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René Uebe, Noa Keren-Khadmy, Natalie Zeytuni, Emanuel Katzmann, Yotam Navon, Geula Davidov, Ronit Bitton, Jürgen M Plitzko, Dirk Schüler, Raz Zarivach
Magnetospirillum gryphiswaldense MSR-1 synthesizes membrane-enclosed magnetite (Fe3 O4 ) nanoparticles, magnetosomes, for magnetotaxis. Formation of these organelles involves a complex process comprising key steps which are governed by specific magnetosome-associated proteins. MamB, a cation diffusion facilitator (CDF) family member has been implicated in magnetosome-directed iron transport. However, deletion mutagenesis studies revealed that MamB is essential for the formation of magnetosome membrane vesicles, but its precise role remains elusive...
December 15, 2017: Molecular Microbiology
Saeed Rismani Yazdi, Reza Nosrati, Corey A Stevens, David Vogel, Peter L Davies, Carlos Escobedo
Magnetotactic bacteria (MTB) play an important role in Earth's biogeochemical cycles by transporting minerals in aquatic ecosystems, and have shown promise for controlled transport of microscale objects in flow conditions. However, how MTB traverse complex flow environments is not clear. Here, using microfluidics and high-speed imaging, it is revealed that magnetotaxis enables directed motion of Magnetospirillum magneticum over long distances in flow velocities ranging from 2 to 1260 µm s-1 , corresponding to shear rates ranging from 0...
December 4, 2017: Small
Azuma Taoka, Ayako Kiyokawa, Chika Uesugi, Yousuke Kikuchi, Zachery Oestreicher, Kaori Morii, Yukako Eguchi, Yoshihiro Fukumori
Magnetotactic bacteria are a unique group of bacteria that synthesize a magnetic organelle termed the magnetosome, which they use to assist with their magnetic navigation in a specific type of bacterial motility called magneto-aerotaxis. Cytoskeletal filaments consisting of the actin-like protein MamK are associated with the magnetosome chain. Previously, the function of MamK was thought to be in positioning magnetosome organelles; this was proposed based on observations via electron microscopy still images...
August 8, 2017: MBio
Hong Li, Mingyong Liu, Feihu Zhang
This paper presents a multi-objective evolutionary algorithm of bio-inspired geomagnetic navigation for Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (AUV). Inspired by the biological navigation behavior, the solution was proposed without using a priori information, simply by magnetotaxis searching. However, the existence of the geomagnetic anomalies has significant influence on the geomagnetic navigation system, which often disrupts the distribution of the geomagnetic field. An extreme value region may easily appear in abnormal regions, which makes AUV lost in the navigation phase...
2017: Frontiers in Neurorobotics
C Zahn, S Keller, M Toro-Nahuelpan, P Dorscht, W Gross, M Laumann, S Gekle, W Zimmermann, D Schüler, H Kress
Magnetospirillum gryphiswaldense is a helix-shaped magnetotactic bacterium that synthesizes iron-oxide nanocrystals, which allow navigation along the geomagnetic field. The bacterium has already been thoroughly investigated at the molecular and cellular levels. However, the fundamental physical property enabling it to perform magnetotaxis, its magnetic moment, remains to be elucidated at the single cell level. We present a method based on magnetic tweezers; in combination with Stokesian dynamics and Boundary Integral Method calculations, this method allows the simultaneous measurement of the magnetic moments of multiple single bacteria...
June 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
Wei-Jia Zhang, Sheng-Da Zhang, Long-Fei Wu
Magnetococcus massalia strain MO-1 represents a group of fast-swimming marine magnetotactic coccoid-ovoid bacteria. They show polar magnetotaxis behavior in uniform magnetic field. MO-1 cells swim forward constantly with rare stop. When they meet obstacles, MO-1 cells could squeeze through or circumvent the obstacles. Here, we describe the methods for characterization of magnetotactic behaviors of MO-1 cells using adapted spectrophotometer and microscope mounted with magnetic fields.
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
Wei Lin, Greig A Paterson, Qiyun Zhu, Yinzhao Wang, Evguenia Kopylova, Ying Li, Rob Knight, Dennis A Bazylinski, Rixiang Zhu, Joseph L Kirschvink, Yongxin Pan
Microbes that synthesize minerals, a process known as microbial biomineralization, contributed substantially to the evolution of current planetary environments through numerous important geochemical processes. Despite its geological significance, the origin and evolution of microbial biomineralization remain poorly understood. Through combined metagenomic and phylogenetic analyses of deep-branching magnetotactic bacteria from the Nitrospirae phylum, and using a Bayesian molecular clock-dating method, we show here that the gene cluster responsible for biomineralization of magnetosomes, and the arrangement of magnetosome chain(s) within cells, both originated before or near the Archean divergence between the Nitrospirae and Proteobacteria This phylogenetic divergence occurred well before the Great Oxygenation Event...
