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Materno fetal allo immunization

Edmond J Yunis, Joaquin Zuniga, Viviana Romero, Emilio J Yunis
The presence of cells or tissues from two individuals, chimeras, or the presence of cells and tissues that include the gonads, tetragametic chimerism can be detected by the analysis of cytogenetics and analysis of polymorphic genetic markers, using patterns of pedigree inheritance. These methodologies include determination of sex chromosomes, major histocompatibility complex (MHC) polymorphisms and panels of short tandem repeats (STRs) that include mitochondrial DNA markers. Studies routinely involve cases of temporal chimerism in blood transfusion, or following allotransplantation to measure the outcome of the organ, lymphopoietic tissues or bone marrow grafts...
2007: Immunologic Research
Varuna R Aluvihare, Marinos Kallikourdis, Alexander G Betz
In solid organ transplantation the recipient immune system recognises foreign alloantigens expressed by the graft. This results in an immune attack of the transplanted organ leading to rejection, which can be prevented only by therapeutic immunosuppression. During pregnancy the fetus should also be rejected by the maternal immune system, since it expresses antigens derived from the father. Whilst the immune system retains the ability to respond to foreign antigen, tolerance mechanisms ensure that inappropriate responses against self-antigen are prevented...
February 2005: Journal of Molecular Medicine: Official Organ of the "Gesellschaft Deutscher Naturforscher und Ärzte"
D Vauthier-Brouzes, G Lefebvre, P Saada, Y Darbois, C Kaplan
Materno-fetal platelet allo-immunization causes fetal or neonatal thrombocytopenia and sometimes severe intracerebral bleeding. The HPA-1s antigen is most generally implicated. This accident can occur during the first pregnancy with a major risk of severe recurrence during the next pregnancy. These women require specific care in a specialized center although no consensus has been reached on management of second pregnancies. Proposed treatments include immunoglobulins and/or corticosteroids, fetal blood puncture and unique or iterative platelet transfusions...
February 2000: Journal de Gynécologie, Obstétrique et Biologie de la Reproduction
H Jendoubi, M N Varlet, G Teyssier, M P Lavocat, I Rayet, L Absi
The diagnosis of fetomaternal alloimmune thrombocytopenia (FMAT) was made in a newborn with thrombocytopenia and intracranial hemorrhage. The first child of the family was severely affected with neurodevelopmental sequelae secondary to intracranial hemorrhage. According to the maternal HPA phenotype, close to 100% of subsequent pregnancies could be expected to be affected as the homozygous state was observed in both platelet systems. Another infant was born after a poorly followed pregnancy and was affected as was his elder brother...
September 1999: Journal de Gynécologie, Obstétrique et Biologie de la Reproduction
G Giers, J Hoch, R Bald, H Bauer, H Kroll, V Kiefel, R E Scharf, P Hanfland, M Hansmann, C Mueller-Eckhardt
Fetal alloimmune thrombocytopenia is caused by materno-fetal transfer of platelet antibodies. Since the thrombocytopenic fetus is threatened by intracranial hemorrhage, prenatal observation and, if necessary, treatment is required. However, the benefit of therapeutic options, including intravenous IgG (ivIgG), platelet transfusions or fetal IgG transfusions is still controversial. In this study we have evaluated the effect of intrauterine IgG and intraumbilical platelet transfusions on fetal platelet counts...
1996: Contributions to Infusion Therapy and Transfusion Medicine
C Kaplan, M C Morel-Kopp, F Forestier, M Dreyfus, F Daffos, G Tchernia
Fetal/neonatal immune thrombocytopenias result from increased platelet destruction by maternal antiplatelet antibodies. There is a risk of intracerebral haemorrhage and therefore of neurological impairment or death during the thrombocytopenic period, especially if a defective platelet function co-exists. As no maternal parameter is predictive of the fetal platelet count, the only reliable assessment of the fetal status depends on the fetal blood sampling. Only in case of materno-fetal alloimmunisation the therapy initiated to reverse fetal thrombocytopenia was shown to be effective, but the optimal mode of antenatal treatment is currently under study...
October 1994: Pathologie-biologie
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