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Dictyostelium

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935957/modulation-of-cyclic-nucleotide-mediated-cellular-signaling-and-gene-expression-using-photoactivated-adenylyl-cyclase-as-an-optogenetic-tool
#1
Meenakshi Tanwar, Lohit Khera, Nemneineng Haokip, Rajeev Kaul, Aruna Naorem, Suneel Kateriya
Cyclic nucleotide signaling pathway plays a significant role in various biological processes such as cell growth, transcription, inflammation, in microbial pathogenesis, etc. Modulation of cyclic nucleotide levels by optogenetic tools has overcome certain limitations of studying transduction cascade by pharmacological agents and has allowed several ways to modulate biological processes in a spatiotemporal manner. Here, we have shown the optogenetic modulation of the cyclooxygenase 2 (Cox-2) gene expression and their downstream effector molecule (PGE2) in HEK-293T cells and the development process of Dictyostelium discoideum via modulating the cyclic nucleotide (cAMP) signaling pathway utilizing photoactivated adenylyl cyclases (PACs) as an optogenetic tool...
September 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928220/characterization-of-a-cytoplasmic-glucosyltransferase-that-extends-the-core-trisaccharide-of-the-toxoplasma-skp1-e3-ubiquitin-ligase-subunit
#2
Kazi Rahman, Msano Mandalasi, Peng Zhao, M Osman Sheikh, Rahil Taujale, Hyun W Kim, Hanke van der Wel, Khushi Matta, Natarajan Kannan, John N Glushka, Lance Wells, Christopher M West
Skp1 is a subunit of the SCF (Skp1/Cullin-1/F-box protein) class of E3 ubiquitin ligases that are important for eukaryotic protein degradation. Unlike its animal counterparts, Skp1 from Toxoplasma gondii is hydroxylated by an O2-dependent prolyl-4-hydroxylase (PhyA), and the resulting hydroxyproline can subsequently be modified by a five-sugar chain. A similar modification is found in the social amoeba Dictyostelium, where it regulates SCF assembly and O2-dependent development. Homologous glycosyltransferases assemble a similar core trisaccharide in both organisms, and a bifunctional α-galactosyltransferase from CAZy family GT77 mediates addition of the final two sugars in Dictyostelium, generating Galα1,3Galα1,3Fucα1,2Galβ1,3GlcNAcα1-...
September 19, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928219/o2-sensing-associated-glycosylation-exposes-the-f-box-combining-site-of-the-dictyostelium-skp1-subunit-in-e3-ubiquitin-ligases
#3
M Osman Sheikh, David Thieker, Gordon Chalmers, Christopher M Schafer, Mayumi Ishihara, Parastoo Azadi, Robert J Woods, John N Glushka, Brad Bendiak, James H Prestegard, Christopher M West
Skp1 is a conserved protein linking cullin-1 to F-box proteins in SCF (Skp1-Cullin1-F-box) E3 ubiquitin ligases, which modify protein substrates with polyubiquitin chains that typically target them for 26S proteasome-mediated degradation. In Dictyostelium (a social amoeba), Toxoplasma gondii (the agent for human toxoplasmosis), and other protists, Skp1 is regulated by a unique pentasaccharide attached to hydroxylated Pro-143 within its C-terminal F-box binding domain. Prolyl hydroxylation of Skp1 contributes to O2-dependent Dictyostelium development, but full glycosylation at that position is required for optimal O2 sensing...
September 19, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921976/isolation-synthesis-and-biological-activity-of-chlorinated-alkylresorcinols-from-dictyostelium-cellular-slime-molds
#4
Haruhisa Kikuchi, Ikuko Ito, Katsunori Takahashi, Hirotaka Ishigaki, Kyoichi Iizumi, Yuzuru Kubohara, Yoshiteru Oshima
Eight chlorinated alkylresorcinols, monochasiol A-H (1-8), were isolated from the fruiting bodies of Dictyostelium monochasioides. Compounds 1-8 were synthesized to confirm their structures and to obtain sufficient material for performing biological tests. Monochasiol A (1) selectively inhibited the concanavalin A-induced interleukin-2 production in Jurkat cells, a human T lymphocyte cell line. Monochasiols were biogenetically synthesized by the combination of biosynthetic enzymes relating to the principal polyketides, MPBD and DIF-1, produced by Dictyostelium discoideum...
