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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749414/adjuvantation-of-pulmonary-administered-influenza-vaccine-with-gpi-0100-primarily-stimulates-antibody-production-and-memory-b-cell-proliferation
#1
Harshad P Patil, José Herrera Rodriguez, Jacqueline de Vries-Idema, Tjarko Meijerhof, Henderik W Frijlink, Wouter L J Hinrichs, Anke Huckriede
Adjuvants are key components in vaccines, they help in reducing the required antigen dose but also modulate the phenotype of the induced immune response. We previously showed that GPI-0100, a saponin-derived adjuvant, enhances antigen-specific mucosal and systemic antibody responses to influenza subunit and whole inactivated influenza virus (WIV) vaccine administered via the pulmonary route. However, the impact of the GPI-0100 dose on immune stimulation and the immune mechanisms stimulated by GPI-0100 along with antigen are poorly understood...
July 27, 2017: Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749269/epitheliotropic-intestinal-t-cell-lymphoma-in-a-harbor-seal-phoca-vitulina
#2
Sara Malberg, Henrike Alma Gregersen, Manfred Henrich, Christiane Herden
A 14-yr- old, male harbor seal ( Phoca vitulina ) presented with depression, anorexia, and weight loss. Clinical examination revealed no specific abnormalities. Diagnostic imaging displayed an enlarged mass in the dorso-cranial abdomen. The animal was euthanized due to progressive worsening of symptoms. Grossly, severe emaciation and a massive enlargement of one mesenteric lymph node were found. Microscopically, a neoplastic round cell population with morphologic characteristics of mature lymphocytes infiltrated the mesenteric lymph node as well as the jejunal mucosa and exhibited a marked invasion of the mucosal epithelial layer...
June 2017: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748662/repeated-administration-of-high-dose-depot-medroxyprogesterone-acetate-does-not-alter-shivsf162p3-viral-kinetics-and-tenofovir-pharmacokinetics-when-delivered-via-intravaginal-rings
#3
Priya Srinivasan, Jining Zhang, Chuong T Dinh, Ryan S Teller, Janet M McNicholl, Patrick F Kiser, Betsy C Herold, James M Smith
BACKGROUND: Intravaginal rings (IVR) for HIV prevention will likely be used by women on depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA) hormonal contraception. We used pigtailed macaques to evaluate the effects of DMPA on tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) IVR pharmacokinetics and viral shedding. METHODS: Mucosal tenofovir (TFV) levels were compared in SHIVSF162p3 -negative DMPA-treated (n=4) and normally cycling (n=6) macaques receiving TDF IVRs. Plasma viremia and vaginal shedding were determined in groups of SHIVSF162p3 -positive DMPA-treated (n=6) and normally cycling (n=5) macaques...
August 2017: Journal of Medical Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748627/genetic-ablation-of-carbonic-anhydrase-ix-disrupts-gastric-barrier-function-via-claudin-18-downregulation-and-acid-backflux
#4
Taolang Li, Xuemei Liu, Brigitte Riederer, Katerina Nikolovska, Anurag Kumar Singh, Kari A Mäkelä, Anna Seidler, Yongjian Liu, Gerolf Gros, Helmut Bartels, Karl Heinz Herzig, Ursula Seidler
AIM: The study aims to explore the molecular mechanisms for the parietal cell loss and fundic hyperplasia observed in gastric mucosa of mice lacking the carbonic anhydrase 9 (CAIX). METHODS: We assessed the ability of CAIX knockout and WT gastric surface epithelial cells to withstand luminal acid load by measuring the pHi of exteriorized gastric mucosa in vivousing two photon confocal laser scanning microscopy. Cytokines and claudin-18A2 expression was analyzed by RT-PCR...
July 27, 2017: Acta Physiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748455/resection-of-rectal-cancer-resembling-submucosal-tumor-that-was-preoperatively-diagnosed-with-endoscopic-ultrasound-guided-biopsy
#5
Akimitsu Tanio, Hiroaki Saito, Keigo Ashida, Shouichi Urushibara, Manabu Yamamoto, Naruo Tokuyasu, Teruhisa Sakamoto, Soichiro Honjo, Yoshihiko Maeta, Yoshiyuki Fujiwara
BACKGROUND: Colorectal cancer (CRC) resembling submucosal tumor (SMT; CRC/SMT) is very rare. Because its biopsy is challenging, accurate preoperative diagnosis is also very rare. CASE PRESENTATION: A 55-year-old woman with a high serum carcinoembryonic antigen level underwent a computed tomography colonoscopy, which showed extrinsic rectum compression. A coronal magnetic resonance image showed a 4-cm low-intensity tumor between her rectum and sacrum. Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) showed a 30-mm low-echoic lesion originating from the rectum...
