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Microbiome probiotics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134436/common-cutaneous-bacteria-isolated-from-snakes-inhibit-growth-of-ophidiomyces-ophiodiicola
#1
Aubree J Hill, Jacob E Leys, Danny Bryan, Fantasia M Erdman, Katherine S Malone, Gabrielle N Russell, Roger D Applegate, Heather Fenton, Kevin Niedringhaus, Andrew N Miller, Matthew C Allender, Donald M Walker
There is increasing concern regarding potential impacts of snake fungal disease (SFD), caused by Ophidiomyces ophiodiicola (Oo), on free-ranging snake populations in the eastern USA. The snake cutaneous microbiome likely serves as the first line of defense against Oo and other pathogens; however, little is known about microbial associations in snakes. The objective of this study was to better define the composition and immune function of the snake cutaneous microbiome. Eight timber rattlesnakes (Crotalus horridus) and four black racers (Coluber constrictor) were captured in Arkansas and Tennessee, with some snakes exhibiting signs of SFD...
November 13, 2017: EcoHealth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132532/emerging-topics-in-gastroenterology
#2
REVIEW
Gretchen Irwin, Laura Mayans, Rick Kellerman
The bacteria and fungi in the human gut make up a community of microorganisms that lives in symbiosis with humans, engaging in numerous diverse interactions that influence health. This article outlines the current knowledge on emerging topics in gastroenterology, including microbiome and probiotics, fecal microbiota transplantation, cyclic vomiting syndrome, eosinophilic esophagitis, and microscopic colitis.
December 2017: Primary Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124129/subtle-microbiome-manipulation-using-probiotics-reduces-antibiotic-associated-mortality-in-fish
#3
Victor Schmidt, Marta Gomez-Chiarri, Chelsea Roy, Katherine Smith, Linda Amaral-Zettler
Prophylactic antibiotics in the aquaculture and ornamental fish industry are intended to prevent the negative impacts of disease outbreaks. Research in mice and humans suggests that antibiotics may disturb microbiome communities and decrease microbiome-mediated disease resistance, also known as "colonization resistance." If antibiotics impact fish as they do mice and humans, prophylactic administrations on aquaculture farms may increase downstream disease susceptibility in target hosts, despite short-term pathogen control benefits...
November 2017: MSystems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124056/microbial-therapeutics-designed-for-infant-health
#4
REVIEW
Claire Watkins, Catherine Stanton, C Anthony Ryan, R Paul Ross
Acknowledgment of the gut microbiome as a vital asset to health has led to multiple studies attempting to elucidate its mechanisms of action. During the first year of life, many factors can cause fluctuation in the developing gut microbiome. Host genetics, maternal health status, mode of delivery, gestational age, feeding regime, and perinatal antibiotic usage, are known factors which can influence the development of the infant gut microbiome. Thus, the microbiome of vaginally born, exclusively breastfed infants at term, with no previous exposure to antibiotics, either directly or indirectly from the mother, is to be considered the "gold standard...
2017: Frontiers in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119101/effect-of-dual-infection-with-eimeria-tenella-and-subgroup-j-avian-leukosis-virus-on-the-cecal-microbiome-in-specific-pathogen-free-chicks
#5
Ning Cui, Xiuzhen Wang, Qi Wang, Hongmei Li, Fangkun Wang, Xiaomin Zhao
Understanding gut microflora alterations associated with gut parasites and other pathogens that drive these alterations may help to promote the understanding of intestinal flora's role in multiple-infected individuals. This study examined the effects of dual infection with Eimeria tenella and subgroup J avian leukosis virus (ALV-J) on the chick cecal microbiome. Specific-pathogen-free (SPF) chicks were infected with either ALV-J strain NX0101 at 1 day of age or E. tenella at 14 days of age, another group was infected with both pathogens...
2017: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112157/vitamin-d-axis-in-inflammatory-bowel-diseases-role-current-uses-and-future-perspectives
#6
REVIEW
Rita Del Pinto, Claudio Ferri, Fabio Cominelli
Increasing evidence supports the concept that the vitamin D axis possesses immunoregulatory functions, with vitamin D receptor (VDR) status representing the major determinant of vitamin D's pleiotropic effects. Vitamin D promotes the production of anti-microbial peptides, including β-defensins and cathelicidins, the shift towards Th2 immune responses, and regulates autophagy and epithelial barrier integrity. Impairment of vitamin D-mediated pathways are associated with chronic inflammatory conditions, including inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD)...