September 18, 2017: Journal of Natural Products
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28889942/differential-functions-of-wave-regulatory-complex-subunits-in-the-regulation-of-actin-driven-processes
#5
Christof Litschko, Joern Linkner, Stefan Brühmann, Theresia E B Stradal, Tobias Reinl, Lothar Jänsch, Klemens Rottner, Jan Faix
The WAVE regulatory complex (WRC) links upstream Rho-family GTPase signaling to the activation of the ARP2/3 complex in different organisms. WRC-induced and ARP2/3 complex-mediated actin nucleation beneath the plasma membrane is critical for actin assembly in the leading edge to drive efficient cell migration. The WRC is a stable heteropentamer composed of SCAR/WAVE, Abi, Nap, Pir and the small polypeptide Brk1/Hspc300. Functional interference with individual subunits of the complex frequently results in diminished amounts of the remaining polypeptides of the WRC complex, implying the complex to act as molecular entity...
September 4, 2017: European Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28879231/homeodomain-like-dna-binding-proteins-control-the-haploid-to-diploid-transition-in-dictyostelium
#6
Katy Hedgethorne, Sebastian Eustermann, Ji-Chun Yang, Tom E H Ogden, David Neuhaus, Gareth Bloomfield
Homeodomain proteins control the developmental transition between the haploid and diploid phases in several eukaryotic lineages, but it is not known whether this regulatory mechanism reflects the ancestral condition or, instead, convergent evolution. We have characterized the mating-type locus of the amoebozoan Dictyostelium discoideum, which encodes two pairs of small proteins that determine the three mating types of this species; none of these proteins display recognizable homology to known families. We report that the nuclear magnetic resonance structures of two of them, MatA and MatB, contain helix-turn-helix folds flanked by largely disordered amino- and carboxyl-terminal tails...
September 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28871552/lessons-from-a-tarantula-new-insights-into-myosin-interacting-heads-motif-evolution-and-its-implications-on-disease
#7
REVIEW
Lorenzo Alamo, Antonio Pinto, Guidenn Sulbarán, Jesús Mavárez, Raúl Padrón
Tarantula's leg muscle thick filament is the ideal model for the study of the structure and function of skeletal muscle thick filaments. Its analysis has given rise to a series of structural and functional studies, leading, among other things, to the discovery of the myosin interacting-heads motif (IHM). Further electron microscopy (EM) studies have shown the presence of IHM in frozen-hydrated and negatively stained thick filaments of striated, cardiac, and smooth muscle of bilaterians, most showing the IHM parallel to the filament axis...
September 4, 2017: Biophysical Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28865076/loss-of-frmb-results-in-increased-size-of-developmental-structures-during-the-multicellular-development-of-dictyostelium-cells
#8
Hyeseon Kim, Mi-Rae Lee, Taeck Joong Jeon
FERM domain-containing proteins are involved in diverse biological and pathological processes, including cell-substrate adhesion, cell-cell adhesion, multicellular development, and cancer metastasis. In this study, we determined the functions of FrmB, a FERM domain-containing protein, in the cell morphology, cell adhesion, and multicellular development of Dictyostelium cells. Our results show that FrmB appears to play an important role in regulating the size of developmental structures. frmB null cells showed prolonged aggregation during development, resulting in increased size of developmental structures, such as mounds and fruiting bodies, compared to those of wild-type cells, whereas FrmB overexpressing cells exhibited decreased size of developmental structures...
September 2017: Journal of Microbiology / the Microbiological Society of Korea
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28846184/yeast-and-other-lower-eukaryotic-organisms-for-studies-of-vps13-proteins-in-health-and-disease
#9
REVIEW
Weronika Rzepnikowska, Krzysztof Flis, Sandra Muñoz-Braceras, Regina Menezes, Ricardo Escalante, Teresa Zoladek
Human Vps13 proteins are associated with several diseases, including the neurodegenerative disorder Chorea-acanthocytosis (ChAc), yet the biology of these proteins is still poorly understood. Studies in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Dictyostelium discoideum, Tetrahymena thermophila and Drosophila melanogaster point to the involvement of Vps13 in cytoskeleton organization, vesicular trafficking, autophagy, phagocytosis, endocytosis, proteostasis, sporulation and mitochondrial functioning. Recent findings show that yeast Vps13 binds to phosphatidylinositol lipids via four different regions and functions at membrane contact sites, enlarging the list of Vps13 functions...
