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Stephen A McClave, Jayshil Patel, Neal Bhutiani
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Maintaining gut barrier defenses, modulating immune responses, and supporting the role of commensal microbiota are major factors influencing outcome in critical illness. Of these, maintaining a commensal 'lifestyle' and preventing the emergence of a virulent pathobiome may be most important in reducing risk of infection and multiple organ failure. RECENT FINDINGS: The polymeric formulas utilized for enteral nutrition in the ICU are absorbed high in the gastrointestinal tract and may not reach the microbial burden in the cecum where their effect is most needed...
April 2018: Current Opinion in Critical Care
Esther Rubio-Portillo, Diego K Kersting, Cristina Linares, Alfonso A Ramos-Esplá, Josefa Antón
The endemic Mediterranean zooxanthellate scleractinian reef-builder Cladocora caespitosa is among the organisms most affected by warming-related mass mortality events in the Mediterranean Sea. Corals are known to contain a diverse microbiota that plays a key role in their physiology and health. Here we report the first study that examines the microbiome and pathobiome associated with C. caespitosa in three different Mediterranean locations (i.e., Genova, Columbretes Islands, and Tabarca Island). The microbial communities associated with this species showed biogeographical differences, but shared a common core microbiome that probably plays a key role in the coral holobiont...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Martin Broberg, James Doonan, Filip Mundt, Sandra Denman, James E McDonald
BACKGROUND: Britain's native oak species are currently under threat from acute oak decline (AOD), a decline-disease where stem bleeds overlying necrotic lesions in the inner bark and larval galleries of the bark-boring beetle, Agrilus biguttatus, represent the primary symptoms. It is known that complex interactions between the plant host and its microbiome, i.e. the holobiont, significantly influence the health status of the plant. In AOD, necrotic lesions are caused by a microbiome shift to a pathobiome consisting predominantly of Brenneria goodwinii, Gibbsiella quercinecans, Rahnella victoriana and potentially other bacteria...
January 30, 2018: Microbiome
Alejandro Cabezas-Cruz, Muriel Vayssier-Taussat, Gilbert Greub
Ticks and the pathogens they transmit constitute a growing burden for human and animal health worldwide. Traditionally, tick-borne pathogen detection has been carried out using PCR-based methods that rely in known sequences for specific primers design. This approach matches with the view of a 'single-pathogen' epidemiology. Recent results, however, have stressed the importance of coinfections in pathogen ecology and evolution with impact in pathogen transmission and disease severity. New approaches, including high-throughput technologies, were then used to detect multiple pathogens, but they all need a priori information on the pathogens to search...
January 9, 2018: Microbes and Infection
Anne-Leila Meistertzheim, Maggy M Nugues, Gaëlle Quéré, Pierre E Galand
Crustose coralline algae (CCA) are major benthic calcifiers that play crucial roles in coral reef ecosystems. Two diseases affecting CCA have recently been investigated: coralline white band syndrome (CWBS) and coralline white patch disease (CWPD). These diseases can trigger major losses in CCA cover on tropical coral reefs, but their causative agents remain unknown. Here, we provide data from the first investigation of the bacterial communities associated with healthy and diseased CCA tissues. We show that Neogoniolithon mamillare diseased tissues had distinct microbial communities compared to healthy tissues and demonstrate that CWBS and CWPD were associated with different pathobiomes, indicating that they had different disease causations...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
Stephen A McClave, Cynthia C Lowen, Robert G Martindale
The gut has a major influence on the course of the human stress response in critical illness for several reasons; the quantity of its immune tissue, the extent of interface with the external environment, the expanse of the microbiome, and its access to the systemic circulation. In critical illness, it is not uncommon to lose mucosal barrier function, which exposes the host to the downside effects of luminal contents and epithelial cell regulation. In that setting, the microbiome is converted to a pathobiome, upregulation of metabolic and immune responses occurs, and homeostatic defense systems are compromised...
