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Microbiome probiotics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316320/human-microbiota-blood-group-antigens-and-disease
#1
REVIEW
D Rose Ewald, Susan C J Sumner
Far from being just "bugs in our guts," the microbiota interacts with the body in previously unimagined ways. Research into the genome and the microbiome has revealed that the human body and the microbiota have a long-established but only recently recognized symbiotic relationship; homeostatic balance between them regulates body function. That balance is fragile, easily disturbed, and plays a fundamental role in human health-our very survival depends on the healthy functioning of these microorganisms. Increasing rates of cardiovascular, autoimmune, and inflammatory diseases, as well as epidemics in obesity and diabetes in recent decades are believed to be explained, in part, by unintended effects on the microbiota from vaccinations, poor diets, environmental chemicals, indiscriminate antibiotic use, and "germophobia...
January 9, 2018: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Systems Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29314469/beneficial-changes-in-rumen-bacterial-community-profile-in-sheep-and-dairy-calves-as-a-result-of-feeding-the-probiotic-bacillus-amyloliquefaciens-h57
#2
Benjamin J Schofield, Nancy Lachner, Oanh T Le, David M McNeill, Peter Dart, Diane Ouwerkerk, Philip Hugenholtz, Athol V Klieve
AIMS: The probiotic Bacillus amyloliquefaciens H57 increased weight gain, increased nitrogen retention and increased feed intake in ruminants when administered to the diet. This study aims to develop a better understanding of this probiotic effect by analysing changes in the rumen prokaryotic community. METHODS AND RESULTS: Sequencing the 16S rRNA gene PCR amplicons of the rumen microbiome, revealed that ewes fed H57 had a significantly different rumen microbial community structure to Control sheep...
January 3, 2018: Journal of Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311119/the-role-of-the-gut-microbiome-in-systemic-inflammatory-disease
#3
REVIEW
Jose C Clemente, Julia Manasson, Jose U Scher
The role of the gut microbiome in models of inflammatory and autoimmune disease is now well characterized. Renewed interest in the human microbiome and its metabolites, as well as notable advances in host mucosal immunology, has opened multiple avenues of research to potentially modulate inflammatory responses. The complexity and interdependence of these diet-microbe-metabolite-host interactions are rapidly being unraveled. Importantly, most of the progress in the field comes from new knowledge about the functional properties of these microorganisms in physiology and their effect in mucosal immunity and distal inflammation...
January 8, 2018: BMJ: British Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29277311/targeting-gut-microbiome-a-novel-and-potential-therapy-for-autism
#4
REVIEW
Yongshou Yang, Jinhu Tian, Bo Yang
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a severely neurodevelopmental disorder that impairs a child's ability to communicate and interact with others. Children with neurodevelopmental disorder, including ASD, are regularly affected by gastrointestinal problems and dysbiosis of gut microbiota. On the other hand, humans live in a co-evolutionary association with plenty of microorganisms that resident on the exposed and internal surfaces of our bodies. The microbiome, refers to the collection of microbes and their genetic material, confers a variety of physiologic benefits to the host in many key aspects of life as well as being responsible for some diseases...
December 22, 2017: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29275816/probiotics-and-necrotizing-enterocolitis
#5
Ravi Mangal Patel, Mark A Underwood
In this review, we summarize existing knowledge regarding the effects of probiotics on necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). We review the role of the microbiome in NEC and pre-clinical data on mechanisms of probiotic action. Next, we summarize existing randomized controlled trials and observational studies of probiotics to prevent NEC. We also summarize findings from several recent meta-analyses and report a new cumulative meta-analysis of probiotic trials. Finally, we review data from cohorts routinely using commercially available probiotics...
