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Amanda L Lumsden, Richard L Young, Nektaria Pezos, Damien J Keating
BACKGROUND: Huntingtin-associated Protein 1 (HAP1) is expressed in neurons and endocrine cells, and is critical for postnatal survival in mice. HAP1 shares a conserved "HAP1_N" domain with TRAfficking Kinesin proteins TRAK1 and TRAK2 (vertebrate), Milton (Drosophila) and T27A3.1 (C. elegans). HAP1, TRAK1 and TRAK2 have a degree of common function, particularly regarding intracellular receptor trafficking. However, TRAK1, TRAK2 and Milton (which have a "Milt/TRAK" domain that is absent in human and rodent HAP1) differ in function to HAP1 in that they are mitochondrial transport proteins, while HAP1 has emerging roles in starvation response...
October 13, 2016: BMC Evolutionary Biology
A Nakajima, M Ishida, T Fujimori, Y Wakamoto, S Sawai
Studies of chemotactic cell migration rely heavily on various assay systems designed to evaluate the ability of cells to move in response to attractant molecules. In particular, the development of microfluidics-based devices in recent years has made it possible to spatially distribute attractant molecules in graded profiles that are sufficiently stable and precise to test theoretical predictions regarding the accuracy and efficiency of chemotaxis and the underlying mechanism of stimulus perception. However, because the gradient is fixed in a direction orthogonal to the laminar flow and thus the chamber geometry, conventional devices are limited for the study of cell re-orientation to gradients that move or change directions...
October 13, 2016: Lab on a Chip
Youtao Liu, Jesus Lacal, Richard A Firtel, Arjan Kortholt
The directional movement towards extracellular chemical gradients, a process called chemotaxis, is an important property of cells. Central to eukaryotic chemotaxis is the molecular mechanism by which chemoattractant-mediated activation of G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) induces symmetry breaking in the activated downstream signaling pathways. Studies with mainly Dictyostelium and mammalian neutrophils as experimental systems have shown that chemotaxis is mediated by a complex network of signaling pathways...
October 7, 2016: Small GTPases
Ana Mesquita, Elena Cardenal-Muñoz, Eunice Dominguez, Sandra Muñoz-Braceras, Beatriz Nuñez-Corcuera, Ben A Phillips, Luis C Tábara, Qiuhong Xiong, Roberto Coria, Ludwig Eichinger, Pierre Golstein, Jason S King, Thierry Soldati, Olivier Vincent, Ricardo Escalante
Autophagy is a fast-moving field with an enormous impact on human health and disease. Understanding the complexity of the mechanism and regulation of this process often benefits from the use of simple experimental models such as the social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum. Since the publication of the first review describing the potential of D. discoideum in autophagy, significant advances have been made that demonstrate both the experimental advantages and interest in using this model. Since our previous review, research in D...
October 7, 2016: Autophagy
Till Bretschneider, Hans G Othmer, Cornelis J Weijer
Movement of cells and tissues is a basic biological process that is used in development, wound repair, the immune response to bacterial invasion, tumour formation and metastasis, and the search for food and mates. While some cell movement is random, directed movement stimulated by extracellular signals is our focus here. This involves a sequence of steps in which cells first detect extracellular chemical and/or mechanical signals via membrane receptors that activate signal transduction cascades and produce intracellular signals...
October 6, 2016: Interface Focus
J A Mackenzie, M Nolan, R H Insall
Chemoattractant gradients are usually considered in terms of sources and sinks that are independent of the chemotactic cell. However, recent interest has focused on 'self-generated' gradients, in which cell populations create their own local gradients as they move. Here, we consider the interplay between chemoattractants and single cells. To achieve this, we extend a recently developed computational model to incorporate breakdown of extracellular attractants by membrane-bound enzymes. Model equations are parametrized, using the published estimates from Dictyostelium cells chemotaxing towards cyclic AMP...
