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Magnetoreception

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627073/determination-of-radical-radical-distances-in-light-active-proteins-and-their-implication-for-biological-magnetoreception
#1
Daniel Nohr, Bernd Paulus, Ryan Rodriguez, Asako Okafuji, Robert Bittl, Erik Schleicher, Stefan Weber
Light-generated short-lived radial pairs have been suggested to play pivotal roles in cryptochromes and photolyases. Chryptochromes are very probably involved in magnetic compass sensing in migratory birds and the magnetic-field-dependent behavior of insects. We examined photo-generated transient states in the cryptochrome of Drosophila melanogaster and in the structurally related DNA-repair enzyme Escherichia coli DNA photolyase. Using pulsed EPR spectroscopy, the exchange and dipolar contributions to the electron spin-spin interaction were determined in a straightforward and direct way...
June 19, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618572/functional-window-of-the-avian-compass
#2
Vishvendra Singh Poonia, Kiran Kondabagil, Dipankar Saha, Swaroop Ganguly
The functional window is an experimentally observed property of the avian compass that refers to its selectivity around the geomagnetic-field strength. We show that the simple radical-pair model, using biologically feasible hyperfine parameters, can qualitatively explain the salient features of the avian compass as observed in behavioral experiments: its functional window, as well as disruption of the compass action by radio-frequency fields of specific frequencies. Further, we show that adjustment of the hyperfine parameters can tune the functional window, suggesting a possible mechanism for its observed adaptation to field variation...
May 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612234/radical-pair-based-magnetoreception-in-birds-radio-frequency-experiments-and-the-role-of-cryptochrome
#3
Christine Nießner, Michael Winklhofer
The radical-pair hypothesis of magnetoreception has gained a lot of momentum, since the flavoprotein cryptochrome was postulated as a structural candidate to host magnetically sensitive chemical reactions. Here, we first discuss behavioral tests using radio-frequency magnetic fields (0.1-10 MHz) to specifically disturb a radical-pair-based avian magnetic compass sense. While disorienting effects of broadband RF magnetic fields have been replicated independently in two competing labs, the effects of monochromatic RF magnetic fields administered at the electronic Larmor frequency (~1...
June 13, 2017: Journal of Comparative Physiology. A, Neuroethology, Sensory, Neural, and Behavioral Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611590/cryptochrome-is-a-regulator-of-synaptic-plasticity-in-the-visual-system-of-drosophila-melanogaster
#4
Milena Damulewicz, Gabriella M Mazzotta, Elena Sartori, Ezio Rosato, Rodolfo Costa, Elzbieta M Pyza
Drosophila CRYPTOCHROME (CRY) is a blue light sensitive protein with a key role in circadian photoreception. A main feature of CRY is that light promotes an interaction with the circadian protein TIMELESS (TIM) resulting in their ubiquitination and degradation, a mechanism that contributes to the synchronization of the circadian clock to the environment. Moreover, CRY participates in non-circadian functions such as magnetoreception, modulation of neuronal firing, phototransduction and regulation of synaptic plasticity...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608290/titanium-and-iron-titanium-oxide-nanoparticles-in-antennae-of-the-migratory-ant-pachycondyla-marginata-an-alternative-magnetic-sensor-for-magnetoreception
#5
Eliane Wajnberg, André Linhares Rossi, Darci Motta S Esquivel
The most accepted hypothesis of magnetoreception for social insects is the ferromagnetic hypothesis which assumes the presence of magnetic material as a sensor coupled to sensitive structures that transmit the geomagnetic field information to the nervous system. As magnetite is the most common magnetic material observed in living beings, it has been suggested as basic constituent of the magnetoreception system. Antennae and head have been pointed as possible magnetosensor organs in social insects as ants, bees and termites...
June 12, 2017: Biometals: An International Journal on the Role of Metal Ions in Biology, Biochemistry, and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28557300/diversity-and-ecology-of-and-biomineralization-by-magnetotactic-bacteria
#6
REVIEW
Wei Lin, Yongxin Pan, Dennis A Bazylinski
Magnetotactic bacteria (MTB) biomineralize intracellular, membrane-bounded crystals of magnetite (Fe3 O4 ) and/or greigite (Fe3 S4 ) called magnetosomes. MTB play important roles in the geochemical cycling of iron, sulfur, nitrogen and carbon. Significantly, they also represent an intriguing model system not just for the study of microbial biomineralization but also for magnetoreception, prokaryotic organelle formation and microbial biogeography. Here we review current knowledge on the ecology of and biomineralization by MTB, with an emphasis on more recent reports of unexpected ecological and phylogenetic findings regarding MTB...
