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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045878/homodimeric-kinesin-2-kif3cc-promotes-microtubule-dynamics
#1
Stephanie Guzik-Lendrum, Ivan Rayment, Susan P Gilbert
KIF3C is one subunit of the functional microtubule-based kinesin-2 KIF3AC motor, an anterograde cargo transporter in neurons. However, KIF3C has also been implicated as an injury-specific kinesin that is a key regulator of axonal growth and regeneration by promoting microtubule dynamics for reorganization at the neuronal growth cone. To test its potential role as a modulator of microtubule dynamics in vitro, an engineered homodimeric KIF3CC was incorporated into a dynamic microtubule assay and examined by total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy...
October 17, 2017: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044995/mir-200c-regulates-endothelin-1-induced-pasmcs-abnormal-proliferation-and-apoptosis
#2
Chao Yuan, Min Xu, Rong Rong, Yong Mei, Wenyan Cai, Lin Li, Yao Xue, Baoli Zhu, Kai Sun, Lei Han
miR-200c is an antioncogene in multiple tumors. However, its function in the pathogenesis of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) has not been thoroughly investigated nor understood. In this study, we discovered that miR-200c was able to substantially upregulate in pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells (PASMCs) treated with endothelin-1 (ET-1). miR-200c also induced cell proliferation and suppressed cell apoptosis in PASMCs in vitro. However, miR-200c had no effect on G1/S/G2 transitions during the cell cycle...
October 16, 2017: IUBMB Life
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044293/down-regulation-of-the-munc18b-syntaxin-11-complex-and-%C3%AE-1-tubulin-impairs-secretion-and-spreading-in-neonatal-platelets
#3
Eva Caparrós-Pérez, Raúl Teruel-Montoya, Verónica Palma-Barquero, José M Torregrosa, José E Blanco, Juan L Delgado, María Luisa Lozano, Vicente Vicente, Martha Sola-Visner, José Rivera, Constantino Martínez, Francisca Ferrer-Marín
Neonatal platelets are hyporeactive and show impaired agonist-induced secretion despite no obvious abnormalities in their granules. Here, we examined, for the first time, the ultrastructure of neonatal and adult platelets following agonist activation. Under resting conditions, neonatal and adult platelets appeared ultrastructurally identical. Following agonist stimulation, however, noticeable degranulation occurred in adult platelets, while granules in neonatal platelets remained clearly visible and apparently unable to centralize or fuse...
October 10, 2017: Thrombosis and Haemostasis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044157/facilitating-identification-of-minimal-protein-binding-domains-by-cross-linking-mass-spectrometry
#4
Qingyang Liu, Sanne Remmelzwaal, Albert J R Heck, Anna Akhmanova, Fan Liu
Characterization of protein interaction domains is crucial for understanding protein functions. Here we combine cross-linking mass spectrometry (XL-MS) with deletion analysis to accurately locate minimal protein interaction domains. As a proof of concept, we investigated in detail the binding interfaces of two protein assemblies: the complex formed by MICAL3, ELKS and Rab8A, which is involved in exocytosis, and the complex of SLAIN2, CLASP2 and ch-TOG, which controls microtubule dynamics. We found that XL-MS provides valuable information to efficiently guide the design of protein fragments that are essential for protein interaction...
October 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043776/art-advancing-science-filmmaking-leads-to-molecular-insights-at-the-nanoscale
#5
Charles Reilly, Donald E Ingber
Many have recognized the potential value of facilitating activities that span the art-science interface for the benefit of society; however, there are few examples that demonstrate how pursuit of an artistic agenda can lead to scientific insights. Here, we describe how we set out to produce an entertaining short film depicting the fertilization of the egg by sperm as a parody of a preview for another Star Wars movie to excite the public about science, but ended up developing a simulation tool for multiscale modeling...