October 6, 2016: Interface Focus
Paulo G Hofstatter, Alexander K Tice, Seungho Kang, Matthew W Brown, Daniel J G Lahr
Recombinase enzymes promote DNA repair by homologous recombination. The genes that encode them are ancestral to life, occurring in all known dominions: viruses, Eubacteria, Archaea and Eukaryota. Bacterial recombinases are also present in viruses and eukaryotic groups (supergroups), presumably via ancestral events of lateral gene transfer. The eukaryotic recA genes have two distinct origins (mitochondrial and plastidial), whose acquisition by eukaryotes was possible via primary (bacteria-eukaryote) and/or secondary (eukaryote-eukaryote) endosymbiotic gene transfers (EGTs)...
October 12, 2016: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
Markela Ibo, Vasudha Srivastava, Douglas N Robinson, Zachary R Gagnon
Migrating cells can extend their leading edge by forming myosin-driven blebs and F-actin-driven pseudopods. When coerced to migrate in resistive environments, Dictyostelium cells switch from using predominately pseudopods to blebs. Bleb formation has been shown to be chemotactic and can be influenced by the direction of the chemotactic gradient. In this study, we determine the blebbing responses of developed cells of Dictyostelium discoideum to cAMP gradients of varying steepness produced in microfluidic channels with different confining heights, ranging between 1...
2016: PloS One
Nick A Kuburich, Nirakar Adhikari, Jeffrey A Hadwiger
Amoeba often use cell movement as a mechanism to find food, such as bacteria, in their environment. The chemotactic movement of the soil amoeba Dictyostelium to folate or other pterin compounds released by bacteria is a well-documented foraging mechanism. Acanthamoeba can also feed on bacteria but relatively little is known about the mechanism(s) by which this amoeba locates bacteria. Acanthamoeba movement in the presence of folate or bacteria was analyzed in above agar assays and compared to that observed for Dictyostelium...
September 6, 2016: Protist
Robert J Huber, Danton H O'Day
BACKGROUND: The extracellular matrix (ECM) is a dynamic complex of glycoproteins, proteoglycans, carbohydrates, and collagen that serves as an interface between mammalian cells and their extracellular environment. Essential for normal cellular homeostasis, physiology, and events that occur during development, it is also a key functionary in a number of human diseases including cancer. The social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum secretes an ECM during multicellular development that regulates multicellularity, cell motility, cell differentiation, and morphogenesis, and provides structural support and protective layers to the resulting differentiated cell types...
September 28, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Xi Wen, Tian Jin, Xuehua Xu
Eukaryotic cells sense and move towards a chemoattractant gradient, a cellular process referred as chemotaxis. Chemotaxis plays critical roles in many physiological processes, such as embryogenesis, neuron patterning, metastasis of cancer cells, recruitment of neutrophils to sites of inflammation, and the development of the model organism Dictyostelium discoideum. Eukaryotic cells sense chemo-attractants using G protein-coupled receptors. Visual chemotaxis assays are essential for a better understanding of how eukaryotic cells control chemoattractant-mediated directional cell migration...
2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Robert J Huber, Michael A Myre, Susan L Cotman
Neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis (NCL), also known as Batten disease, refers to a group of severe neurodegenerative disorders that primarily affect children. The most common subtype of the disease is caused by loss-of-function mutations in CLN3, which is conserved across model species from yeast to human. The precise function of the CLN3 protein is not known, which has made targeted therapy development challenging. In the social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum, loss of Cln3 causes aberrant mid-to-late stage multicellular development...
September 26, 2016: Cell Adhesion & Migration
Ashlesha A Kadam, Tina Jubin, Hina A Mir, Rasheedunnisa Begum
Apoptosis Inducing Factor (AIF), a phylogenetically conserved mitochondrial inter-membrane space flavoprotein has an important role in caspase independent cell death. Nevertheless, AIF is also essential for cell survival. It is required for mitochondrial organization and energy metabolism. Upon apoptotic stimulation, AIF induces DNA fragmentation after its mitochondrio-nuclear translocation. Although it executes critical cellular functions in a coordinated manner, the exact mechanism still remains obscure. The present study aims to understand AIF's role in cell survival, growth and development by its down-regulation in an interesting unicellular eukaryote, D...