February 2018: Seminars in Pediatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29249963/exploring-the-association-between-alzheimer-s-disease-oral-health-microbial-endocrinology-and-nutrition
#6
REVIEW
Alice Harding, Ulrike Gonder, Sarita J Robinson, StJohn Crean, Sim K Singhrao
Longitudinal monitoring of patients suggests a causal link between chronic periodontitis and the development of Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, the explanation of how periodontitis can lead to dementia remains unclear. A working hypothesis links extrinsic inflammation as a secondary cause of AD. This hypothesis suggests a compromised oral hygiene leads to a dysbiotic oral microbiome whereby Porphyromonas gingivalis, a keystone periodontal pathogen, with its companion species, orchestrates immune subversion in the host...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242832/persistence-of-supplemented-bifidobacterium-longum-subsp-infantis-evc001-in-breastfed-infants
#7
Steven A Frese, Andra A Hutton, Lindsey N Contreras, Claire A Shaw, Michelle C Palumbo, Giorgio Casaburi, Gege Xu, Jasmine C C Davis, Carlito B Lebrilla, Bethany M Henrick, Samara L Freeman, Daniela Barile, J Bruce German, David A Mills, Jennifer T Smilowitz, Mark A Underwood
Attempts to alter intestinal dysbiosis via administration of probiotics have consistently shown that colonization with the administered microbes is transient. This study sought to determine whether provision of an initial course of Bifidobacterium longum subsp. infantis (B. infantis) would lead to persistent colonization of the probiotic organism in breastfed infants. Mothers intending to breastfeed were recruited and provided with lactation support. One group of mothers fed B. infantis EVC001 to their infants from day 7 to day 28 of life (n = 34), and the second group did not administer any probiotic (n = 32)...
November 2017: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232932/adjuvant-probiotics-and-the-intestinal-microbiome-enhancing-vaccines-and-immunotherapy-outcomes
#8
REVIEW
Luis Vitetta, Emma Tali Saltzman, Michael Thomsen, Tessa Nikov, Sean Hall
Immune defence against pathogenic agents comprises the basic premise for the administration of vaccines. Vaccinations have hence prevented millions of infectious illnesses, hospitalizations and mortality. Acquired immunity comprises antibody and cell mediated responses and is characterized by its specificity and memory. Along a similar congruent yet diverse mode of disease prevention, the human host has negotiated from in utero and at birth with the intestinal commensal bacterial cohort to maintain local homeostasis in order to achieve immunological tolerance in the new born...
December 11, 2017: Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230215/potential-effects-of-horizontal-gene-exchange-in-the-human-gut
#9
Aaron Lerner, Torsten Matthias, Rustam Aminov
Many essential functions of the human body are dependent on the symbiotic microbiota, which is present at especially high numbers and diversity in the gut. This intricate host-microbe relationship is a result of the long-term coevolution between the two. While the inheritance of mutational changes in the host evolution is almost exclusively vertical, the main mechanism of bacterial evolution is horizontal gene exchange. The gut conditions, with stable temperature, continuous food supply, constant physicochemical conditions, extremely high concentration of microbial cells and phages, and plenty of opportunities for conjugation on the surfaces of food particles and host tissues, represent one of the most favorable ecological niches for horizontal gene exchange...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218571/culturable-endophytic-bacteria-of-ginger-rhizome%C3%A2-and-their-remarkable-multi-trait-plant-growth-promoting-features
#10
Sabu Rohini, R Aswani, M Kannan, V P Sylas, E K Radhakrishnan
Functional contribution of endophytic bacteria towards plant growth is highly impressive due to their species diversity and array of probiotic mechanisms. In the study, 96 endophytic bacteria isolated from rhizome of ginger (Zingiber officinale) were screened for phosphate solubilisation, 1-amino cyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase activity, nitrogen fixation, ammonia and IAA production. Among these, sixteen endophytes with multiple plant growth-promoting activities were identified by 16S rDNA sequencing and all of them showed growth enhancement in Vigna unguiculata var Lola which make the study remarkably significant...
