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Microbiome prebiotics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153882/identification-of-probiotic-effector-molecules-present-state-and-future-perspectives
#1
REVIEW
Sarah Lebeer, Peter A Bron, Maria L Marco, Jan-Peter Van Pijkeren, Mary O'Connell Motherway, Colin Hill, Bruno Pot, Stefan Roos, Todd Klaenhammer
Comprehension of underlying mechanisms of probiotic action will support rationale selection of probiotic strains and targeted clinical study design with a higher likelihood of success. This will consequently contribute to better substantiation of health claims. Here, we aim to provide a perspective from a microbiology point of view that such comprehensive understanding is not straightforward. We show examples of well-documented probiotic effector molecules in Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium strains, including surface-located molecules such as specific pili, S-layer proteins, exopolysaccharides, muropeptides, as well as more widely produced metabolites such as tryptophan-related and histamine-related metabolites, CpG-rich DNA, and various enzymes such as lactase and bile salt hydrolases...
November 15, 2017: Current Opinion in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151980/synbiotic-effects-of-%C3%AE-glucans-from-cauliflower-mushroom-and-lactobacillus-fermentum-on-metabolic-changes-and-gut-microbiome-in-estrogen-deficient-rats
#2
Seong-Yeop Jeong, Suna Kang, Cao Shi Hua, Zhang Ting, Sunmin Park
Background: We investigated whether the long-term consumption of a symbiotic formulation with Lactobacillus fermentum (probiotic) and β-glucan from cauliflower mushroom (prebiotic) would delay the progression of post-menopausal symptoms in ovariectomized (OVX) rats and explored their mechanisms of action, including changes in gut microbiota. Methods: OVX rats were fed with high-fat diets containing 1% dextrin (control), 1% lyophilized cauliflower mushroom extract (CFM), 0...
2017: Genes & Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124056/microbial-therapeutics-designed-for-infant-health
#3
REVIEW
Claire Watkins, Catherine Stanton, C Anthony Ryan, R Paul Ross
Acknowledgment of the gut microbiome as a vital asset to health has led to multiple studies attempting to elucidate its mechanisms of action. During the first year of life, many factors can cause fluctuation in the developing gut microbiome. Host genetics, maternal health status, mode of delivery, gestational age, feeding regime, and perinatal antibiotic usage, are known factors which can influence the development of the infant gut microbiome. Thus, the microbiome of vaginally born, exclusively breastfed infants at term, with no previous exposure to antibiotics, either directly or indirectly from the mother, is to be considered the "gold standard...
2017: Frontiers in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101657/prebiotics-and-bone
#4
Corrie M Whisner, Connie M Weaver
Recent advancements in food science have resulted in the extraction and synthesis of novel dietary fibers or prebiotics. Subsequently, great interest has emerged in developing strategies to improve metabolic conditions like osteoporosis by modulating the intestinal microbiome with fiber. Prebiotics have been shown to increase calcium absorption in the lower gut of both animals and humans as well as improve measures of bone mineral density and strength in rodent models. Fewer data are available in humans, but data from growing children and postmenopausal women suggest that prebiotics have both short- and long-term effects that beneficially affect bone turnover and mineral accretion in the skeleton...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29070552/effects-of-iron-fortification-and-supplementation-on-the-gut-microbiome-and-diarrhea-in-infants-and-children-a-review
#5
REVIEW
Daniela Paganini, Michael B Zimmermann
In infants and young children in Sub-Saharan Africa, iron-deficiency anemia (IDA) is common, and many complementary foods are low in bioavailable iron. In-home fortification of complementary foods using iron-containing micronutrient powders (MNPs) and oral iron supplementation are both effective strategies to increase iron intakes and reduce IDA at this age. However, these interventions produce large increases in colonic iron because the absorption of their high iron dose (≥12.5 mg) is typically <20%. We reviewed studies in infants and young children on the effects of iron supplements and iron fortification with MNPs on the gut microbiome and diarrhea...
October 25, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29068034/characterization-of-fecal-fat-composition-and-gut-derived-fecal-microbiota-in-high-fat-diet-fed-rats-following-intervention-with-chito-oligosaccharide-and-resistant-starch-complexes
#6
Wenting Shang, Xu Si, Zhongkai Zhou, Ying Li, Padraig Strappe, Chris Blanchard
The current study analyzed the different effects of intervention in high-fat diet fed rats using chito-oligosaccharides (CO group), resistant starch (RS group) and their complexes (CO-RS group), respectively. Properties such as fecal fat composition, gut derived fecal microbiota and fecal metabolites were investigated. The results show that supplementation with CO-RS in the high-fat diet led to the highest level of fecal fat excretion, followed by the CO and RS groups, and its fatty acid composition was characterized by a lower ∑UFA and higher ∑SFA levels...