August 28, 2017: Traffic
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28846170/stalk-size-and-altruism-investment-within-and-among-populations-of-the-social-amoeba
#10
Heather R Votaw, E A Ostrowski
Reproductive division of labor is common in many societies, including those of eusocial insects, cooperatively breeding vertebrates, and most forms of multicellularity. However, conflict over what is best for the individual versus the group can prevent an optimal division of labor from being achieved. In the social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum, cells aggregate to become multicellular and a fraction behaves altruistically, forming a dead stalk that supports the rest. Theory suggests that intraorganismal conflict over spore-stalk cell fate can drive rapid evolutionary change in allocation traits, leading to polymorphisms within populations or rapid divergence between them...
August 28, 2017: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28843671/expanding-francisella-models-pairing-up-the-soil-amoeba-dictyostelium-with-aquatic-francisella
#11
REVIEW
Yannick Brenz, Hanne C Winther-Larsen, Monica Hagedorn
The bacterial genus Francisella comprises highly pathogenic species that infect mammals, arthropods, fish and protists. Understanding virulence and host defense mechanisms of Francisella infection relies on multiple animal and cellular model systems. In this review, we want to summarize the most commonly used Francisella host model platforms and highlight novel, alternative model systems using aquatic Francisella species. Established mouse and macrophage models contributed extensively to our understanding of Francisella infection...
August 7, 2017: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819044/the-parkinson-s-disease-associated-protein-dj-1-plays-a-positive-nonmitochondrial-role-in-endocytosis-in-dictyostelium-cells
#12
Suwei Chen, Sarah J Annesley, Rasha A F Jasim, Vanessa J Musco, Oana Sanislav, Paul R Fisher
The loss of function of DJ-1 caused by mutations of DJ-1 causes a form of familial Parkinson's Disease (PD). However, the role of DJ-1 in healthy and in PD cells is poorly understood. Even its subcellular localization in mammalian cells is uncertain, both cytosolic and mitochondrial locations having been reported. We show here that DJ-1 is normally located in the cytoplasm in healthy Dictyostelium discoideum cells. With its unique life cycle, straightforward genotype-phenotype relationships, experimental accesibility and genetic tractability, Dictyostelium discoideum offers an attractive model to investigate the roles of PD-associated genes...
August 17, 2017: Disease Models & Mechanisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794442/the-conserved-lysine-265-allosterically-modulates-nucleotide-and-actin-binding-site-coupling-in-myosin-2
#13
Vincent A Behrens, Stefan Münnich, Georg Adler-Gunzelmann, Claudia Thiel, Arnon Henn, Sharissa L Latham, Manuel H Taft
Myosin motor proteins convert chemical energy into force and movement through their interactions with nucleotide and filamentous actin (F-actin). The evolutionarily conserved lysine-265 (K265) of the myosin-2 motor from Dictyostelium discoideum (Dd) is proposed to be a key residue in an allosteric communication pathway that mediates actin-nucleotide coupling. To better understand the role of K265, point mutations were introduced within the Dd myosin-2 M765-2R framework, replacing this lysine with alanine (K265A), glutamic acid (K265E) or glutamine (K265Q), and the functional and kinetic properties of the resulting myosin motors were assessed...
August 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28760625/methylglyoxal-upregulates-dictyostelium-discoideum-slug-migration-by-triggering-glutathione-reductase-and-methylglyoxal-reductase-activity
#14
Hyang-Mi Lee, Ji-Hui Seo, Min-Kyu Kwak, Sa-Ouk Kang
Glutathione (GSH)-deprived Dictyostelium discoideum accumulates methylglyoxal (MG) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) during vegetative growth. However, the reciprocal effects of the production and regulation of these metabolites on differentiation and cell motility are unclear. Based on the inhibitory effects of γ-glutamylcysteine synthetase (gcsA) disruption and GSH reductase (gsr) overexpression on aggregation and culmination, respectively, we overexpressed GSH-related genes encoding superoxide dismutase (Sod2), catalase (CatA), and Gcs, in D...
