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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925886/the-microbiota-gut-brain-axis-in-neuropsychiatric-disorders-pathophysiological-mechanisms-and-novel-treatments
#1
Yong-Ku Kim, Cheolmin Shin
BACKGROUND: The human gut microbiome comprise a huge number of microorganisms with co-evolutionary associations with humans. It has been repeatedly revealed that bidirectional communication exists between the brain and the gut and involves neural, hormonal, and immunological pathways. Evidences from neuroscience researches over the past few years suggest that microbiota is essential for the development and maturation of brain systems that are associated to stress responses. METHOD: This review provides that the summarization of the communication among microbiota, gut and brain and the results of preclinical and clinical studies on gut microbiota used in treatments for neuropsychiatric disorders...
September 15, 2017: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919884/secretome-of-intestinal-bacilli-a-natural-guard-against-pathologies
#2
REVIEW
Olga N Ilinskaya, Vera V Ulyanova, Dina R Yarullina, Ilgiz G Gataullin
Current studies of human gut microbiome usually do not consider the special functional role of transient microbiota, although some of its members remain in the host for a long time and produce broad spectrum of biologically active substances. Getting into the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) with food, water and probiotic preparations, two representatives of Bacilli class, genera Bacillus and Lactobacillus, colonize epithelium blurring the boundaries between resident and transient microbiota. Despite their minor proportion in the microbiome composition, these bacteria can significantly affect both the intestinal microbiota and the entire body thanks to a wide range of secreted compounds...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917668/gut-microbe-mediated-suppression-of-inflammation-associated-colon-carcinogenesis-by-luminal-histamine-production
#3
Chunxu Gao, Bhanu Priya Ganesh, Zhongcheng Shi, Rajesh Rasik Shah, Robert Fultz, Angela Major, Susan Venable, Monica Lugo, Kathleen Hoch, Xiaowei Chen, Anthony Haag, Timothy C Wang, James Versalovic
Microbiome-mediated suppression of carcinogenesis may open new avenues for identification of therapeutic targets and prevention strategies in oncology. Histidine decarboxylase (HDC) deficiency has been shown to promote inflammation-associated colorectal cancer by accumulation of CD11b(+)Gr-1(+) immature myeloid cells, indicating a potential antitumorigenic effect of histamine. Here, we demonstrate that administration of hdc(+)Lactobacillus reuteri in the gut resulted in luminal hdc gene expression and histamine production in the intestines of Hdc(-/-) mice...
September 6, 2017: American Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914862/-liver-diseases-the-pathogenetic-role-of-the-gut-microbiome-and-the-potential-of-treatment-for-its-modulation
#4
K A Aitbaev, I T Murkamilov, V V Fomin
The paper gives an update on the role of the gut microbiome (GM) in the development of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, alcoholic liver disease, liver cirrhosis (LC), and its complications, such as hepatic encephalopathy (HE) and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), and discusses the possibilities of its correction with prebiotics, probiotics, synbiotics, antibiotics, and fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT). The pathophysiology of the liver diseases in question demonstrates some common features that are characterized by pathogenic changes in the composition of the gastrointestinal tract microflora, by intestinal barrier impairments, by development of endotoxemia, by increased liver expression of proinflammatory factors, and by development of liver inflammation...
2017: Terapevticheskiĭ Arkhiv
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904999/linking-spatial-structure-and-community-level-biotic-interactions-through-cooccurrence-and-time-series-modeling-of-the-human-intestinal-microbiota
#5
Eric J de Muinck, Knut E A Lundin, Pål Trosvik
The gastrointestinal (GI) microbiome is a densely populated ecosystem where dynamics are determined by interactions between microbial community members, as well as host factors. The spatial organization of this system is thought to be important in human health, yet this aspect of our resident microbiome is still poorly understood. In this study, we report significant spatial structure of the GI microbiota, and we identify general categories of spatial patterning in the distribution of microbial taxa along a healthy human GI tract...
September 2017: MSystems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891140/other-helicobacters-gastric-and-gut-microbiota
#6
REVIEW
Christelle Péré-Védrenne, Bram Flahou, Mun Fai Loke, Armelle Ménard, Jamuna Vadivelu
The current article is a review of the most important and relevant literature published in 2016 and early 2017 on non-Helicobacter pylori Helicobacter infections in humans and animals, as well as interactions between H. pylori and the microbiota of the stomach and other organs. Some putative new Helicobacter species were identified in sea otters, wild boars, dogs, and mice. Many cases of Helicobacter fennelliae and Helicobacter cinaedi infection have been reported in humans, mostly in immunocompromised patients...
September 2017: Helicobacter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28885302/postinfection-irritable-bowel-syndrome-the-links-between-gastroenteritis-inflammation-the-microbiome-and-functional-disease
#7
Ian A Downs, Olga C Aroniadis, Libusha Kelly, Lawrence J Brandt
Postinfection irritable bowel syndrome (PI-IBS) is a diarrheal disease that develops after infectious gastroenteritis (IGE). Profound alterations in the microbiota accompany IGE yet only 10% of IGE patients progress to PI-IBS. This review explores research linking IGE severity, psychological comorbidity, PI-IBS, and the microbiome in various patient populations. Selective pressures caused by inflammation and increased gastrointestinal motility during gastroenteritis can alter intestinal bacterial phyla including Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes, and Proteobacteria...