October 25, 2017: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045252/altered-gut-microbiome-composition-in-hiv-infection-causes-effects-and-potential-intervention
#7
Alessandra Bandera, Ilaria De Benedetto, Giorgio Bozzi, Andrea Gori
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Aim of this review is to summarize the alterations occurring in gut microbiome composition after HIV infection, and to underline how intestinal dysbiosis can affect immune homeostasis, immune recovery, and persisting immune activation under antiretroviral therapy (ART). Many interventions have been suggested, mostly with inconclusive results. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent evidence showed that gut microbiota from HIV-infected patients harbor reproducible differences compared to uninfected individuals...
October 17, 2017: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040820/systematic-review-of-the-effect-of-enteral-feeding-on-gut-microbiota-in-preterm-infants
#8
Wanli Xu, Michelle Judge, Kendra Maas, Naveed Hussain, Jacqueline M McGrath, Wendy A Henderson, Xiaomei Cong
OBJECTIVE: To examine the effect of feeding type on microbial patterns among preterm infants and to identify feeding factors that promote the colonization of beneficial bacteria. DATA SOURCES: PubMed, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Scopus, and the Cummulative Index of Nursing and Allied Health Literature were thoroughly searched for articles published between January 2000 and January 2017, using the keywords gut microbiome, gut microbiota, enteral microbiome, enteral microbiota, premature infant, preterm infant, extremely low birth weight infant, ELBW infant, very low birth weight infant, feeding, breast milk, breastfeeding, formula, prebiotic, probiotic, and long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid...
October 14, 2017: Journal of Obstetric, Gynecologic, and Neonatal Nursing: JOGNN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035948/hiv-and-aging-role-of-the-microbiome
#9
Seema N Desai, Alan L Landay
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this article is to review age-associated alterations in microbiota composition, diversity and functional features in context of immune senescence, chronic inflammation and comorbidities associated with HIV infection. The overall goal is to assess whether modulating the microbiome will likely improve resilience of the immune system and augment return to health. RECENT FINDINGS: Alteration in the gut microbiota composition diversity and function occur in HIV and aging...
October 14, 2017: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018933/from-osteoimmunology-to-osteomicrobiology-how-the-microbiota-and-the-immune-system-regulate-bone
#10
REVIEW
Emory Hsu, Roberto Pacifici
Osteomicrobiology refers to the role of microbiota in bone health and the mechanisms by which the microbiota regulates post-natal skeletal development, bone aging, and pathologic bone loss. Here, we review recent reports linking gut microbiota to changes in bone phenotype. A pro-inflammatory cytokine milieu drives bone resorption in conditions such as sex steroid hormone deficiency. The response of the immune system to activation by the microbiome results in increased circulating osteoclastogenic cytokines in a T cell-dependent mechanism...
October 10, 2017: Calcified Tissue International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28987073/human-microbiome-as-an-approach-to-personalized-medicine
#11
Hanieh-Sadat Ejtahed, Shirin Hasani-Ranjbar, Bagher Larijani
Personalized medicine is an approach for medical decisions, practices, and interventions that considers individual variations in genes, environment, and lifestyle for each person. Regarding complex metabolic patterns associated with different diseases, characterizing unique metabolic patterns of each patient seems like a practical approach. We can imagine a future in which routinely analyzing the microbiome allows us to predict individualized responses to different foods and drugs. Microbiome analysis of individuals may be added to future routine personalized medicine protocols after comparing the costs and benefits of microbiome-sequencing technology...
October 2, 2017: Alternative Therapies in Health and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28983453/remote-sensing-between-liver-and-intestine-importance-of-microbial-metabolites
#12
Zidong Donna Fu, Julia Yue Cui
Recent technological advancements including metagenomics sequencing and metabolomics have allowed the discovery of critical functions of gut microbiota in obesity, malnutrition, neurological disorders, asthma, and xenobiotic metabolism. Classification of the human gut microbiome into distinct "enterotypes" has been proposed to serve as a new paradigm for understanding the interplay between microbial variation and human disease phenotypes, as many organs are affected by gut microbiota modifications during the pathogenesis of diseases...
June 2017: Current Pharmacology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28977605/hydrogen-sulfide-and-sulfate-prebiotic-stimulates-the-secretion-of-glp-1-and-improves-glycemia-in-male-mice
#13
Jennifer Pichette, Nancy Fynn-Sackey, Jeffrey Gagnon
Recently, the gastrointestinal microbiome, and its metabolites, has emerged as a potential regulator of host metabolism. However, to date little is known on the precise mechanisms of how this regulation occurs. Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is abundantly produced in the colon by sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB). H2S is a bioactive gas that plays regulatory roles in many systems, including metabolic hormone regulation. This gas metabolite is produced in close proximity to the glucagonlike peptide-1 (GLP-1)-secreting cells in the gut epithelium...
October 1, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28976925/prebiotics-mediate-microbial-interactions-in-a-consortium-of-the-infant-gut-microbiome
#14
Daniel A Medina, Francisco Pinto, Aline Ovalle, Pamela Thomson, Daniel Garrido
Composition of the gut microbiome is influenced by diet. Milk or formula oligosaccharides act as prebiotics, bioactives that promote the growth of beneficial gut microbes. The influence of prebiotics on microbial interactions is not well understood. Here we investigated the transformation of prebiotics by a consortium of four representative species of the infant gut microbiome, and how their interactions changed with dietary substrates. First, we optimized a culture medium resembling certain infant gut parameters...