December 7, 2017: Current Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209439/comparative-study-of-probiotic-effects-of-lactobacillus-and-bifidobacteria-strains-on-cholesterol-levels-liver-morphology-and-the-gut-microbiota-in-obese-mice
#11
Rostyslav V Bubnov, Lidiia P Babenko, Liudmyla M Lazarenko, Viktoria V Mokrozub, Oleksandr A Demchenko, Oleksiy V Nechypurenko, Mykola Ya Spivak
Background: Microbiome-modulating interventions are promising for treatment and prevention of metabolic syndrome. The number of probiotic strains demonstrated ability to decrease cholesterol level in vivo, however, it was poorly confirmed in a clinical setting. The aim was to study the effects of L. acidophilus IMV B-7279, L. casei IMV B-7280, B. animalіs VKL and B. animalіs VKB separately and in various compositions on the level of serum cholesterol, gut microbiota contents and liver morphology on a high-calorie-induced obesity model in BALB/c mice...
December 2017: EPMA Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29206649/the-importance-of-the-microbiome-in-pediatrics-and-pediatric-infectious-diseases
#12
Thaidra Gaufin, Nicole H Tobin, Grace M Aldrovandi
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Emerging research on the pediatric microbiome implicates the importance of the microbiome on the development of the immune system, nervous system, and growth. Changes to the microbiome during infancy are associated with the development of chronic illnesses such as asthma and inflammatory bowel disease. Additionally, the microbiome provides protection against certain pathogens, affects vaccine responses, and alters drug metabolism. This review highlights what is known about the microbiome, the establishment of a healthy microbiome and the significance that changes to the microbiome composition have on growth and health of children and adolescents...
December 4, 2017: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203054/on-the-search-to-elucidate-the-role-of-the-microbiota-in-the-genesis-of-cancer-the-cases-of-gastrointestinal-and-cervical-cancer
#13
REVIEW
Francisco Avilés-Jiménez, Yu Guogin, Kirvis Torres-Poveda, Vicente Madrid-Marina, Javier Torres
The microbiota that inhabits the human body plays an important role in health and disease, by their fundamental role in food digestion, training of the immune system or protection against pathogen colonization. However, when the equilibrium with its host is altered, some diseases like cancer might be promoted. In this review we describe the information collected in recent studies between the microbiota and its association with cancer. We conducted the review of the relation of microbiome and cancer etiology focusing on the gastrointestinal and cervical cancer...
December 1, 2017: Archives of Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29202875/postoperative-changes-of-the-microbiome-are-surgical-complications-related-to-the-gut-flora-a-systematic-review
#14
Ann-Kathrin Lederer, Przemyslaw Pisarski, Lampros Kousoulas, Stefan Fichtner-Feigl, Carolin Hess, Roman Huber
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this review was to identify the relationship between the gut microbiome and the development of postoperative complications like anastomotic leakage or a wound infection. Recent reviews focusing on underlying molecular biology suggested that postoperative complications might be influenced by the patients' gut flora. Therefore, a review focusing on the available clinical data is needed. METHODS: In January 2017 a systematic search was carried out in Medline and WebOfScience to identify all clinical studies, which investigated postoperative complications after gastrointestinal surgery in relation to the microbiome of the gut...
December 4, 2017: BMC Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29197739/a-meta-analysis-of-the-use-of-probiotics-to-alleviate-depressive-symptoms
#15
REVIEW
Qin Xiang Ng, Christina Peters, Collin Yih Xian Ho, Donovan Yutong Lim, Wee-Song Yeo
INTRODUCTION: Some preclinical and clinical studies have demonstrated the positive impact of probiotic supplementation on depressive symptoms. This paper aims to provide an updated meta-analysis on the topic. METHODS: Using the keywords [probiotics OR gut OR microflora OR microbiome OR bacteria OR yeast OR yoghurt OR lactobacillus OR bifidobacterium] AND [mood OR depression OR MDD OR suicide], a preliminary search on the PubMed, Ovid, Clinical Trials Register of the Cochrane Collaboration Depression, Anxiety and Neurosis Group (CCDANTR) and Cochrane Field for Complementary Medicine database yielded 917 papers published in English between 1-Jan-1960 and 1-June-2017...