September 6, 2017: Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877893/randomized-controlled-trial-on-the-impact-of-early-life-intervention-with-bifidobacteria-on-the-healthy-infant-fecal-microbiota-and-metabolome
#8
Monika Bazanella, Tanja V Maier, Thomas Clavel, Ilias Lagkouvardos, Marianna Lucio, Maria X Maldonado-Gòmez, Chloe Autran, Jens Walter, Lars Bode, Philippe Schmitt-Kopplin, Dirk Haller
Background: Early-life colonization of the intestinal tract is a dynamic process influenced by numerous factors. The impact of probiotic-supplemented infant formula on the composition and function of the infant gut microbiota is not well defined.Objective: We sought to determine the effects of a bifidobacteria-containing formula on the healthy human intestinal microbiome during the first year of life.Design: A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study of newborn infants assigned to a standard whey-based formula containing a total of 10(8) colony-forming units (CFU)/g of Bifidobacterium bifidum, Bifidobacterium breve, Bifidobacterium longum, B...
September 6, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28867788/high-throughput-identification-of-antimicrobial-peptides-from-fish-gastrointestinal-microbiota
#9
Bo Dong, Yunhai Yi, Lifeng Liang, Qiong Shi
Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are a group of small peptides, which are secreted by almost all creatures in nature. They have been explored in therapeutic and agricultural aspects as they are toxic to many bacteria. A considerable amount of work has been conducted in analyzing 16S and metagenomics of the gastrointestinal (GI) microbiome of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus). However, these datasets are still untapped resources. In this present study, a homologous search was performed to predict AMPs from our newly generated metagenome of grass carp...
August 30, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28866243/intestinal-lactobacillus-in-health-and-disease-a-driver-or-just-along-for-the-ride
#10
REVIEW
Dustin D Heeney, Mélanie G Gareau, Maria L Marco
Metagenomics and related methods have led to significant advances in our understanding of the human microbiome. Members of the genus Lactobacillus, although best understood for essential roles in food fermentations and applications as probiotics, have also come to the fore in a number of untargeted gut microbiome studies in humans and animals. Even though Lactobacillus is only a minor member of the human colonic microbiota, the proportions of those bacteria are frequently either positively or negatively correlated with human disease and chronic conditions...
August 31, 2017: Current Opinion in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28866242/to-engraft-or-not-to-engraft-an-ecological-framework-for-gut-microbiome-modulation-with-live-microbes
#11
REVIEW
Jens Walter, María X Maldonado-Gómez, Inés Martínez
Strategies aimed at modulating the gut microbiota by using live microbes range from single strains (probiotics or live biotherapeutics) to whole non-defined fecal transplants. Although often clinically efficacious, our understanding on how microbial-based strategies modulate gut microbiome composition and function is vastly incomplete. In this review, we present a framework based on ecological theory that provides mechanistic explanations for the findings obtained in studies that attempted to modulate the gut microbiota of humans and animals using live microbes...
August 31, 2017: Current Opinion in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28865967/bugging-allergy-role-of-pre-pro-and-synbiotics-in-allergy-prevention
#12
REVIEW
Christina E West, Majda Dzidic, Susan L Prescott, Maria C Jenmalm
Large-scale biodiversity loss and complex changes in social behaviors are altering human microbial ecology. This is increasingly implicated in the global rise in inflammatory diseases, most notably the "allergy epidemic" in very early life. Colonization of human ecological niches, particularly the gastrointestinal tract, is critical for normal local and systemic immune development and regulation. Disturbances in composition, diversity and timing of microbial colonization have been associated with increased allergy risk, indicating the importance of strategies to restore a dysbiotic gut microbiota in the primary prevention of allergic diseases, including the administration of probiotics, prebiotics and synbiotics...
August 30, 2017: Allergology International: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Allergology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28862999/innovation-in-microbiome-based-strategies-for-promoting-metabolic-health
#13
Marina Romaní-Pérez, Ana Agusti, Yolanda Sanz
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Update on the development of microbiome-based interventions and dietary supplements to combat obesity and related comorbidities, which are leading causes of global mortality. RECENT FINDINGS: The role of intestinal dysbiosis, partly resulting from unhealthy diets, in the development of obesity and metabolic disorders, is well documented by recent translational research. Human experimental trials with whole-faecal transplants are ongoing, and their results will be crucial as proof of concept that interventions intended to modulate the microbiome composition and function could be alternatives for the management of obesity and related comorbidities...
August 31, 2017: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28860611/impact-of-immunosuppression-on-the-metagenomic-composition-of-the-intestinal-microbiome-a-systems-biology-approach-to-post-transplant-diabetes
#14
M Bhat, E Pasini, J Copeland, M Angeli, S Husain, D Kumar, E Renner, A Teterina, J Allard, D S Guttman, A Humar
Solid organ transplantation (SOT) outcomes have continued to improve, although long-term use of immunosuppressants can lead to complications such as diabetes, compromising post-transplant outcomes. In this study, we have characterized the intestinal microbiome (IM) composition at the metagenomic level in the context of hyperglycemia induced by immunosuppressants. Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to doses of tacrolimus and sirolimus that reliably induce hyperglycemia and an insulin-resistant state. Subsequent exposure to probiotics resulted in reversal of hyperglycemia...