February 28, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Hongwei Mo, Lili Liu, Jiao Zhao
Magnetotactic bacteria is a kind of polyphyletic group of prokaryotes with the characteristics of magnetotaxis that make them orient and swim along geomagnetic field lines. Its distinct biology characteristics are useful to design new optimization technology. In this paper, a new bionic optimization algorithm named Magnetotactic Bacteria Moment Migration Algorithm (MBMMA) is proposed. In the proposed algorithm, the moments of a chain of magnetosomes are considered as solutions. The moments of relative good solutions can migrate each other to enhance the diversity of the MBMMA...
January 2017: IEEE/ACM Transactions on Computational Biology and Bioinformatics
Hong Wang, Martin Pumera
Self-propelled autonomous nano and micromotors are devices which in many aspects mimic living organisms: they take chemical energy from the environment and convert it to motion; they are capable of phototaxis, chemotaxis and magnetotaxis, following the gradient of fuel, a magnetic field or light. There is an immense spectrum of possible applications of these devices, ranging from environmental remediation to the biomedical field. All of these developments depend on the materials used and there has been intensive development of materials allowing more efficient propulsion, phototaxis, chemotaxis and enhanced applications of these devices...
February 1, 2017: Nanoscale
Pedro Leão, Yi-Ran Chen, Fernanda Abreu, Mingling Wang, Wei-Jia Zhang, Ke Zhou, Tian Xiao, Long-Fei Wu, Ulysses Lins
Magnetotactic multicellular prokaryotes (MMPs) consist of unique microorganisms formed by genetically identical Gram-negative bacterial that live as a single individual capable of producing magnetic nano-particles called magnetosomes. Two distinct morphotypes of MMPs are known: spherical MMPs (sMMPs) and ellipsoidal MMPs (eMMPs). sMMPs have been extensively characterized, but less information exists for eMMPs. Here, we report the ultrastructure and organization as well as gene clusters responsible for magnetosome and flagella biosynthesis in the magnetite magnetosome producer eMMP Candidatus Magnetananas rongchenensis...
June 2017: Environmental Microbiology
Fei Peng, Yingfeng Tu, Yongjun Men, Jan C M van Hest, Daniela A Wilson
With a convenient bottom-up approach, magnetic metallic nickel is grown in situ of a supramolecular nanomotor using the catalytic activities of preloaded platinum nanoparticles. After introducing magnetic segments, simultaneous guidance and steering of catalytically powered motors with additional magnetic fields are achieved. Guided motion in a tissue model is demonstrated.
November 28, 2016: Advanced Materials
Roger Duarte de Melo, Daniel Acosta-Avalos
'Candidatus Magnetoglobus multicellularis' is the most studied multicellular magnetotactic prokaryote. It presents a light-dependent photokinesis: green light decreases the translation velocity whereas red light increases it, in comparison to blue and white light. The present article shows that radio-frequency electromagnetic fields cancel the light effect on photokinesis. The frequency to cancel the light effect corresponds to the Zeeman resonance frequency (DC magnetic field of 4 Oe and radio-frequency of 11...
February 2017: Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek
Bahareh Kherzi, Martin Pumera
Self-propelled autonomous nano/micromotors are in the forefront of current materials science and technology research. These small machines convert chemical energy from the environment into propulsion, and they can move autonomously in the environment and are capable of chemotaxis or magnetotaxis. They can be used for drug delivery, microsurgeries or environmental remediation. It is of immense interest from a future biomedical application point of view to understand the motion of the nano/micromotors in microfluidic channels...
October 14, 2016: Nanoscale
Pedro Leão, Lia C R S Teixeira, Jefferson Cypriano, Marcos Farina, Fernanda Abreu, Dennis A Bazylinski, Ulysses Lins
UNLABELLED: Magnetotactic bacteria (MTB) comprise a phylogenetically diverse group of prokaryotes capable of orienting and navigating along magnetic field lines. Under oxic conditions, MTB in natural environments in the Northern Hemisphere generally display north-seeking (NS) polarity, swimming parallel to the Earth's magnetic field lines, while those in the Southern Hemisphere generally swim antiparallel to magnetic field lines (south-seeking [SS] polarity). Here, we report a population of an uncultured, monotrichously flagellated, and vibrioid MTB collected from a brackish lagoon in Brazil in the Southern Hemisphere that consistently exhibits NS polarity...