December 2017: Surgical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748328/potential-therapeutic-use-of-il-37-a-key-suppressor-of-innate-immunity-and-allergic-immune-responses-mediated-by-mast-cells
#6
REVIEW
Pio Conti, Francesco Carinci, Gianfranco Lessiani, Enrico Spinas, Spyridon K Kritas, Gianpaolo Ronconi, Alessandro Caraffa, Theoharis C Theoharides
The host response to either exogenous or endogenous insults produces a series of changes, characterized by alterations in immunological functions and generation of mediators called cytokines which include the interleukin-1 (IL-1) family members. IL-1 acts as a hormone mediating the host responses to infection and inflammation. Blocking inflammatory IL-1 family members can be effective against inflammatory disorders, including allergies. IL-37, (formerly IL-1 family member 7), emerges as an inhibitor of innate and adaptive immunity by reducing circulating and organ cytokine levels...
July 26, 2017: Immunologic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748033/candida-and-porphyromonas-gingivalis-the-effect-on-wound-closure-in-vitro
#7
Thijs M Haverman, Alexa M G A Laheij, Johannes J de Soet, Jan de Lange, Frederik R Rozema
Microorganisms play a role in oral mucositis after cancer therapy. The current study explored the hypothesis that Candida spp. alone and together with Porphyromonas gingivalis cause delayed healing of oral ulcerations due to the inhibition of wound closure. An in vitro scratch assay model was used to study the influence of viable and heat-killed Candida glabrata, Candida kefyr, and Candida albicans on cell migration of oral epithelial cells. Separately, the effect of conditioned medium of Candida spp. and the effect of a mixed infection of Candida spp...
2017: Journal of Oral Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748029/prevalence-of-and-risk-factors-for-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-colonization-among-human-immunodeficient-virus-infected-outpatients-in-taiwan-oral-candida-colonization-as-a-comparator
#8
Chi-Jung Wu, Wen-Chien Ko, Mao-Wang Ho, Hsi-Hsun Lin, Yun-Liang Yang, Jiun-Nong Lin, I-Wen Huang, Hui-Ying Wang, Jui-Fen Lai, Yih-Ru Shiau, Li-Yun Hsieh, Hui-Ting Chen, Chih-Chao Lin, Wen-Li Chu, Hsiu-Jung Lo, Tsai-Ling Lauderdale
Human immuodeficency virus (HIV)-infected patients receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) and community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) have increased in recent years in Taiwan. This study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of and risk factors for nasal and oral S. aureus and MRSA colonization among contemporary HIV-infected populations. Clinical variables for S. aureus and MRSA colonization among HIV-infected outpatients from three hospitals were analyzed and compared with those for oral Candida colonization...
2017: Journal of Oral Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747917/upregulation-of-intestinal-barrier-function-in-mice-with-dss-induced-colitis-by-a-defined-bacterial-consortium-is-associated-with-expansion-of-il-17a-producing-gamma-delta-t-cells
#9
Ming Li, Bing Wang, Xiaotong Sun, Yan Tang, Xiaoqing Wei, Biying Ge, Yawei Tang, Ying Deng, Chunyang He, Jieli Yuan, Xia Li
Bacterial consortium transplantation (BCT) is a promising alternative to fecal microbiota transplantation in treating inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Here, we showed that a defined bacterial consortium derived from healthy mice was able to enhance the intestinal barrier function of mice with dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis. Interestingly, we found that the bacterial consortium significantly promoted the expansion of IL-17A-producing γδT (γδT17) cells in colonic lamina propria, which was closely associated with changing of intestinal microbial composition...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747340/epithelial-tnf-receptor-signaling-promotes-mucosal-repair-in-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#10
Emily M Bradford, Stacy H Ryu, Ajay Pal Singh, Goo Lee, Tatiana Goretsky, Preetika Sinh, David B Williams, Amber L Cloud, Elias Gounaris, Vihang Patel, Olivia F Lamping, Evan B Lynch, Mary Pat Moyer, Isabelle G De Plaen, David J Shealy, Guang-Yu Yang, Terrence A Barrett
TNF plays an integral role in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), as evidenced by the dramatic therapeutic responses in Crohn's disease (CD) patients induced by chimeric anti-TNF mAbs. However, treatment of CD patients with etanercept, a decoy receptor that binds soluble TNF, fails to improve disease. To explore this discrepancy, we investigated the role of TNF signaling in Wnt/β-catenin-mediated intestinal stem cell and progenitor cell expansion in CD patients, human cells, and preclinical mouse models. We hypothesized that TNF exerts beneficial effects on intestinal epithelial cell (IEC) responses to injury...