August 31, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28852682/the-intestinal-microbiome-in-infectious-diseases-the-clinical-relevance-of-a-rapidly-emerging-field
#15
REVIEW
Vanessa C Harris, Bastiaan W Haak, Michaël Boele van Hensbroek, Willem J Wiersinga
The field of infectious disease is undergoing a paradigm shift as the intestinal microbiome is becoming understood. The aim of this review is to inform infectious disease physicians of the potential relevance of the intestinal microbiome to their practice. We searched Medline using both index and text words relating to infectious diseases, microbiome, and probiotics. Relevant articles published up through 2017 were reviewed within Rayyan. The review illustrates pathophysiologic concepts linking the microbiome and infectious diseases; specifically, the intestinal microbiome's relevance to early immune development, the microbiome and enteric infections, the microbiome's relevance in compromised hosts, and antimicrobial resistance...
2017: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28843452/the-microbiome-as-a-key-regulator-of-brain-behaviour-and-immunity-commentary-on-the-2017-named-series
#16
Michael T Bailey, John F Cryan
The focus on the microbiome for the 2017 Named Series in Brain, Behavior, and Immunity reflects the rapidly growing interest in commensal microbes and the effects that they can have on physiological processes often studied in PsychoNeuroImmunology Research. The studies included in this Named Series show that commensal microbes can impact immune system activity, as well as brain and behavioural processes across the lifespan, and are involved in behavioural and immunological responses to social stresses. The studies also show that dietary effects on brain, behaviour, and immunity often involve alterations of the gut microbiota...
August 23, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28842539/dietary-fibers-and-protective-lactobacilli-drive-burrata-cheese-microbiome
#17
Fabio Minervini, Amalia Conte, Matteo Alessandro Del Nobile, Marco Gobbetti, Maria De Angelis
This study aimed at improving the functional attributes and shelf-life of burrata cheese by using protective lactobacilli (Lactobacillus plantarum LPAL and Lactobacillus rhamnosus LRB), fructoligosaccharides and inulin. Six burrata cheeses were made by using: i) the traditional protocol (control); ii) addition of 0.5% fructoligosaccharides and inulin (DF cheese); iii) protective lactobacilli in milk alone (PL cheese); iv) protective lactobacilli in milk and governing liquid (2PL cheese); v) protective lactobacilli in milk and dietary fibers (DF_PL cheese); and vi) protective lactobacilli in milk, governing liquid and dietary fibers (DF_2PL cheeses)...
August 25, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28840820/ecological-therapeutic-opportunities-for-oral-diseases
#18
Anilei Hoare, Philip D Marsh, Patricia I Diaz
The three main oral diseases of humans, that is, caries, periodontal diseases, and oral candidiasis, are associated with microbiome shifts initiated by changes in the oral environment and/or decreased effectiveness of mucosal immune surveillance. In this review, we discuss the role that microbial-based therapies may have in the control of these conditions. Most investigations on the use of microorganisms for management of oral disease have been conducted with probiotic strains with some positive but very discrete clinical outcomes...
August 2017: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821814/bifidobacterium-pseudocatenulatum-li09-and-bifidobacterium-catenulatum-li10-attenuate-d-galactosamine-induced-liver-injury-by-modifying-the-gut-microbiota
#19
Daiqiong Fang, Ding Shi, Longxian Lv, Silan Gu, Wenrui Wu, Yanfei Chen, Jing Guo, Ang Li, Xinjun Hu, Feifei Guo, Jianzhong Ye, Yating Li, Lanjian Li
The gut microbiota is altered in liver diseases, and several probiotics have been shown to reduce the degree of liver damage. We hypothesized that oral administration of specific Bifidobacterium strains isolated from healthy guts could attenuate liver injury. Five strains were tested in this study. Acute liver injury was induced by D-galactosamine after pretreating Sprague-Dawley rats with the Bifidobacterium strains, and liver function, liver and ileum histology, plasma cytokines, bacterial translocation and the gut microbiome were assessed...
August 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807612/the-role-of-trimethylamine-n-oxide-as-a-mediator-of-cardiovascular-complications-in-chronic-kidney-disease
#20
James A P Tomlinson, David C Wheeler
Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) have an enhanced risk of cardiovascular (CV) morbidity and mortality when compared with age- and gender-matched individuals with normal kidney function. Trimethlyamine N-oxide (TMAO) is a gut-derived amine oxide that has been implicated in the causation of CV diseases. Plasma TMAO is cleared by the kidney, and TMAO levels are elevated in CKD. Experimental studies have identified pathogenic mechanisms by which TMAO may contribute to CV disease through dysregulation of lipid metabolism, enhanced macrophage foam cell formation, and platelet dysfunction...
August 11, 2017: Kidney International
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