May 30, 2017: Environmental Microbiology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524068/detection-of-magnetic-field-properties-using-distributed-sensing-a-computational-neuroscience-approach
#7
Brian K Taylor, Sönke Johnsen, Kenneth J Lohmann
Diverse taxa use Earth's magnetic field to aid both short- and long-distance navigation. Study of these behaviors has led to a variety of postulated sensory and processing mechanisms that remain unconfirmed. Although several models have been proposed to explain and understand these mechanisms' underpinnings, they have not necessarily connected a putative sensory signal to the nervous system. Using mathematical software simulation, hardware testing and the computational neuroscience tool of dynamic neural fields, the present work implements a previously developed conceptual model for processing magnetite-based magnetosensory data...
May 19, 2017: Bioinspiration & Biomimetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501632/high-levels-of-maternally-transferred-mercury-disrupt-magnetic-responses-of-snapping-turtle-hatchlings-chelydra-serpentina
#8
Lukas Landler, Michael S Painter, Brittney Hopkins Coe, Paul W Youmans, William A Hopkins, John B Phillips
The Earth's magnetic field is involved in spatial behaviours ranging from long-distance migration to non-goal directed behaviours, such as spontaneous magnetic alignment (SMA). Mercury is a harmful pollutant most often generated from anthropogenic sources that can bio-accumulate in animal tissue over a lifetime. We compared SMA of hatchling snapping turtles from mothers captured at reference (i.e., low mercury) and mercury contaminated sites. Reference turtles showed radio frequency-dependent SMA along the north-south axis, consistent with previous studies of SMA, while turtles with high levels of maternally inherited mercury failed to show consistent magnetic alignment...
May 11, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446619/candidate-genes-mediating-magnetoreception-in-rainbow-trout-oncorhynchus-mykiss
#9
Robert R Fitak, Benjamin R Wheeler, David A Ernst, Kenneth J Lohmann, Sönke Johnsen
Diverse animals use Earth's magnetic field in orientation and navigation, but little is known about the molecular mechanisms that underlie magnetoreception. Recent studies have focused on two possibilities: (i) magnetite-based receptors; and (ii) biochemical reactions involving radical pairs. We used RNA sequencing to examine gene expression in the brain of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) after exposure to a magnetic pulse known to disrupt magnetic orientation behaviour. We identified 181 differentially expressed genes, including increased expression of six copies of the frim gene, which encodes a subunit of the universal iron-binding and trafficking protein ferritin...
April 2017: Biology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28361169/magnetic-activation-in-the-brain-of-the-migratory-northern-wheatear-oenanthe-oenanthe
#10
D Elbers, M Bulte, F Bairlein, H Mouritsen, D Heyers
Behavioural and neurobiological evidence suggests the involvement of the visual and trigeminal sensory systems in avian magnetoreception. The constantly growing array of new genetic approaches becoming available to scientists would bear great potential to contribute to a generally accepted understanding of the mechanisms underlying this ability, but would require to breed migratory birds in captivity. Here we show that the transcontinental night-migratory Northern Wheatear (Oenanthe oenanthe), which is currently the only migratory songbird successfully being bred in reasonable numbers in captivity, shows magnetic-field-induced neuronal activation in the trigeminal brainstem areas receiving their input through the ophthalmic branch of the trigeminal nerve...
March 30, 2017: Journal of Comparative Physiology. A, Neuroethology, Sensory, Neural, and Behavioral Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28356366/zebra-finches-have-a-light-dependent-magnetic-compass-similar-to-migratory-birds
#11
Atticus Pinzon-Rodriguez, Rachel Muheim
Birds have a light-dependent magnetic compass that provides information about the spatial alignment of the geomagnetic field. It is proposed to be located in the avian retina and mediated by a light-induced, radical-pair mechanism involving cryptochromes as sensory receptor molecules. To investigate how the behavioural responses of birds under different light spectra match with cryptochromes as the primary magnetoreceptor, we examined the spectral properties of the magnetic compass in zebra finches. We trained birds to relocate a food reward in a spatial orientation task using magnetic compass cues...
April 1, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343270/magnetic-field-discrimination-learning-and-memory-in-the-yellow-stingray-urobatis-jamaicensis
#12
Kyle C Newton, Stephen M Kajiura
Elasmobranch fishes (sharks, skates, and rays) have been hypothesized to use the geomagnetic field as a cue for orienting and navigating across a wide range of spatial scales. Magnetoreception has been demonstrated in many invertebrate and vertebrate taxa, including elasmobranchs, but this sensory modality and the cognitive abilities of cartilaginous fishes are poorly studied. Wild caught yellow stingrays, Urobatis jamaicensis (N = 8), underwent conditioning to associate a magnetic stimulus with a food reward in order to elicit foraging behaviors...