July 26, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747052/diagnostic-and-therapeutic-features-of-small-bowel-involvement-in-portal-hypertension
#11
Juan Egea Valenzuela, Tania Fernández Llamas, Ana Victoria García Marín, Fernando Alberca de Las Parras, Fernando Carballo Álvarez
Enteropathy is a lesser known complication of portal hypertension and consists of different changes in the mucosal layer of the small bowel which lead to the appearance of vascular and inflammatory lesions. It can be an important co-factor in the development of anemia in the cirrhotic population, and nowadays an easy and non-invasive diagnosis can be made thanks to capsule endoscopy. However, it is rarely considered in the management of patients with portal hypertension. Some aspects such as pathogenesis or incidence remain unclear and no specific recommendations are included in the guidelines regarding diagnosis or treatment...
July 27, 2017: Revista Española de Enfermedades Digestivas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28746225/ulcerative-colitis-with-acute-pleurisy-a-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#12
Shuming Lu, Lihua Wang, Weisheng Zhang, Zhuqing Zhang, Lina Liu, Yingde Wang, Hua Meng
RATIONALE: Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), including ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease, are associated with a large number of extraintestinal manifestations. Pulmonary manifestations are infrequently seen in patients with IBD. Moreover, serositis including pleural and pericardial manifestations in UC is rare. PATIENT CONCERNS: We report a case of UC with acute pleurisy in a 43-year-old man; review literature; and discuss the diagnosis, differential diagnosis, and treatment...
July 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28746209/pedicled-buccal-fat-pad-for-the-augmentation-of-facial-depression-deformity-a-case-report
#13
Seiji Komatsu, Kou Ikemura, Yoshihiro Kimata
RATIONALE: Tissue augmentation of facial depression deformities can be achieved by volume replacement with autologous fat injection, dermal filler injection, etc. Here, we report a case of tissue augmentation of a facial depression deformity using a pedicled buccal fat pad (BFP). PATIENT CONCERNS: A 64-year-old woman was referred with a chief complaint of facial depression deformity. DIAGNOSES: Her molars had been removed at another hospital 12 years prior to this referral, and the patient suffered from a left cheek depression deformity as a sequela of a postextraction infection...
July 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28745833/full-layer-mucosal-histology-in-achalasia-histological-epithelial-wave-is-characteristic-in-pinstripe-pattern-positive-achalasia
#14
H Sato, K Takahashi, N Nakajima, G Hasegawa, K Mizuno, S Hashimoto, S Ikarashi, K Hayashi, Y Honda, J Yokoyama, Y Sato, S Terai
BACKGROUND: Previously, the mucosal histology in achalasia has only been investigated using superficial biopsy or surgically resected esophageal specimens in end-stage cases. We investigated the histology of the full-layer mucosa in early and advanced achalasia. METHODS: Endoscopy was performed for the pinstripe pattern (PSP) (an early achalasia indicator) and dilation and thickening of the mucosa (advanced achalasia indicators). A mucosal entry site for peroral endoscopic myotomy was created using cap-fitted endoscopic mucosal resection to access the full-layer mucosa and the submucosa...
July 26, 2017: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28745825/salmonella-choleraesuis-outer-membrane-vesicles-proteomics-and-immunogenicity
#15
Qiong Liu, Jie Yi, Kang Liang, Xiangmin Zhang, Qing Liu
Salmonella enterica serotype Choleraesuis (S. Choleraesuis), Gram-negative facultative intracellular pathogen is capable of inducing the cholera in pigs whose symptoms manifest as fever, depression, septicemia, arthritis, and diarrhea. Infections with S. Choleraesuis has resulted in great economic loss for the swine breeding operations. Bacterial outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) play an important role in pathogenicity and host-pathogen interaction. In this study, we purified OMVs released by S. Choleraesuis strain χ3545 and characterized their lipopolysaccharide (LPS) profile...
