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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432400/-the-intestinal-microbiome-and-metabolic-diseases-from-obesity-to-diabetes-and-nonalcoholic-steatohepatitis
#1
S C Bischoff
BACKGROUND: The intestinal microbiome consists of about 10 million genes, many of which encode digestive enzymes. This explains why animal and human experiments revealed that the intestinal microbiome adapts to food intake and optimizes energy harvest from food. This function is considered beneficial in states of lack of food, but following overnutrition, it might support the development of obesity. OBJECTIVES: The relevance of the intestinal microbiome for the pathogenesis of obesity and associated metabolic diseases such as fatty liver disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus and for the clinical management of such diseases shall be discussed...
April 21, 2017: Der Internist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427947/4th-microbiome-r-d-and-business-collaboration-forum-and-probiotics-congress-april-3-4-2017-amsterdam-the-netherlands
#2
Duc H Le
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 13, 2017: EBioMedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423869/protective-effects-of-bacillus-subtilis-against-salmonella-infection-in-the-microbiome-of-hy-line-brown-layers
#3
Ju Kyoung Oh, Edward Alain B Pajarillo, Jong Pyo Chae, In Ho Kim, D-K Kang
Objective: This study investigated the effects of Bacillus subtilis CSL2 administration before Salmonella challenge on the fecal microbiota and microbial functionality of Hy-line Brown (HLB) laying hens. Methods: Fecal samples were collected from control (CON), Salmonella-infected (SAL) and Salmonella-infected, probiotic-treated (PRO) groups before and after Salmonella challenge for microbiome analysis using 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing. Results: Infection with Salmonella led to decreased microbial diversity in hen feces; diversity was recovered with Bacillus administration...
April 19, 2017: Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410921/a-randomized-trial-to-determine-the-impact-of-a-digestion-resistant-starch-composition-on-the-gut-microbiome-in-older-and-mid-age-adults
#4
Michelle J Alfa, David Strang, Paramjit S Tappia, Morag Graham, Gary Van Domselaar, Jessica D Forbes, Vanessa Laminman, Nancy Olson, Pat DeGagne, David Bray, Brenda-Lee Murray, Brenden Dufault, Lisa M Lix
BACKGROUND: The elderly often have a diet lacking resistant starch (RS) which is thought to lead to gut microbiome dysbiosis that may result in deterioration of gut colonocytes. OBJECTIVE: The primary objective was to assess if elderly (ELD; ≥ 70 years age) had microbiome dysbiosis compared to mid-age (MID; 30-50 years age) adults and then determine the impact of daily consumption of MSPrebiotic(®) (a RS) or placebo over 3 months on gut microbiome composition...
March 31, 2017: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408909/the-maternal-diet-gut-bacteria-and-bacterial-metabolites-during-pregnancy-influence-offspring-asthma
#5
REVIEW
Lawrence E K Gray, Martin O'Hely, Sarath Ranganathan, Peter David Sly, Peter Vuillermin
This review focuses on the current evidence that maternal dietary and gut bacterial exposures during pregnancy influence the developing fetal immune system and subsequent offspring asthma. Part 1 addresses exposure to a farm environment, antibiotics, and prebiotic and probiotic supplementation that together indicate the importance of bacterial experience in immune programming and offspring asthma. Part 2 outlines proposed mechanisms to explain these associations including bacterial exposure of the fetoplacental unit; immunoglobulin-related transplacental transport of gut bacterial components; cytokine signaling producing fetomaternal immune alignment; and immune programming via metabolites produced by gut bacteria...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390574/airway-microbial-dysbiosis-in-asthmatic-patients-a%C3%A2-target-for-prevention-and-treatment
#6
REVIEW
Kian Fan Chung
There has been long-standing interest in the role of bacterial communities in the complex and heterogeneous disease of asthma. With the advent of 16s rRNA sequencing replacing traditional culture methods, a strong association between the presence of bacterial communities with asthma has emerged. These microbiota can be modulated by various environmental factors, including diet, antibiotics, and early-life microbial exposures. Microbiota in the gut and lungs can influence both the inception and progress of asthma...
April 2017: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389560/introduction-to-the-thematic-minireview-series-host-microbiome-metabolic-interplay
#7
Ruma Banerjee
Long before the recent thrust of scientific research on the microbiome, the importance of its interface with the host was being acknowledged by practices such as probiotic supplementation e.g., after a course of antibiotics, which has the unwanted side effect of depleting commensal bacteria. The shared metabolite capital between the host and the microbiome is extensive and tightly controlled. However, despite the influence of microbial-derived metabolites on many aspects of host physiology, behavior and pathology, our understanding of this metabolic interface is still in its infancy and its therapeutic targeting is largely untapped...