November 7, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29094115/lactobacillus-plantarum-hnu082-derived-improvements-in-the-intestinal-microbiome-prevent-the-development-of-hyperlipidaemia
#7
Yuyu Shao, Dongxue Huo, Qiannan Peng, Yuyang Pan, Shuaiming Jiang, Bin Liu, Jiachao Zhang
Restricted by research techniques, the probiotic-derived changes in the microbiome and microbial metabolites correlated with the potential prevention of hyperlipidaemia have remained undiscovered. In the present research, a metagenomic approach was applied to describe Lactobacillus plantarum HNU082 consumption-derived changes in the intestinal microbiome and their correlation with the occurrence and development of hyperlipidaemia. Principal coordinate analysis based on UniFrac distances indicated that the intestinal microbiota was profoundly altered in the hyperlipidaemia group, and probiotic consumption regulated the bias in the intestinal microbial structure in hyperlipidaemia...
November 2, 2017: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29083037/review-article-the-gut-microbiome-as-a-therapeutic-target-in-the-pathogenesis-and-treatment-of-chronic-liver-disease
#8
REVIEW
C A Woodhouse, V C Patel, A Singanayagam, D L Shawcross
BACKGROUND: Mortality from chronic liver disease is rising exponentially. The liver is intimately linked to the gut via the portal vein, and exposure to gut microbiota and their metabolites translocating across the gut lumen may impact upon both the healthy and diseased liver. Modulation of gut microbiota could prove to be a potential therapeutic target. AIM: To characterise the changes in the gut microbiome that occur in chronic liver disease and to assess the impact of manipulation of the microbiome on the liver...
October 30, 2017: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29061847/discovery-of-%C3%AE-l-arabinopyranosidases-from-human-gut-microbiome-expands-the-diversity-within-glycoside-hydrolase-family-42
#9
Alexander Holm Viborg, Takane Katayama, Takatoshi Arakawa, Maher Abou Hachem, Leila Lo Leggio, Motomitsu Kitaoka, Birte Svensson, Shinya Fushinobu
Enzymes of the glycoside hydrolase family 42 (GH42) are widespread in bacteria of the human gut microbiome and play fundamental roles in the decomposition of both milk and plant oligosaccharides. All GH42 enzymes characterized so far have β-galactosidase activity. Here, we report the existence of a GH42 subfamily that is exclusively specific for α-L-arabinopyranoside and describe the first representative of this subfamily. We found that this enzyme (BlArap42B) from a probiotic Bifidobacterium species cannot hydrolyze β-galactosides...
October 23, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045252/altered-gut-microbiome-composition-in-hiv-infection-causes-effects-and-potential-intervention
#10
Alessandra Bandera, Ilaria De Benedetto, Giorgio Bozzi, Andrea Gori
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Aim of this review is to summarize the alterations occurring in gut microbiome composition after HIV infection, and to underline how intestinal dysbiosis can affect immune homeostasis, immune recovery, and persisting immune activation under antiretroviral therapy (ART). Many interventions have been suggested, mostly with inconclusive results. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent evidence showed that gut microbiota from HIV-infected patients harbor reproducible differences compared to uninfected individuals...
October 17, 2017: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040820/systematic-review-of-the-effect-of-enteral-feeding-on-gut-microbiota-in-preterm-infants
#11
Wanli Xu, Michelle Judge, Kendra Maas, Naveed Hussain, Jacqueline M McGrath, Wendy A Henderson, Xiaomei Cong
OBJECTIVE: To examine the effect of feeding type on microbial patterns among preterm infants and to identify feeding factors that promote the colonization of beneficial bacteria. DATA SOURCES: PubMed, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Scopus, and the Cummulative Index of Nursing and Allied Health Literature were thoroughly searched for articles published between January 2000 and January 2017, using the keywords gut microbiome, gut microbiota, enteral microbiome, enteral microbiota, premature infant, preterm infant, extremely low birth weight infant, ELBW infant, very low birth weight infant, feeding, breast milk, breastfeeding, formula, prebiotic, probiotic, and long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid...
October 14, 2017: Journal of Obstetric, Gynecologic, and Neonatal Nursing: JOGNN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038560/safety-assessment-of-antibiotic-and-probiotic-feed-additives-for-gallus-gallus-domesticus
#12
D P Neveling, L van Emmenes, J J Ahire, E Pieterse, C Smith, L M T Dicks
Antibiotics in feed select for resistant strains and is thus a threat to human health. In this study, the effect of a multi-strain probiotic and antibiotics on the growth and health of broilers was studied. Equal numbers of broilers received on a daily basis either a multi-strain probiotic or a combination of sulphadiazine, colistin and trimethoprim, whereas the control group received standard feed. The villi of immature broilers (19 days old) administered antibiotics had a larger surface area and their lymphocyte and basophil counts were higher compared to broilers from the probiotic and control groups...
October 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035948/hiv-and-aging-role-of-the-microbiome
#13
Seema N Desai, Alan L Landay
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this article is to review age-associated alterations in microbiota composition, diversity and functional features in context of immune senescence, chronic inflammation and comorbidities associated with HIV infection. The overall goal is to assess whether modulating the microbiome will likely improve resilience of the immune system and augment return to health. RECENT FINDINGS: Alteration in the gut microbiota composition diversity and function occur in HIV and aging...
