) may decrease gut Bifidobacteriaceae and Lactobacillaceae, and increase enteropathogens, diarrhoea and respiratory tract infections (RTIs). We evaluated the efficacy and safety of a new MNP formula with prebiotic galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS) combined with a low dose (5 mg/day) of highly bioavailable iron. DESIGN: In a 4-month, controlled, double-blind trial, we randomised Kenyan infants aged 6...
August 3, 2017: Gut
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28753805/the-urinary-tract-microbiome-in-health-and-disease
#15
REVIEW
Isabel M Aragón, Bernardo Herrera-Imbroda, María I Queipo-Ortuño, Elisabeth Castillo, Julia Sequeira-García Del Moral, Jaime Gómez-Millán, Gozde Yucel, María F Lara
CONTEXT: The urinary tract, previously considered a sterile body niche, has emerged as the host of an array of bacteria in healthy individuals, revolutionizing the urology research field. OBJECTIVE: To review the literature on microbiome implications in the urinary tract and the usefulness of probiotics/prebiotics and diet as treatment for urologic disorders. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: A systematic review was conducted using PubMed and Medline from inception until July 2016...
November 14, 2016: European Urology Focus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737484/the-effect-of-fiber-and-prebiotics-on-children-s-gastrointestinal-disorders-and-microbiome
#16
Carrie A M Wegh, Margriet H C Schoterman, Elaine E Vaughan, Clara Belzer, Marc A Benninga
The bacteria received upon birth are the start of colonization of the approximately 10(14) bacteria that are present in the mature human gastrointestinal tract, better known as the microbiota. The gut microbiota is implicated in gastrointestinal health, nutrient metabolism and benefits such as prevention of infection. Dietary fiber, including prebiotics, escape digestion in the small intestine and reach the colon intact, where they are partially or completely fermented by the gut microbiota. Areas covered: The possible interactions between dietary fiber, prebiotics and microbiota are discussed as well as how this relates to functional gastrointestinal disorders...
July 24, 2017: Expert Review of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726511/how-do-probiotics-and-prebiotics-function-at-distant-sites
#17
G Reid, T Abrahamsson, M Bailey, L B Bindels, R Bubnov, K Ganguli, C Martoni, C O'Neill, H M Savignac, C Stanton, N Ship, M Surette, K Tuohy, S van Hemert
The realisation that microbes regarded as beneficial to the host can impart effects at sites distant from their habitat, has raised many possibilities for treatment of diseases. The objective of a workshop hosted in Turku, Finland, by the International Scientific Association for Probiotics and Prebiotics, was to assess the evidence for these effects and the extent to which early life microbiome programming influences how the gut microbiota communicates with distant sites. In addition, we examined how probiotics and prebiotics might affect the skin, airways, heart, brain and metabolism...
August 24, 2017: Beneficial Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720399/prenatal-and-postnatal-administration-of-prebiotics-and-probiotics
#18
REVIEW
Kristin Sohn, Mark A Underwood
Colonization of the neonatal gut by beneficial bacteria is important for the establishment and maintenance of the mucosal barrier, thus protecting the neonate from enteric pathogens and local and systemic inflammation. The neonatal microbiome is influenced by infant diet, environment, and the maternal microbiome. Dysbiosis in pregnancy increases the risk of pre-eclampsia, diabetes, infection, preterm labor, and later childhood atopy. Dysbiosis of the neonatal gut plays an important role in colic in the term infant, in the disease processes which plague preterm infants, including necrotizing enterocolitis and sepsis, and in the long-term outcomes of neonates...
October 2017: Seminars in Fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710145/a-systematic-review-of-the-effects-of-polyols-on-gastrointestinal-health-and-irritable-bowel-syndrome
#19
REVIEW
Adrienne Lenhart, William D Chey
Polyols are sugar alcohols found in certain fruits, vegetables, and sugar-free sweeteners. They make up a component of the diet low in fermentable oligosaccharides, disaccharides, monosaccharides, and polyols, which is gaining popularity in the treatment of patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). We conducted a systematic review to evaluate the effects of polyols on the gastrointestinal tract in healthy men and women and in patients with IBS. Utilizing PubMed, Ovid, and Embase databases, we conducted a search on individual polyols and each of these terms: fermentation, absorption, motility, permeability, and gastrointestinal symptoms...
July 2017: Advances in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701177/longitudinal-development-of-the-gut-microbiome-and-metabolome-in-preterm-neonates-with-late-onset-sepsis-and-healthy-controls
#20
Christopher J Stewart, Nicholas D Embleton, Emma C L Marrs, Daniel P Smith, Tatiana Fofanova, Andrew Nelson, Tom Skeath, John D Perry, Joseph F Petrosino, Janet E Berrington, Stephen P Cummings
BACKGROUND: Late onset sepsis (LOS) in preterm infants is associated with considerable morbidity and mortality. While studies have implicated gut bacteria in the aetiology of the disease, functional analysis and mechanistic insights are generally lacking. We performed temporal bacterial (n = 613) and metabolomic (n = 63) profiling on extensively sampled stool from 7 infants with LOS and 28 matched healthy (no LOS or NEC) controls. RESULTS: The bacteria isolated in diagnostic blood culture usually corresponded to the dominant bacterial genera in the gut microbiome...
July 12, 2017: Microbiome
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