July 26, 2017: Journal of Basic Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28745328/diacylglycerol-kinase-synthesized-by-commensal-lactobacillus-reuteri-diminishes-protein-kinase-c-phosphorylation-and-histamine-mediated-signaling-in-the-mammalian-intestinal-epithelium
#16
B P Ganesh, A Hall, S Ayyaswamy, J W Nelson, R Fultz, A Major, A Haag, M Esparza, M Lugo, S Venable, M Whary, J G Fox, J Versalovic
Lactobacillus reuteri 6475 (Lr) of the human microbiome synthesizes histamine and can suppress inflammation via type 2 histamine receptor (H2R) activation in the mammalian intestine. Gut microbes such as Lr promote H2R signaling and may suppress H1R proinflammatory signaling pathways in parallel by unknown mechanisms. In this study, we identified a soluble bacterial enzyme known as diacylglycerol kinase (Dgk) from Lr that is secreted into the extracellular milieu and presumably into the intestinal lumen. DgK diminishes diacylglycerol (DAG) quantities in mammalian cells by promoting its metabolic conversion and causing reduced protein kinase C phosphorylation (pPKC) as a net effect in mammalian cells...
July 26, 2017: Mucosal Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28745327/seminal-vesicle-fluid-increases-the-efficacy-of-intravaginal-hsv-2-vaccination
#17
A Varese, F Remes Lenicov, M Gonzalez Prinz, A Paletta, G Ernst, C Maeto, A Merlotti, J Sabatte, S Símula, M P Holgado, E Dantas, J Geffner, A Ceballos
Once considered merely as a vehicle for spermatozoa, it is now clear that seminal plasma (SP) induces a variety of biological actions on the female reproductive tissues able to modulate the immune response against paternal antigens. To our knowledge, the influence of SP on the immune response against sexually transmitted pathogens has not been yet evaluated. We here analyzed whether the seminal vesicle fluid (SVF), which contributes almost 60% of the SP volume in mice, could modulate the immune response against herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2)...
July 26, 2017: Mucosal Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28745326/defective-positioning-in-granulomas-but-not-lung-homing-limits-cd4-t-cell-interactions-with-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-infected-macrophages-in-rhesus-macaques
#18
K D Kauffman, M A Sallin, S Sakai, O Kamenyeva, J Kabat, D Weiner, M Sutphin, D Schimel, L Via, C E Barry, T Wilder-Kofie, I Moore, R Moore, D L Barber
Protection against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infection requires CD4 T cells to migrate into the lung and interact with infected macrophages. In mice, less-differentiated CXCR3(+) CD4 T cells migrate into the lung and suppress growth of Mtb, whereas CX3CR1(+) terminally differentiated Th1 cells accumulate in the blood vasculature and do not control pulmonary infection. Here we examine CD4 T-cell differentiation and lung homing during primary Mtb infection of rhesus macaques. Mtb-specific CD4 T cells simultaneously appeared in the airways and blood ∼21-28 days post exposure, indicating that recently primed effectors are quickly recruited into the lungs after entering circulation...
July 26, 2017: Mucosal Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28745325/the-regulation-of-gut-mucosal-iga-b-cell-responses-recent-developments
#19
REVIEW
N Y Lycke, M Bemark
The majority of activated B cells differentiate into IgA plasma cells, with the gut being the largest producer of immunoglobulin in the body. Secretory IgA antibodies have numerous critical functions of which protection against infections and the role for establishing a healthy microbiota appear most important. Expanding our knowledge of the regulation of IgA B-cell responses and how effective mucosal vaccines can be designed are of critical importance. Here we discuss recent developments in the field that shed light on the uniqueness and complexity of mucosal IgA responses and the control of protective IgA responses in the gut, specifically...
July 26, 2017: Mucosal Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28745324/a-committed-postselection-precursor-to-natural-tcr%C3%AE-%C3%AE-intraepithelial-lymphocytes
#20
Christoph S N Klose, Jonas F Hummel, Lena Faller, Yannick d'Hargues, Karolina Ebert, Yakup Tanriver
The intestine is a major immune organ with several specialized lymphoid structures and immune cells. Among these are thymus-derived natural intraepithelial lymphocytes (IELs) that lack expression of the classical co-receptors CD4 or CD8αβ (double negative (DN)). Natural IELs are both αβ(+) and γδ(+) T cells that play important roles in the maintenance of the epithelial barrier at steady state and during inflammation. The transcription factor T-bet is essential for the peripheral development of natural IELs, but its role during thymic development has remained less clear...
July 26, 2017: Mucosal Immunology
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