October 14, 2017: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029663/demystifying-probiotics-use-in-the-elderly
#14
Caren McHenry Martin, Gianna Bryan
Pharmacists and other health care professionals can be perplexed by the growing body of literature regarding the use of probiotics for a variety of symptoms and conditions and by an increasing number of probiotic products available to consumers. Understanding the functions of the intestinal microbiome, the possible mechanisms of actions of probiotics, the research supporting or refuting probiotic use, and criteria for selecting a probiotic product is essential to making a rational recommendation for patients...
August 1, 2017: Consultant Pharmacist: the Journal of the American Society of Consultant Pharmacists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022388/our-gut-microbiota-a-long-walk-to-homeostasis
#15
L M T Dicks, J Geldenhuys, L S Mikkelsen, E Brandsborg, H Marcotte
The microbiome of the human gastrointestinal tract (GIT) consists of billions of bacteria, fungi and viruses, of which bacteria play the most important role in nutrition, immune development, production of vitamins and maintaining a well-balanced (homeostatic) microbial population. Many papers have been published on the microbiota in the human GIT, but little is known about the first group of bacteria that colonises an infant. The intestinal tract of an unborn is, despite general belief, not sterile, but contains bacteria that have been transferred from the mother...
October 12, 2017: Beneficial Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018933/from-osteoimmunology-to-osteomicrobiology-how-the-microbiota-and-the-immune-system-regulate-bone
#16
REVIEW
Emory Hsu, Roberto Pacifici
Osteomicrobiology refers to the role of microbiota in bone health and the mechanisms by which the microbiota regulates post-natal skeletal development, bone aging, and pathologic bone loss. Here, we review recent reports linking gut microbiota to changes in bone phenotype. A pro-inflammatory cytokine milieu drives bone resorption in conditions such as sex steroid hormone deficiency. The response of the immune system to activation by the microbiome results in increased circulating osteoclastogenic cytokines in a T cell-dependent mechanism...
October 10, 2017: Calcified Tissue International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28987073/human-microbiome-as-an-approach-to-personalized-medicine
#17
Hanieh-Sadat Ejtahed, Shirin Hasani-Ranjbar, Bagher Larijani
Personalized medicine is an approach for medical decisions, practices, and interventions that considers individual variations in genes, environment, and lifestyle for each person. Regarding complex metabolic patterns associated with different diseases, characterizing unique metabolic patterns of each patient seems like a practical approach. We can imagine a future in which routinely analyzing the microbiome allows us to predict individualized responses to different foods and drugs. Microbiome analysis of individuals may be added to future routine personalized medicine protocols after comparing the costs and benefits of microbiome-sequencing technology...
October 2, 2017: Alternative Therapies in Health and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28986319/enhancing-the-viability-of-lactobacillus-rhamnosus-gg-after-spray-drying-and-during-storage
#18
Géraldine Broeckx, Dieter Vandenheuvel, Tim Henkens, Shari Kiekens, Marianne F L van den Broek, Sarah Lebeer, Filip Kiekens
Increasing knowledge about the human microbiome has led to a growing awareness of the potential of applying probiotics to improve our health. The pharmaceutical industry shows an emerging interest in pharmaceutical formulations containing these beneficial microbes, the so-called pharmabiotics. An important manufacturing step is the drying of the probiotics, as this can increase the stability and shelf life of the finished pharmabiotic product. Unfortunately, drying also puts stress on microbial cells, thus causing a decrease in viability...
October 3, 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28984235/biochemical-features-of-beneficial-microbes-foundations-for-therapeutic-microbiology
#19
Melinda A Engevik, James Versalovic
Commensal and beneficial microbes secrete myriad products which target the mammalian host and other microbes. These secreted substances aid in bacterial niche development, and select compounds beneficially modulate the host and promote health. Microbes produce unique compounds which can serve as signaling factors to the host, such as biogenic amine neuromodulators, or quorum-sensing molecules to facilitate inter-bacterial communication. Bacterial metabolites can also participate in functional enhancement of host metabolic capabilities, immunoregulation, and improvement of intestinal barrier function...
October 2017: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28983453/remote-sensing-between-liver-and-intestine-importance-of-microbial-metabolites
#20
Zidong Donna Fu, Julia Yue Cui
Recent technological advancements including metagenomics sequencing and metabolomics have allowed the discovery of critical functions of gut microbiota in obesity, malnutrition, neurological disorders, asthma, and xenobiotic metabolism. Classification of the human gut microbiome into distinct "enterotypes" has been proposed to serve as a new paradigm for understanding the interplay between microbial variation and human disease phenotypes, as many organs are affected by gut microbiota modifications during the pathogenesis of diseases...
June 2017: Current Pharmacology Reports
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