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Phenytoin juvenil myoclonic epilepsy

Laura Mantoan, Matthew Walker
Juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME) is characterized by excellent response to treatment, if diagnosed correctly. Lifestyle advice is an integral part of the treatment of JME; it should include recommendations on avoidance of common triggers such as sleep deprivation and alcohol excess and emphasis on the importance of compliance with medication. The drug of first choice in the treatment of JME is sodium valproate, which has a response rate of up to 80%. Valproate should be avoided in women of childbearing age because of significantly increased risks of fetal malformations and neurodevelopmental delay...
August 2011: Current Treatment Options in Neurology
Julia Larch, Iris Unterberger, Gerhard Bauer, Johannes Reichsoellner, Giorgi Kuchukhidze, Eugen Trinka
BACKGROUND: Myoclonic status epilepticus (MSE) is rarely found in juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME) and its clinical features are not well described. We aimed to analyze MSE incidence, precipitating factors and clinical course by studying patients with JME from a large outpatient epilepsy clinic. METHODS: We retrospectively screened all patients with JME treated at the Department of Neurology, Medical University of Innsbruck, Austria between 1970 and 2007 for a history of MSE...
December 2009: Epileptic Disorders: International Epilepsy Journal with Videotape
Yoshikazu Mizoi, Naoko Sumita, Toshimasa Yamamoto, Tetsuo Komori, Naotoshi Tamura, Kunio Shimazu
A 77-years-old woman was admitted to our hospital due to uncontrolled myoclonus and generalized seizure. Since the age of 17, she has been suffering from myoclonic jerks and partial convulsions in her right arm. Administration of several unknown anticonvulsants had not alleviated her condition. She was able to spend her life without a handicap, except for the symptoms described above. She has been experiencing psychological stress since the age of 50, which has resulted in worsening of her symptoms, and she was prescribed phenytoin, carbamazepine, and phenobarbital, which were also ineffective...
January 2009: Brain and Nerve, Shinkei Kenkyū No Shinpo
J G Burneo, R S McLachlan
BACKGROUND: Choosing an antiepileptic medication to treat a patient with epilepsy can be a complicated process during which the treating physician must base her or his decision on efficacy and safety of each of many available drugs. The lack of comparative studies between medications is one of the reasons. METHODS: We conducted a survey on the management of newly diagnosed epilepsy in adult patients. The surveyed were adult and pediatric neurologists with a subspecialty interest in epilepsy who were working in academic institutions or private practice across Canada...
May 2007: Canadian Journal of Neurological Sciences. le Journal Canadien des Sciences Neurologiques
Tracy Glauser, Elinor Ben-Menachem, Blaise Bourgeois, Avital Cnaan, David Chadwick, Carlos Guerreiro, Reetta Kalviainen, Richard Mattson, Emilio Perucca, Torbjorn Tomson
PURPOSE: To assess which antiepileptic medications (AEDs) have the best evidence for long-term efficacy or effectiveness as initial monotherapy for patients with newly diagnosed or untreated epilepsy. METHODS: A 10-member subcommission of the Commission on Therapeutic Strategies of The International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE), including adult and pediatric epileptologists, clinical pharmacologists, clinical trialists, and a statistician evaluated available evidence found through a structured literature review including MEDLINE, Current Contents and the Cochrane Library for all applicable articles from 1940 until July 2005...
July 2006: Epilepsia
Pierre Thomas, Luc Valton, Pierre Genton
Aggravation of idiopathic generalized epilepsy (IGE) syndromes by inappropriate antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) is increasingly recognized as a serious and common problem. Precipitation of status epilepticus (SE) by inappropriate medication has rarely been reported. We retrospectively studied all adult patients with IGE taking at least one potentially aggravating AED, who developed video-EEG documented SE over 8 years, and whose long-term outcome was favourable after adjustment of medication. We identified 14 patients (seven male patients) aged 15-46 years with a mean duration of epilepsy of 16...