October 18, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043445/the-role-of-intermediate-filaments-in-maintaining-integrity-and-function-of-intestinal-epithelial-cells-after-massive-bowel-resection-in-a-rat
#6
I Sukhotnik, Y Ben Shahar, Y Pollak, T Dorfman, H Kreizman Shefer, Z E Assi, N Mor-Vaknin, A G Coran
PURPOSE: Intermediate filaments (IFs) are a part of the cytoskeleton that extend throughout the cytoplasm of all cells and function in the maintenance of cell-shape by bearing tension and serving as structural components of the nuclear lamina. In normal intestine, IFs provide a tissue-specific three-dimensional scaffolding with unique context-dependent organizational features. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the role of IFs during intestinal adaptation in a rat model of short bowel syndrome (SBS)...
October 17, 2017: Pediatric Surgery International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042965/overexpression-of-let-7a-increases-neurotoxicity-in-a-pc12-cell-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease-via-regulating-autophagy
#7
Huizi Gu, Lan Li, Chen Cui, Zihui Zhao, Guijun Song
Increased deposition of β-amyloid (Aβ) protein is one of the typical characteristics of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Recent evidence has demonstrated that the microRNA let-7 family, which is highly expressed in the central nervous system, participates in the regulation of pathologic processes of AD. In the present study, the effect of let-7a overexpression on Aβ1-40-induced neurotoxicity was evaluated in PC12 and SK-N-SH cells. The results indicated that overexpression of let-7a enhanced the neurotoxicity induced by Aβ1-40 in PC12 and SK-N-SH cells...
October 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042950/expression-of-ccr3-sox5-and-lc3-in-patients-with-elderly-onset-rheumatoid-arthritis-and-the-clinical-significance
#8
Jing Wang, Qing Zhao
This study investigated the expression of C-C chemokine receptor type 3 (CCR3), transcription factor SOX5 (SOX5) and microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3) in patients with elderly onset rheumatoid arthritis (EORA) and the clinical significance. Ninety patients with elderly onset rheumatoid arthritis were selected in our hospital from January to December in 2016 to serve as patient group. At the same time, 50 healthy people were selected as control group. Levels of CCR3, SOX5 and LC3 in serum of two groups were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)...
October 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042548/human-mesenchymal-stromal-cells-transplanted-into-mice-stimulate-renal-tubular-cells-and-enhance-mitochondrial-function
#9
Luca Perico, Marina Morigi, Cinzia Rota, Matteo Breno, Caterina Mele, Marina Noris, Martino Introna, Chiara Capelli, Lorena Longaretti, Daniela Rottoli, Sara Conti, Daniela Corna, Giuseppe Remuzzi, Ariela Benigni
Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are renoprotective and drive regeneration following injury, although cellular targets of such an effect are still ill-defined. Here, we show that human umbilical cord (UC)-MSCs transplanted into mice stimulate tubular cells to regain mitochondrial mass and function, associated with enhanced microtubule-rich projections that appear to mediate mitochondrial trafficking to create a reparative dialogue among adjacent tubular cells. Treatment with UC-MSCs in mice with cisplatin-induced acute kidney injury (AKI) regulates mitochondrial biogenesis in proximal tubuli by enhancing PGC1α expression, NAD(+) biosynthesis and Sirtuin 3 (SIRT3) activity, thus fostering antioxidant defenses and ATP production...
October 17, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042452/export-of-membrane-proteins-from-the-golgi-complex-to-the-primary-cilium-requires-the-kinesin-motor-kifc1
#10
Si-Hyung Lee, Kwangsic Joo, Eun Ji Jung, Hyowon Hong, Jimyung Seo, Joon Kim
Microtubule-based motors contribute to the efficiency and selectivity of Golgi exit and post-Golgi transport of membrane proteins that are targeted to distinct compartments. Cytoplasmic dynein moves post-Golgi vesicles that carry rhodopsin toward the base of the connecting cilium in photoreceptor cells; however, the identity of the motors that are involved in the vesicular trafficking of ciliary membrane proteins in nonphotoreceptor cells remains unclear. Here, we demonstrate that the minus end-directed kinesin KIFC1 (kinesin family member C1) is required for both ciliary membrane protein transport and serum starvation-induced ciliogenesis in retinal pigmented epithelial 1 cells...