September 15, 2016: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Natalie Zeytuni, Samuel Cronin, Christopher T Lefèvre, Pascal Arnoux, Dror Baran, Zvi Shtein, Geula Davidov, Raz Zarivach
MamA is a highly conserved protein found in magnetotactic bacteria (MTB), a diverse group of prokaryotes capable of navigating according to magnetic fields - an ability known as magnetotaxis. Questions surround the acquisition of this magnetic navigation ability; namely, whether it arose through horizontal or vertical gene transfer. Though its exact function is unknown, MamA surrounds the magnetosome, the magnetic organelle embedding a biomineralised nanoparticle and responsible for magnetotaxis. Several structures for MamA from a variety of species have been determined and show a high degree of structural similarity...
2015: PloS One
Geula Davidov, Frank D Müller, Jens Baumgartner, Ronit Bitton, Damien Faivre, Dirk Schüler, Raz Zarivach
Magnetotactic bacteria (MTB) are a diverse group of aquatic bacteria that have the magnetotaxis ability to align themselves along the geomagnetic field lines and to navigate to a microoxic zone at the bottom of chemically stratified natural water. This special navigation is the result of a unique linear assembly of a specialized organelle, the magnetosome, which contains a biomineralized magnetic nanocrystal enveloped by a cytoplasmic membrane. The Magnetospirillum gryphiswaldense MtxA protein (MGR_0208) was suggested to play a role in bacterial magnetotaxis due to its gene location in an operon together with putative signal transduction genes...
2015: Frontiers in Molecular Biosciences
Michalis Chariaou, Lilah Rahn-Lee, Jessica Kind, Inés García-Rubio, Arash Komeili, Andreas U Gehring
Magnetotactic bacteria (MTB) build magnetic nanoparticles in chain configuration to generate a permanent dipole in their cells as a tool to sense the Earth's magnetic field for navigation toward favorable habitats. The majority of known MTB align their nanoparticles along the magnetic easy axes so that the directions of the uniaxial symmetry and of the magnetocrystalline anisotropy coincide. Desulfovibrio magneticus sp. strain RS-1 forms bullet-shaped magnetite nanoparticles aligned along their (100) magnetocrystalline hard axis, a configuration energetically unfavorable for formation of strong dipoles...
March 10, 2015: Biophysical Journal
Isaac Macwan, Zihe Zhao, Omar Sobh, Prabir Patra
Magnetospirillum magneticum (AMB-1), which belong to alpha-protobacterium are gram-negative, single-celled prokaryotic organisms consisting of a lash-like cellular appendage called flagella. These filamentous structures are made up of a protein called flagellin that in turn consist of four sub-domains, two inner domains (D0, D1) made up of alpha-helices and two outer domains (D2, D3) made up of beta sheets. It is wrapped in a helical fashion around the longitudinal filament with the outermost sub-domain (D3) exposed to the surrounding environment...
2014: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
Lina M González, Warren C Ruder, Aaron P Mitchell, William C Messner, Philip R LeDuc
Many motile unicellular organisms have evolved specialized behaviors for detecting and responding to environmental cues such as chemical gradients (chemotaxis) and oxygen gradients (aerotaxis). Magnetotaxis is found in magnetotactic bacteria and it is defined as the passive alignment of these cells to the geomagnetic field along with active swimming. Herein we show that Magnetospirillum magneticum (AMB-1) show a unique set of responses that indicates they sense and respond not only to the direction of magnetic fields by aligning and swimming, but also to changes in the magnetic field or magnetic field gradients...
June 2015: ISME Journal
Felix Popp, Judith P Armitage, Dirk Schüler
Most motile bacteria navigate within gradients of external chemical stimuli by regulating the length of randomly oriented swimming episodes. Magnetotactic bacteria are characterized by chains of intracellular ferromagnetic nanoparticles and their ability to sense the geomagnetic field, which is believed to facilitate directed motion, but is not well understood at the behavioural and molecular level. Here, we show that cells of Magnetospirillum gryphiswaldense unexpectedly display swimming polarity that depends on aerotactic signal transduction through one of its four chemotaxis operons (cheOp1)...
2014: Nature Communications
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