July 2017: Animal Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330921/linking-magnetite-in-the-abdomen-of-honey-bees-to-a-magnetoreceptive-function
#13
Veronika Lambinet, Michael E Hayden, Katharina Reigl, Surath Gomis, Gerhard Gries
Previous studies of magnetoreception in honey bees, Apis mellifera, focused on the identification of magnetic material, its formation, the location of the receptor and potential underlying sensory mechanisms, but never directly linked magnetic material to a magnetoreceptive function. In our study, we demonstrate that ferromagnetic material consistent with magnetite plays an integral role in the bees' magnetoreceptor. Subjecting lyophilized and pelletized bee tagmata to analyses by a superconducting quantum interference device generated a distinct hysteresis loop for the abdomen but not for the thorax or the head of bees, indicating the presence of ferromagnetic material in the bee abdomen...
March 29, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296939/can-a-hybrid-chemical-ferromagnetic-model-of-the-avian-compass-explain-its-outstanding-sensitivity-to-magnetic-noise
#14
Kirill Kavokin
While many properties of the magnetic compass of migratory birds are satisfactory explained within the chemical model of magnetoreception, its extreme sensitivity to radio-frequency magnetic fields remains a mystery. Apparently, this difficulty could be overcome if the magnetoreceptor model were augmented with a magnetite nanoparticle, which would amplify the magnetic field at the position of the magneto-sensitive cryptochrome molecule. However, comparison of the radio-frequency power used in the experiment with intrinsic magnetization noise of such a particle, estimated from the theory of fluctuations, shows that the required sensitivity cannot be reached with realistic parameters of iron-oxide nanocrystals...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28263452/response-to-comments-by-frank-barnes-and-ben-greenebaum-on-a-physical-mechanism-of-magnetoreception-extension-and-analysis
#15
Frank S Prato, Vladimir N Binhi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 6, 2017: Bioelectromagnetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28251303/spontaneous-magnetic-alignment-behaviour-in-free-living-lizards
#16
Francisco J Diego-Rasilla, Valentín Pérez-Mellado, Ana Pérez-Cembranos
Several species of vertebrates exhibit spontaneous longitudinal body axis alignment relative to the Earth's magnetic field (i.e., magnetic alignment) while they are performing different behavioural tasks. Since magnetoreception is still not fully understood, studying magnetic alignment provides evidence for magnetoreception and broadens current knowledge of magnetic sense in animals. Furthermore, magnetic alignment widens the roles of magnetic sensitivity in animals and may contribute to shed new light on magnetoreception...
April 2017: Die Naturwissenschaften
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220941/comments-on-vladimir-binhi-and-frank-prato-s-a-physical-mechanism-of-magnetoreception-extension-and-analysis
#17
Frank Barnes, Ben Greenebaum
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 21, 2017: Bioelectromagnetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176875/millitesla-magnetic-field-effects-on-the-photocycle-of-an-animal-cryptochrome
#18
Dean M W Sheppard, Jing Li, Kevin B Henbest, Simon R T Neil, Kiminori Maeda, Jonathan Storey, Erik Schleicher, Till Biskup, Ryan Rodriguez, Stefan Weber, P J Hore, Christiane R Timmel, Stuart R Mackenzie
Drosophila have been used as model organisms to explore both the biophysical mechanisms of animal magnetoreception and the possibility that weak, low-frequency anthropogenic electromagnetic fields may have biological consequences. In both cases, the presumed receptor is cryptochrome, a protein thought to be responsible for magnetic compass sensing in migratory birds and a variety of magnetic behavioural responses in insects. Here, we demonstrate that photo-induced electron transfer reactions in Drosophila melanogaster cryptochrome are indeed influenced by magnetic fields of a few millitesla...
February 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859403/a-physical-mechanism-of-magnetoreception-extension-and-analysis
#19
Vladimir N Binhi, Frank S Prato
Proposed is a general physical mechanism of magnetoreception of weak magnetic fields (MFs). The mechanism is based on classical precessional dynamics of a magnetic moment in a thermally disturbed environment and includes a minimum of necessary parameters-the gyromagnetic ratio, thermal relaxation time, and rate of downstream events generated by changes in the state of the magnetic moment. The mechanism imposes general restrictions on the probability of initial biophysical magnetic transduction event before the involvement of specific biophysical and biochemical mechanisms-i...
January 2017: Bioelectromagnetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27858334/identification-of-medaka-magnetoreceptor-and-cryptochromes
#20
Yunzhi Wang, Jianbin Chen, Feng Zhu, Yunhan Hong
Magnetoreception is a hallmark ability of animals for orientation and migration via sensing and utilizing geomagnetic fields. Magnetoreceptor (MagR) and cryptochromes (Cry) have recently been identified as the basis for magnetoreception in Drosophila. However, it has remained unknown whether MagR and Cry have conserved roles in diverse animals. Here we report the identification and expression of magr and cry genes in the fish medaka (Oryzias latipes). Cloning and sequencing identified a single magr gene, four cry genes and one cry-like gene in medaka...
March 2017: Science China. Life Sciences
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