September 20, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Catherine M Buckley, Navin Gopaldass, Cristina Bosmani, Simon A Johnston, Thierry Soldati, Robert H Insall, Jason S King
Macropinocytosis is an ancient mechanism that allows cells to harvest nutrients from extracellular media, which also allows immune cells to sample antigens from their surroundings. During macropinosome formation, bulk plasma membrane is internalized with all its integral proteins. It is vital for cells to salvage these proteins before degradation, but the mechanisms for sorting them are not known. Here we describe the evolutionarily conserved recruitment of the WASH (WASP and SCAR homolog) complex to both macropinosomes and phagosomes within a minute of internalization...
October 4, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Sebastián Riquelme, Macarena Varas, Camila Valenzuela, Paula Velozo, Nicolás Chahin, Paulina Aguilera, Andrea Sabag, Bayron Labra, Sergio A Álvarez, Francisco P Chávez, Carlos A Santiviago
The social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum has proven to be a useful model for studying relevant aspects of the host-pathogen interaction. In this work, D. discoideum was used as a model to study the ability of Salmonella Typhimurium to survive in amoebae and to evaluate the contribution of selected genes in this process. To do this, we performed infection assays using axenic cultures of D. discoideum co-cultured with wild-type S. Typhimurium and/or defined mutant strains. Our results confirmed that wild-type S...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Tineke Albers, Markus Maniak, Eric Beitz, Julia von Bülow
Tetraspanins (Tsps) are membrane proteins that are widely expressed in eukaryotic organisms. Only recently, Tsps have started to acquire relevance as potential new drug targets as they contribute, via protein-protein interactions, to numerous pathophysiological processes including infectious diseases and cancer. However, due to a high number of isoforms and functional redundancy, knowledge on specific functions of most Tsps is still scarce. We set out to characterize five previously annotated Tsps, TspA-E, from Dictyostelium discoideum, a model for studying proteins that have human orthologues...
2016: PloS One
Alasdair R Gunn, Benito Banos-Pinero, Peggy Paschke, Luis Sanchez-Pulido, Antonio Ariza, Joseph Day, Mehera Emrich, David Leys, Chris P Ponting, Ivan Ahel, Nicholas D Lakin
ADP-ribosylation by ADP-ribosyltransferases (ARTs) has a well-established role in DNA strand break repair by promoting enrichment of repair factors at damage sites through ADP-ribose interaction domains. Here, we exploit the simple eukaryote Dictyostelium to uncover a role for ADP-ribosylation in regulating DNA interstrand crosslink repair and redundancy of this pathway with non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ). In silico searches were used to identify a protein that contains a permutated macrodomain (which we call aprataxin/APLF-and-PNKP-like protein; APL)...
October 15, 2016: Journal of Cell Science
William F Loomis
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2016: Genome Research
Thomas Spaller, Eva Kling, Gernot Glöckner, Falk Hillmann, Thomas Winckler
BACKGROUND: In gene-dense genomes, mobile elements are confronted with highly selective pressure to amplify without causing excessive damage to the host. The targeting of tRNA genes as potentially safe integration sites has been developed by retrotransposons in various organisms such as the social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum and the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In D. discoideum, tRNA gene-targeting retrotransposons have expanded to approximately 3 % of the genome. Recently obtained genome sequences of species representing the evolutionary history of social amoebae enabled us to determine whether the targeting of tRNA genes is a generally successful strategy for mobile elements to colonize compact genomes...
2016: Mobile DNA
Thu Ngo, Xin Miao, Douglas N Robinson, Qiong-Qiong Zhou
AIM: RNA-binding proteins are a large group of regulators (800-1000 in humans), some of which play significant roles in mRNA local translation. In this study, we analyzed the functions of the protein RNP-1, which was previously discovered in a genetic selection screen for nocodazole suppression. METHODS: The growth rates and the microtubule networks of Dictyostelium cells were assessed with or without nocodazole (10 μmol/L) in suspension culture. Fluorescent images of RNP-1-GFP and RFP-tubulin were captured when cells were undergoing cytokinesis, then the GFP signal intensity and distance to the nearest centrosome were analyzed by using a computer program written in Matlab(®)...
August 29, 2016: Acta Pharmacologica Sinica
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