July 29, 2017: International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28751725/image-based-modeling-of-bleb-site-selection
#15
Sharon Collier, Peggy Paschke, Robert R Kay, Till Bretschneider
Cells often employ fast, pressure-driven blebs to move through tissues or against mechanical resistance, but how bleb sites are selected and directed to the cell front remains an open question. Previously, we found that chemotaxing Dictyostelium cells preferentially bleb from concave regions, where membrane tension facilitates membrane-cortex detachment. Now, through a novel modeling approach based on actual cell contours, we use cell geometry to predict where blebs will form in migrating cells. We find that cell geometry alone, and by implication, physical forces in the membrane, is sufficient to predict the location of blebs in rounded cells moving in a highly resistive environment...
July 27, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28751309/fat-containing-cells-are-eliminated-during-dictyostelium-development
#16
Jessica M Kornke, Markus Maniak
Triacylglycerol is a universal storage molecule for metabolic energy in living organisms. However, Dictyostelium amoebae, that have accumulated storage fat from added fatty acids do not progress through the starvation period preceding the development of the durable spore. Mutants deficient in genes of fat metabolism, such as fcsA, encoding a fatty acid activating enzyme, or dgat1 and dgat2, specifying proteins that synthesize triacylglycerol, strongly increase their chances to contribute to the spore fraction of the developing fruiting body, but lose the ability to produce storage fat efficiently...
September 15, 2017: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742155/acceleration-of-the-sliding-movement-of-actin-filaments-with-the-use-of-a-non-motile-mutant-myosin-in-in-vitro-motility-assays-driven-by-skeletal-muscle-heavy-meromyosin
#17
Kohei Iwase, Masateru Tanaka, Keiko Hirose, Taro Q P Uyeda, Hajime Honda
We examined the movement of an actin filament sliding on a mixture of normal and genetically modified myosin molecules that were attached to a glass surface. For this purpose, we used a Dictyostelium G680V mutant myosin II whose release rates of Pi and ADP were highly suppressed relative to normal myosin, leading to a significantly extended life-time of the strongly bound state with actin and virtually no motility. When the mixing ratio of G680V mutant myosin II to skeletal muscle HMM (heavy myosin) was 0.01%, the actin filaments moved intermittently...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727774/inhibitors-of-mycobacterium-marinum-virulence-identified-in-a-dictyostelium-discoideum-host-model
#18
Hajer Ouertatani-Sakouhi, Sébastien Kicka, Gianpaolo Chiriano, Christopher F Harrison, Hubert Hilbi, Leonardo Scapozza, Thierry Soldati, Pierre Cosson
Tuberculosis remains one of the major threats to public health worldwide. Given the prevalence of multi drug resistance (MDR) in Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains, there is a strong need to develop new anti-mycobacterial drugs with modes of action distinct from classical antibiotics. Inhibitors of mycobacterial virulence might target new molecular processes and may represent a potential new therapeutic alternative. In this study, we used a Dictyostelium discoideum host model to assess virulence of Mycobacterium marinum and to identify compounds inhibiting mycobacterial virulence...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719054/evolutionary-cell-biology-of-proteins-from-protists-to-humans-and-plants
#19
REVIEW
Helmut Plattner
During evolution, the cell as a fine-tuned machine had to undergo permanent adjustments to match changes in its environment, while "closed for repair work" was not possible. Evolution from protists (protozoa and unicellular algae) to multicellular organisms may have occurred in basically two lineages, Unikonta and Bikonta, culminating in mammals and angiosperms (flowering plants), respectively. Unicellular models for unikont evolution are myxamoebae (Dictyostelium) and increasingly also choanoflagellates, whereas, for bikonts, ciliates are preferred models...
July 18, 2017: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714585/mathematical-model-of-collective-cell-migrations-based-on-cell-polarity
#20
Masakazu Akiyama, Takamichi Sushida, Sumire Ishida, Hisashi Haga
Individual cells migrate toward the direction of the cell polarity generated by interior or exterior factors. Under situations without guides such as chemoattractants, they migrate randomly. On the other hand, it has been observed that cell groups lead to systematic collective cell migrations. For example, Dictyostelium discoideum and Madin-Darby canine kidney (epithelial) cells exhibit typical collective cell migration patterns such as uniformly directional migration and rotational migration. In particular, it has been suggested from experimental investigations that rotational migrations are intimately related to morphogenesis of organs and tissues in several species...
July 17, 2017: Development, Growth & Differentiation
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