October 4, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28976454/the-gut-and-its-microbiome-as-related-to-central-nervous-system-functioning-and-psychological-well-being-introduction-to-the-special-issue-of-psychosomatic-medicine
#15
Emeran A Mayer, Elaine Y Hsiao
Accumulating evidence indicates bidirectional associations between the brain and the gut microbiome with both top-down and bottom-up processes. This article describes new developments in brain-gut interactions as an introduction to a special issue of Psychosomatic Medicine, based on a joint symposium of the American Psychosomatic Society and the American Gastroenterological Association. Literature review articles indicate that several psychiatric disorders are associated with altered gut microbiota, whereas evidence linking functional gastrointestinal disorders and dysbiosis has not been firmly established...
October 2017: Psychosomatic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936943/modulation-of-the-gastrointestinal-microbiome-with-nondigestible-fermentable-carbohydrates-to-improve-human-health
#16
Edward C Deehan, Rebbeca M Duar, Anissa M Armet, Maria Elisa Perez-Muñoz, Mingliang Jin, Jens Walter
There is a clear association between the gastrointestinal (GI) microbiome and the development of chronic noncommunicable diseases, providing a rationale for the development of strategies that target the GI microbiota to improve human health. In this article, we discuss the potential of supplementing the human diet with nondigestible fermentable carbohydrates (NDFCs) to modulate the composition, structure, diversity, and metabolic potential of the GI microbiome in an attempt to prevent or treat human disease...
September 2017: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936406/gut-microbiome-based-therapeutics-in-liver-cirrhosis-basic-consideration-for-the-next-step
#17
REVIEW
Hiroshi Fukui
Infections account for significant morbidity and mortality in liver cirrhosis and most are related to the gut microbiome. Fecal dysbiosis, characterized by an overgrowth of potentially pathogenic bacteria and a decrease in autochthonous non-pathogenic bacteria, becomes prominent with the progression of liver cirrhosis. In cirrhotic patients, disruption of the intestinal barrier causes intestinal hyperpermeability (i.e. leaky gut), which is closely related to gut dysmotility, dysbiosis and small intestinal bacterial overgrowth and may induce pathological bacterial translocation...
September 28, 2017: Journal of Clinical and Translational Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925886/the-microbiota-gut-brain-axis-in-neuropsychiatric-disorders-pathophysiological-mechanisms-and-novel-treatments
#18
Yong-Ku Kim, Cheolmin Shin
BACKGROUND: The human gut microbiome comprise a huge number of microorganisms with co-evolutionary associations with humans. It has been repeatedly revealed that bidirectional communication exists between the brain and the gut and involves neural, hormonal, and immunological pathways. Evidences from neuroscience researches over the past few years suggest that microbiota is essential for the development and maturation of brain systems that are associated to stress responses. METHOD: This review provides that the summarization of the communication among microbiota, gut and brain and the results of preclinical and clinical studies on gut microbiota used in treatments for neuropsychiatric disorders...
September 15, 2017: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924143/fructooligosaccharide-fos-and-galactooligosaccharide-gos-increase-bifidobacterium-but-reduce-butyrate-producing-bacteria-with-adverse-glycemic-metabolism-in-healthy-young-population
#19
Feitong Liu, Pan Li, Muxuan Chen, Yuemei Luo, M Prabhakar, Huimin Zheng, Yan He, Qi Qi, Haoyu Long, Yi Zhang, Huafang Sheng, Hongwei Zhou
The gut microbiota has been implicated in glucose intolerance and its progression towards type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Relevant randomized clinical trial with prebiotic intervention was inadequate. We sought to evaluate the impact of fructooligosaccharides (FOS) and galactooligosaccharides (GOS) on glycemia during oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and intestinal microbiota. A randomized double-blind cross-over study was performed with 35 adults treated with FOS and GOS for 14 days (16 g/day). Faeces sampling, OGTT and anthropometric parameters were performed...
September 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914862/-liver-diseases-the-pathogenetic-role-of-the-gut-microbiome-and-the-potential-of-treatment-for-its-modulation
#20
K A Aitbaev, I T Murkamilov, V V Fomin
The paper gives an update on the role of the gut microbiome (GM) in the development of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, alcoholic liver disease, liver cirrhosis (LC), and its complications, such as hepatic encephalopathy (HE) and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), and discusses the possibilities of its correction with prebiotics, probiotics, synbiotics, antibiotics, and fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT). The pathophysiology of the liver diseases in question demonstrates some common features that are characterized by pathogenic changes in the composition of the gastrointestinal tract microflora, by intestinal barrier impairments, by development of endotoxemia, by increased liver expression of proinflammatory factors, and by development of liver inflammation...
2017: Terapevticheskiĭ Arkhiv
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