April 7, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28388647/impact-of-probiotic-saccharomyces-boulardii-on-the-gut-microbiome-composition-in-hiv-treated-patients-a-double-blind-randomised-placebo-controlled-trial
#8
Judit Villar-García, Robert Güerri-Fernández, Andrés Moya, Alicia González, Juan J Hernández, Elisabet Lerma, Ana Guelar, Luisa Sorli, Juan P Horcajada, Alejandro Artacho, Giuseppe D Auria, Hernando Knobel
Dysbalance in gut microbiota has been linked to increased microbial translocation, leading to chronic inflammation in HIV-patients, even under effective HAART. Moreover, microbial translocation is associated with insufficient reconstitution of CD4+T cells, and contributes to the pathogenesis of immunologic non-response. In a double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled trial, we recently showed that, compared to placebo, 12 weeks treatment with probiotic Saccharomyces boulardii significantly reduced plasma levels of bacterial translocation (Lipopolysaccharide-binding protein or LBP) and systemic inflammation (IL-6) in 44 HIV virologically suppressed patients, half of whom (n = 22) had immunologic non-response to antiretroviral therapy (<270 CD4+Tcells/μL despite long-term suppressed viral load)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28384412/second-era-of-omics-in-caries-research-moving-past-the-phase-of-disillusionment
#9
M M Nascimento, E Zaura, A Mira, N Takahashi, J M Ten Cate
Novel approaches using OMICS techniques enable a collective assessment of multiple related biological units, including genes, gene expression, proteins, and metabolites. In the past decade, next-generation sequencing ( NGS) technologies were improved by longer sequence reads and the development of genome databases and user-friendly pipelines for data analysis, all accessible at lower cost. This has generated an outburst of high-throughput data. The application of OMICS has provided more depth to existing hypotheses as well as new insights in the etiology of dental caries...
April 1, 2017: Journal of Dental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28376573/the-gut-microbiome
#10
Mayenaaz Sidhu, David van der Poorten
BACKGROUND: More than a trillion, mostly good, microbes live within our gastrointestinal tract and are responsible for vital metabolic, immune and nutritional functions. Dysbiosis, meaning a maladaptive imbalance of the microbiome, is associated with many common diseases and is a target for therapy. OBJECTIVE: This article provides an overview of the gut microbiome in health and disease, highlighting conditions such as Clostridium difficile infection, inflammatory bowel disease, irritable bowel syndrome, obesity and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, with which dysbiosis is associated...
2017: Australian Family Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28375932/outstanding-animal-studies-in-allergy-ii-from-atopic-barrier-and-microbiome-to-allergen-specific-immunotherapy
#11
Erika Jensen-Jarolim, Isabella Pali-Schöll, Franziska Roth-Walter
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Animal studies published within the past 18 months were assessed, focusing on innate and specific immunomodulation, providing knowledge of high translational relevance for human atopic and allergic diseases. RECENT FINDINGS: Allergic companion animals represent alternative models, but most studies were done in mice. Atopic dermatitis mouse models were refined by the utilization of cytokines like IL-23 and relevant skin allergens or enzymes. A novel IL-6 reporter mouse allows biomonitoring of inflammation...
April 1, 2017: Current Opinion in Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28361445/roles-of-probiotic-lactobacilli-inclusion-in-helping-piglets-establish-healthy-intestinal-inter-environment-for-pathogen-defense
#12
REVIEW
Jiajun Yang, Kun Qian, Chonglong Wang, Yijing Wu
The gastrointestinal tract of pigs is densely populated with microorganisms that closely interact with the host and with ingested feed. Gut microbiota benefits the host by providing nutrients from dietary substrates and modulating the development and function of the digestive and immune systems. An optimized gastrointestinal microbiome is crucial for pigs' health, and establishment of the microbiome in piglets is especially important for growth and disease resistance. However, the microbiome in the gastrointestinal tract of piglets is immature and easily influenced by the environment...
March 30, 2017: Probiotics and Antimicrobial Proteins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28361440/acid-suppressive-therapy-and-risk-of-infections-pros-and-cons
#13
REVIEW
Leon Fisher, Alexander Fisher
This narrative review summarises the benefits, risks and appropriate use of acid-suppressing drugs (ASDs), proton pump inhibitors and histamine-2 receptor antagonists, advocating a rationale balanced and individualised approach aimed to minimise any serious adverse consequences. It focuses on current controversies on the potential of ASDs to contribute to infections-bacterial, parasitic, fungal, protozoan and viral, particularly in the elderly, comprehensively and critically discusses the growing body of observational literature linking ASD use to a variety of enteric, respiratory, skin and systemic infectious diseases and complications (Clostridium difficile diarrhoea, pneumonia, spontaneous bacterial peritonitis, septicaemia and other)...
March 30, 2017: Clinical Drug Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346927/microbiota-in-functional-gastrointestinal-disorders-in-infancy-implications-for-management
#14
Thomas R Abrahamsson, Richard Y Wu, Philip M Sherman
The complex and diverse intestinal microbiome is recognized as important in promoting human health. An altered gut microflora, referred to as dysbiosis, is increasingly recognized as having an etiologic role in a variety of conditions, including functional gastrointestinal disorders: colic in infants and irritable bowel syndrome in older children. Probiotics are defined as live microorganisms that, if ingested in sufficient amounts, restore microbial homeostasis and have a benefit on health. Randomized controlled trials indicate that probiotics can be effective in a variety of intestinal conditions, including colic and irritable bowel syndrome...