May 2006: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
J A Armijo, M Shushtarian, E M Valdizan, A Cuadrado, I de las Cuevas, J Adín
The role of voltage-gated and ligand-gated ion channels in epileptogenesis of both genetic and acquired epilepsies, and as targets in the development of new antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) is reviewed. Voltage-gated Na+ channels are essential for action potentials, and their mutations are the substrate for generalised epilepsy with febrile seizures plus and benign familial neonatal infantile seizures; Na+ channel inhibition is the primary mechanism of carbamazepine, phenytoin and lamotrigine, and is a probable mechanism for many other classic and novel AEDs...
2005: Current Pharmaceutical Design
Avinash Prasad, Ruben I Kuzniecky, Robert C Knowlton, Tim E Welty, Roy C Martin, M Mendez, Raymond E Faught
BACKGROUND: In the face of availability of newer antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) such as lamotrigine and topiramate, there is need to reassess the role of older AEDs in the treatment of juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME). OBJECTIVES: To explore whether lamotrigine and topiramate monotherapy or polytherapy can be effective options in the treatment of JME, and to determine whether older AEDs, such as phenytoin and carbamazepine, have a role in the treatment of JME. DESIGN: A retrospective cohort study...
August 2003: Archives of Neurology
S Jha, V N Mathur, V N Mishra
84 patients of juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME) of Janz were studied. Diagnosis was confirmed using clinical and electro-encephalographic (EEG) criterias. 58 (78%) patients of JME were referred as 'refractory or uncontrolled seizures'. Ignoring myoclonic episodes and non-use of activation procedures in EEG were important reasons for diagnostic delay. Sodium valproate (VPA) or clonazepam are the drugs of choice while phenobarbitone (PB), carbamazepine (CZ), and phenytoin (PHT) are ineffective. Clinical spectrum of JME is slightly different in India...
December 2002: Neurology India
M M Mehndiratta, P Aggarwal
We aimed to characterize the clinical profile, EEG features and response to treatment of juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME) patients. We studied 103 JME probands with a standard protocol recording age of onset, type, frequency of seizures, EEG data, detailed family history and response to treatment in a superspeciality university hospital in New Delhi. The mean age of onset of disease was 14.01 +/- 3.14 years with a male to female ratio of 1.19 : 1. The myoclonic jerks were present in all the probands, generalized tonic-clonic seizures (GTCS) were present in 75...
October 2002: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
Murphy, Delanty
For pure childhood absence epilepsy (CAE), ethosuximide (ESM) remains the drug of first choice. Although valproic acid (VPA) is of equal efficacy, it is more toxic, and is reserved for those patients with accompanying convulsions. Lamotrigine (LTG) is effective as both add-on and monotherapy for CAE. If any of these three drugs fails, one of the other two can be used as monotherapy. Rarely, when ESM, VPA, or LTG does not effectively control CAE, phenytoin (PHT), primidone (PRM), and phenobarbital (PB) may be partially effective, although carbamazepine (CBZ) may worsen absence seizures...
November 2000: Current Treatment Options in Neurology
P Genton, P Gelisse, P Thomas, C Dravet
BACKGROUND: Juvenile myoclonic epilepsy is a frequent form of idiopathic generalized epilepsy that is usually and easily controlled by valproate monotherapy. However, juvenile myoclonic epilepsy is often misdiagnosed, and some drugs, especially carbamazepine and phenytoin, may have an aggravating effect. OBJECTIVES: To determine the risk of aggravation of juvenile myoclonic epilepsy in patients treated with carbamazepine and phenytoin. METHODS: Among 170 consecutive patients with juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (104 female, 66 male) referred between 1981 and 1998, the authors retrospectively found 40 patients (23%) who had received carbamazepine or phenytoin (duration of epilepsy at referral, 1 to 34 years; mean +/- SD, 13...
October 24, 2000: Neurology
J Juryńczyk, A Weglewski
The authors presented the results of treatment with lamotrigine (LTG, Lamictal) in 13 patients with drug resistant epilepsy (add-on therapy). There were 8f, 5m. aged 16-60 years, mean age 28.8 years. Generalized seizures occurred in 8 patients (62%). In this group there was 1 patient (aged 16 years) with the Lennox-Gastaut syndrome and 1 patient (aged 20 years) with valproate resistant juvenile myoclonic epilepsy. Complex partial seizures and complex partial with secondary generalization occurred in 5 patients (38%)...