October 17, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042213/morpho-functional-variety-of-the-coxal-glands-in-cheyletoid-mites-prostigmata-ii-cheyletidae
#11
S A Filimonova
Trombidiform mites are characterized by the presence of several paired glands in the anterior body portion united by a common conducting duct (podocephalic canal). Apart from the acinous (salivary) glands the podocephalic system includes a pair of tubular coxal glands (CGs)responsible for osmoregulation. The aim of the present study was to figure out how functional changes of acinous glands reflect on the corresponding CG. For this purpose, the anatomy and fine structure of the CG were analyzed in two mite species, Bakericheyla chanayi and Ornythocheyletia sp...
October 14, 2017: Arthropod Structure & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29041618/trade-offs-between-structural-integrity-and-acquisition-time-in-stochastic-super-resolution-microscopy-techniques
#12
Jean-François Rupprecht, Ariadna Martinez-Marrades, Zhen Zhang, Rishita Changede, Pakorn Kanchanawong, Gilles Tessier
The applicability of widefield stochastic microscopy, such as PALM or STORM, is limited by their long acquisition times. Images are produced from the accumulation of a large number of frames that each contain a scarce number of super-resolved localizations. We show that the random and uneven distribution of localizations leads to a specific type of trade-off between the spatial and temporal resolutions. We derive analytical predictions for the minimal time required to obtain a reliable image at a given spatial resolution...
September 18, 2017: Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040870/parkin-absence-accelerates-microtubule-aging-in-dopaminergic-neurons
#13
Daniele Cartelli, Alida Amadeo, Alessandra Maria Calogero, Francesca Vittoria Marialuisa Casagrande, Carmelita De Gregorio, Mariarosa Gioria, Naoko Kuzumaki, Ilaria Costa, Jenny Sassone, Andrea Ciammola, Nobutaka Hattori, Hideyuki Okano, Stefano Goldwurm, Laurent Roybon, Gianni Pezzoli, Graziella Cappelletti
Loss-of-function caused by mutations in the parkin gene (PARK2) lead to early-onset familial Parkinson's disease. Recently, mechanistic studies proved the ability of parkin in regulating mitochondria homeostasis and microtubule (MT) stability. Looking at these systems during aging of PARK2 knockout mice, we found that loss of parkin induced an accelerated (over)acetylation of MT system both in dopaminergic neuron cell bodies and fibers, localized in the substantia nigra and corpus striatum, respectively. Interestingly, in PARK2 knockout mice, changes of MT stability preceded the alteration of mitochondria transport...
September 20, 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040653/regulatory-mechanisms-of-sperm-flagellar-motility-by-metachronal-and-synchronous-sliding-of-doublet-microtubules
#14
Gen L Takei, Masakatsu Fujinoki, Kaoru Yoshida, Sumio Ishijima
STUDY QUESTION: What is the role of metachronal and synchronous sliding in sperm flagellar motility? SUMMARY ANSWER: Both metachronal and oscillatory synchronous sliding are essential for sperm flagellar motility, while the change in mode of synchronous sliding between the non-oscillatory synchronous sliding of a specific pair of the doublet microtubules and the oscillatory synchronous sliding between most pairs of doublet microtubules modulates the sperm flagellar motility...
October 11, 2017: Molecular Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040437/sperm-release-at-spermiation-is-regulated-by-changes-in-the-organization-of-actin-and-microtubule-based-cytoskeletons-at-the-apical-ectoplasmic-specialization-a-study-using-the-adjudin-model
#15
Linxi Li, Elizabeth I Tang, Haiqi Chen, Qingquan Lian, Renshan Ge, Bruno Silvestrini, C Yan Cheng
The mechanism that regulates sperm release at spermiation is unknown. Herein, we utilized an animal model wherein rats were treated with adjudin, 1-(2,4-dichlorobenzyl)-1H-indazole-3-carbohydrazide, via oral gavage to induce premature release of elongating/elongated spermatid, followed by round spermatids and spermatocytes. Spermatid release mimicking spermiation occurred within 6-12 h following adjudin treatment and by 96 h, virtually all tubules were devoid of spermatids. Using this model, we tracked the organization of F-actin and microtubules (MTs) by immunofluorescence microscopy, and the association of actin or MT regulatory proteins that either promote or demolish cytoskeletal integrity through changes in the organization of actin-microfilaments or MTs by co-immunoprecipitation...