2017: Nestlé Nutrition Institute Workshop Series
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337589/colonization-by-non-pathogenic-bacteria-alters-mrna-expression-of-cytochromes-p450-in-originally-germ-free-mice
#15
L Jourová, P Anzenbacher, B Lišková, Z Matušková, P Hermanová, T Hudcovic, H Kozáková, L Hrnčířová, E Anzenbacherová
Gut microbiota provides a wide range of beneficial function for the host and has an immense effect on the host's health state. It has also been shown that gut microbiome is often involved in the biotransformation of xenobiotics; however, the molecular mechanisms of the interaction between the gut bacteria and the metabolism of drugs by the host are still unclear. To investigate the effect of microbial colonization on messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of liver cytochromes P450 (CYPs), the main drug-metabolizing enzymes, we used germ-free (GF) mice, lacking the intestinal flora and mice monocolonized by non-pathogenic bacteria Lactobacillus plantarum (NIZO2877) or probiotic bacteria Escherichia coli Nissle 1917 compared to specific pathogen-free (SPF) mice...
March 23, 2017: Folia Microbiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326066/beneficial-microorganisms-for-corals-bmc-proposed-mechanisms-for-coral-health-and-resilience
#16
REVIEW
Raquel S Peixoto, Phillipe M Rosado, Deborah Catharine de Assis Leite, Alexandre S Rosado, David G Bourne
The symbiotic association between the coral animal and its endosymbiotic dinoflagellate partner Symbiodinium is central to the success of corals. However, an array of other microorganisms associated with coral (i.e., Bacteria, Archaea, Fungi, and viruses) have a complex and intricate role in maintaining homeostasis between corals and Symbiodinium. Corals are sensitive to shifts in the surrounding environmental conditions. One of the most widely reported responses of coral to stressful environmental conditions is bleaching...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322134/reproductive-microbiomes
#17
Michael L Power, Caroline Quaglieri, Jay Schulkin
Almost every part of our body has a coevolved microbial community. The expressed microbial genes comprise the various microbiomes that play important roles in normal physiology and development. The various microbiomes are separate, yet often connected, with the species composition of one affecting others. The female reproductive system microbiomes (eg, vaginal, placental, and mammary/milk) remain less well explored than the gut microbiome although they comprise a large proportion of the female microbial network...
January 1, 2017: Reproductive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317073/effect-of-8-weeks-prebiotics-probiotics-supplementation-on-alcohol-metabolism-and-blood-biomarkers-of-healthy-adults-a-pilot-study
#18
Christopher Irwin, Saman Khalesi, Amanda J Cox, Gary Grant, Andrew K Davey, Andrew C Bulmer, Ben Desbrow
PURPOSE: Modulating gut bacteria via regular prebiotics/probiotics consumption may improve the metabolism of acute alcohol ingestion. This study investigated the impact of 8-weeks prebiotics/probiotics supplementation on microbiome changes and responses to acute alcohol consumption. METHODS: 38 participants (21 females, 23.6 ± 3.4 kg m(-2), mean ± SD) attended the laboratory on two occasions separated by an 8-week intervention period. On each of these visits, a dose of alcohol (0...
March 19, 2017: European Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293937/gut-microbiota-and-inflammatory-bowel-disease-an-update
#19
Grainne Holleran, Loris R Lopetuso, Gianluca Ianiro, Silvia Pecere, Marco Pizzoferrato, Valentina Petito, Cristina Graziani, Deirdre Mc Namara, Antonio Gasbarrini, Franco Scaldaferri
Major advances have occurred in the knowledge of the pathogenesis of Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) over the last decade, and perhaps the most major, and clinically advantageous of these advances has been the discovery of the microbiome as a key multifaceted component of inflammation. The Gut microbiome is the largest known group of cells in the body, and is now recognised as an organ in its own right. Initial studies looking at a possible role of bacterial manipulation of the immune system in IBD, looked at identifying a specific bacterial species, and were not representative of a feasible model of inflammation in IBD overall...
March 14, 2017: Minerva Gastroenterologica e Dietologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28291252/influence-of-ad-libitum-feeding-of-piglets-with-bacillus-subtilis-fermented-liquid-feed-on-gut-flora-luminal-contents-and-health
#20
Yuyong He, Chunxia Mao, Hong Wen, Zhiyu Chen, Tao Lai, Lingyu Li, Wei Lu, Huadong Wu
Some scholars caution that long-term ad libitum feeding with probiotic fermented food poses potential health risks to baby animals. We conducted a feeding experiment to investigate the influence of ad libitum feeding of pre-and post-weaned piglets with a Bacillus subtilis fermented diet on the gut microbiome, gut metabolomic profiles, bile acid metabolism, proinflammatory cytokines and faecal consistency. Compared with piglets fed a Bacillus subtilis-supplemented pellet diet, piglets fed the Bacillus subtilis fermented liquid diet had lower intestinal bacterial diversity (P > 0...
March 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
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