January 2000: Neurologia i Neurochirurgia Polska
P Genton
Paradoxically, an antiepileptic drug (AED) may aggravate epilepsy. The number of AEDs is steadily increasing, and the occurrence of paradoxical aggravation will probably become a frequent problem. The overall status of the patient treated for epilepsy can be altered due to maladjustment to the diagnosis of epilepsy, to unwanted side-effects, to overdosage and to the occurrence of tolerance. However, the main mechanism of aggravation is the occurrence of an inverse pharmacodynamic effect. The specific effect of the AED is such that it controls epilepsy in most cases and increases seizures in other cases...
March 2000: Brain & Development
N Alvarez, F Besag, M Iivanainen
The main principles of antiepileptic drug treatment of epilepsy in patients with intellectual disability are basically the same as for other patients with epilepsy. However, some specific issues need to be taken into account These are primarily associated with the diagnostic difficulties of epilepsy in this population. In addition, a number of other relevant issues, including the degree and location of brain lesion, the nature of the underlying disease, the higher frequency of difficult-to-treat epilepsies, the additional intellectual impairment caused by inappropriate antiepileptic medication, or by frequent and prolonged seizures, the appropriate use of monotherapy versus rational polytherapy, and the use of broad-spectrum antiepileptic drugs will be discussed in the present paper...
December 1998: Journal of Intellectual Disability Research: JIDR
T Tomson, M Ericson, C Ihrman, L E Lindblad
Autonomic function was studied by the use of spectral analysis of heart-rate variability in patients with epilepsy in relation to type of epilepsy and anti-epileptic drug therapy. A total of 21 patients with juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME) and 21 with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) were included; 18 patients were treated with carbamazepine (CBZ), 16 with valproate (VPA) and seven with phenytoin (PHT). One healthy drug free control, matched for age and sex, was selected for each patient. Patients and controls underwent an ambulatory 24 h EKG...
March 1998: Epilepsy Research
H G Wieser
The modern treatment of epilepsy has improved considerably in all three pillars. More than a century has passed, however, since Sir Charles Locock introduced the bromides in 1857 and Sir Victor Horsely pioneered epilepsy surgery in 1886 (18). In drug therapy, the 'classic AED' of the last decades, i.e. phenobarbital (Hauptmann, 1912) and phenytoin (Putnam and Merrit, 1938) are being largely displaced by valproate (Meunir, 1963) and carbamazepine (Lorge, 1963). Only ethosuximide (Zimmermann, 1951) has continued to maintain its position in 3/s spikewave-absence epilepsy, in particular in the USA (28, 29)...
January 23, 1996: Praxis
J A Aarli
Approximately 10% of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) develop epileptic seizures. When occurring before the onset of generalized SLE, the seizures are mainly primary generalized. Accordingly, long-term treatment with anti-epileptic drugs may precipitate SLE, or epilepsy and SLE may both occur as manifestations of a genetically determined predisposition. Some patients develop IgA deficiency during phenytoin treatment. This condition is reversible and IgA becomes normalized when phenytoin is withdrawn (drug-induced IgA deficiency)...
January 1993: Brain & Development
M L Wagner
The chemistry, pharmacology, pharmacokinetics, clinical use, adverse effects, drug interactions, and dosage of felbamate are discussed. Felbamate (2-phenyl-1,3-propanediol dicarbamate) is chemically unrelated to any of the other currently marketed antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). It appears that felbamate, like phenobarbital and valproic acid, decreases the frequency of seizures by decreasing seizure spread and increasing seizure threshold. Oral felbamate is at least 90% absorbed, and peak concentrations are reached in one to six hours...
July 1, 1994: American Journal of Hospital Pharmacy
C Sharpe, N Buchanan
OBJECTIVES: To study delay in diagnosis, seizure control, seizure-provoking factors, suitable medications and drug side effects in patients with juvenile myoclonic epilepsy. DESIGN: Telephone and personal interview of patients and review of their clinical notes. PARTICIPANTS AND SETTING: Thirty-six patients attending an epilepsy clinic at a tertiary referral hospital. RESULTS: There was a substantial delay in the diagnosis of juvenile myoclonic epilepsy because the symptom of early-morning myoclonus was not specifically sought...
February 6, 1995: Medical Journal of Australia
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