October 12, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29039655/dimerization-and-long-range-repulsion-established-by-both-terminals-of-the-microtubule-associated-protein-tau
#16
Zachary J Donhauser, Jared Saunders, Dennis D'Urso, Teresa A Garrett
Tau is a microtubule associated protein found in neuronal axons that has several well-known functions, such as promoting microtubule polymerization, stabilizing microtubules against depolymerization, and spatially organizing microtubules in axons. Two contrasting models have been previously described to explain tau's ability to organize the spacing between microtubules: complementary dimerization of the projection domains of taus on adjacent microtubules, or, tau's projection domain acting as a polyelectrolyte brush...
October 17, 2017: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29039594/overexpression-of-stathmin%C3%A2-1-correlates-with-poor-prognosis-and-promotes-cell-migration-and-proliferation-in-oesophageal-squamous-cell-carcinoma
#17
Peng-Zhi Ni, Jian-Zhong He, Zhi-Yong Wu, Xiang Ji, Long-Qi Chen, Xiu-E Xu, Lian-Di Liao, Jian-Yi Wu, En-Min Li, Li-Yan Xu
Stathmin 1 (STMN1) is a microtubule-regulated protein that plays an important role in tumour cell proliferation and migration. Overexpression of STMN1 is associated with clinicopathological characteristics in many human cancers. The aim of the present study was to investigate STMN1 expression, its correlation with clinicopathological characteristics, and its exact biological function in oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). STMN1 levels were measured in the ESCC tissue specimens of 276 patients by immunohistochemistry (IHC) to assess the prognostic efficacy of STMN1...
October 17, 2017: Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038301/the-small-gtpase-rsg1-controls-a-final-step-in-primary-cilia-initiation
#18
Stephanie O Agbu, Yinwen Liang, Aimin Liu, Kathryn V Anderson
Primary cilia, which are essential for normal development and tissue homeostasis, are extensions of the mother centriole, but the mechanisms that remodel the centriole to promote cilia initiation are poorly understood. Here we show that mouse embryos that lack the small guanosine triphosphatase RSG1 die at embryonic day 12.5, with developmental abnormalities characteristic of decreased cilia-dependent Hedgehog signaling. Rsg1 mutant embryos have fewer primary cilia than wild-type embryos, but the cilia that form are of normal length and traffic Hedgehog pathway proteins within the cilium correctly...
October 16, 2017: Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038173/combinatorial-regulation-of-the-balance-between-dynein-microtubule-end-accumulation-and-initiation-of-directed-motility
#19
Rupam Jha, Johanna Roostalu, Nicholas I Cade, Martina Trokter, Thomas Surrey
Cytoplasmic dynein is involved in a multitude of essential cellular functions. Dynein's activity is controlled by the combinatorial action of several regulatory proteins. The molecular mechanism of this regulation is still poorly understood. Using purified proteins, we reconstitute the regulation of the human dynein complex by three prominent regulators on dynamic microtubules in the presence of end binding proteins (EBs). We find that dynein can be in biochemically and functionally distinct pools: either tracking dynamic microtubule plus-ends in an EB-dependent manner or moving processively towards minus ends in an adaptor protein-dependent manner...
October 16, 2017: EMBO Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037990/roles-for-the-vcp-co-factors-npl4-and-ufd1-in-neuronal-function-in-drosophila-melanogaster
#20
Dwayne J Byrne, Mark J Harmon, Jeremy C Simpson, Craig Blackstone, Niamh C O'Sullivan
The VCP-Ufd1-Npl4 complex regulates proteasomal processing within cells by delivering ubiquitinated proteins to the proteasome for degradation. Mutations in VCP are associated with two neurodegenerative diseases, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and inclusion body myopathy with Paget's disease of the bone and frontotemporal dementia (IBMPFD), and extensive study has revealed crucial functions of VCP within neurons. By contrast, little is known about the functions of Npl4 or Ufd1 in vivo. Using neuronal-specific knockdown of Npl4 or Ufd1 in Drosophila melanogaster, we infer that Npl4 contributes to microtubule organization within developing motor neurons...
September 21, 2017: Journal of Genetics and Genomics, Yi Chuan Xue Bao
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