November 16, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29195050/resilience-of-the-oral-microbiota-in-health-mechanisms-that-prevent-dysbiosis
#16
B T Rosier, P D Marsh, A Mira
Dental diseases are now viewed as a consequence of a deleterious shift in the balance of the normally stable resident oral microbiome. It is known that frequent carbohydrate consumption or reduced saliva flow can lead to caries, and excessive plaque accumulation increases the risk of periodontal diseases. However, when these "disease drivers" are present, while some individuals appear to be susceptible, others are more tolerant or resilient to suffering from undesirable changes in their oral microbiome. Health-maintaining mechanisms that limit the effect of disease drivers include the complex set of metabolic and functional interrelationships that develop within dental biofilms and between biofilms and the host...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Dental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29190117/psychobiotics-a-new-approach-for-treating-mental-illness
#17
Snigdha Misra, Debapriya Mohanty
Gut microbiomes may have a significant impact on mood and cognition, which is leading experts towards a new frontier in neuroscience. Studies have shown that increase in the amount of good bacteria in the gut can curb inflammation and cortisol level, reduces symptoms of depression and anxiety, lowers stress reactivity, improves memory and even lessens neuroticism and social anxiety. This shows that, probably the beneficial gut bacteria or probiotics function mechanistically as delivery vehicles for neuroactive compounds...
November 30, 2017: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29171288/structure-moderation-of-gut-microbiota-in-liraglutide-treated-diabetic-male-rats
#18
Qian Zhang, Xinhua Xiao, Jia Zheng, Ming Li, Miao Yu, Fan Ping, Tong Wang, Xiaojing Wang
The change of gut microbiome is associated with a serious of metabolic disorders, such as diabetes. As a glucagon-like peptide 1 analogue, liraglutide is a potent antidiabetic drug in clinical practice. However, the effect of liraglutide on the community of gut microbiota is still unknown. We aimed to determine the influence of liraglutide on fecal microbiota in diabetic male rats. Five-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed with a control diet or a high-fat diet for four weeks. By injecting streptozotocin, the diabetic rat model was performed...
January 1, 2017: Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29168036/the-gut-microbiome-symptoms-and-targeted-interventions-in-children-with-cancer-a-systematic-review
#19
REVIEW
Jinbing Bai, Madhusmita Behera, Deborah Watkins Bruner
PURPOSE: The gut microbiome plays a critical role in maintaining children's health and in preventing and treating children's disease. Current application of the gut microbiome in childhood cancer is still lacking. This study aimed to systematically review the following: (1) alternations in the gut microbiome throughout cancer treatment trajectories in children, (2) the associations between the gut microbiome and gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms and psychoneurological symptoms (PNS), and (3) the efficacy of therapeutic interventions in the gut microbiome in children with cancer...
November 22, 2017: Supportive Care in Cancer: Official Journal of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163411/diversity-within-italian-cheesemaking-brine-associated-bacterial-communities-evidenced-by-massive-parallel-16s-rrna-gene-tag-sequencing
#20
Marilena Marino, Nadia Innocente, Michela Maifreni, Jérôme Mounier, José F Cobo-Díaz, Emmanuel Coton, Lisa Carraro, Barbara Cardazzo
This study explored the bacterial diversity of brines used for cheesemaking in Italy, as well as their physicochemical characteristics. In this context, 19 brines used to salt soft, semi-hard, and hard Italian cheeses were collected in 14 commercial cheese plants and analyzed using a culture-independent amplicon sequencing approach in order to describe their bacterial microbiota. Large NaCl concentration variations were observed among the selected brines, with hard cheese brines exhibiting the highest values...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
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