July 29, 2017: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
Shahid Karim, Khemraj Budachetri, Nabanita Mukherjee, Jaclyn Williams, Asma Kausar, Muhammad Jawadul Hassan, Steven Adamson, Scot E Dowd, Dmitry Apanskevich, Abdullah Arijo, Zia Uddin Sindhu, Muhammad Azam Kakar, Raja Muhammad Dilpazir Khan, Shafiq Ullah, Muhammad Sohail Sajid, Abid Ali, Zafar Iqbal
BACKGROUND: As obligate blood-feeding arthropods, ticks transmit pathogens to humans and domestic animals more often than other arthropod vectors. Livestock farming plays a vital role in the rural economy of Pakistan, and tick infestation causes serious problems with it. However, research on tick species diversity and tick-borne pathogens has rarely been conducted in Pakistan. In this study, a systematic investigation of the tick species infesting livestock in different ecological regions of Pakistan was conducted to determine the microbiome and pathobiome diversity in the indigenous ticks...
June 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Rachel M Wright, Carly D Kenkel, Carly E Dunn, Erin N Shilling, Line K Bay, Mikhail V Matz
Disease causes significant coral mortality worldwide; however, factors responsible for intraspecific variation in disease resistance remain unclear. We exposed fragments of eight Acropora millepora colonies (genotypes) to putatively pathogenic bacteria (Vibrio spp.). Genotypes varied from zero to >90% mortality, with bacterial challenge increasing average mortality rates 4-6 fold and shifting the microbiome in favor of stress-associated taxa. Constitutive immunity and subsequent immune and transcriptomic responses to the challenge were more prominent in high-mortality individuals, whereas low-mortality corals remained largely unaffected and maintained expression signatures of a healthier condition (i...
June 1, 2017: Scientific Reports
Günter Brader, Stéphane Compant, Kathryn Vescio, Birgit Mitter, Friederike Trognitz, Li-Jun Ma, Angela Sessitsch
Plants are colonized on their surfaces and in the rhizosphere and phyllosphere by a multitude of different microorganisms and are inhabited internally by endophytes. Most endophytes act as commensals without any known effect on their plant host, but multiple bacteria and fungi establish a mutualistic relationship with plants, and some act as pathogens. The outcome of these plant-microbe interactions depends on biotic and abiotic environmental factors and on the genotype of the host and the interacting microorganism...
August 4, 2017: Annual Review of Phytopathology
John C Alverdy, James N Luo
Mammals constantly face stressful situations, be it extended periods of starvation, sleep deprivation from fear of predation, changing environmental conditions, or loss of habitat. Today, mammals are increasingly exposed to xenobiotics such as pesticides, pollutants, and antibiotics. Crowding conditions such as those created for the purposes of meat production from animals or those imposed upon humans living in urban environments or during world travel create new levels of physiologic stress. As such, human progress has led to an unprecedented exposure of both animals and humans to accidental pathogens (i...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
John C Alverdy, Monika A Krezalek
The definition of sepsis has been recently modified to accommodate emerging knowledge in the field, while at the same time being recognized as challenging, if not impossible, to define. Here, we seek to clarify the current understanding of sepsis as one that has been typically framed as a disorder of inflammation to one in which the competing interests of the microbiota, pathobiota, and host immune cells lead to loss of resilience and nonresolving organ dysfunction. Here, we challenge the existence of the idea of noninfectious sepsis given that critically ill humans never exist in a germ-free state...
February 2017: Critical Care Medicine
Jayshil J Patel, Martin D Rosenthal, Keith R Miller, Robert G Martindale
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to describe established and emerging mechanisms of gut injury and dysfunction in trauma, describe emerging strategies to improve gut dysfunction, detail the effect of trauma on the gut microbiome, and describe the gut-brain connection in traumatic brain injury. RECENT FINDINGS: Newer data suggest intraluminal contents, pancreatic enzymes, and hepatobiliary factors disrupt the intestinal mucosal layer. These mechanisms serve to perpetuate the inflammatory response leading to multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS)...
August 2016: Current Opinion in Critical Care
Boris Jakuschkin, Virgil Fievet, Loïc Schwaller, Thomas Fort, Cécile Robin, Corinne Vacher
Plant-inhabiting microorganisms interact directly with each other, forming complex microbial interaction networks. These interactions can either prevent or facilitate the establishment of new microbial species, such as a pathogen infecting the plant. Here, our aim was to identify the most likely interactions between Erysiphe alphitoides, the causal agent of oak powdery mildew, and other foliar microorganisms of pedunculate oak (Quercus robur L.). We combined metabarcoding techniques and a Bayesian method of network inference to decipher these interactions...
November 2016: Microbial Ecology
Monika A Krezalek, Jennifer DeFazio, Olga Zaborina, Alexander Zaborin, John C Alverdy
Sepsis following surgical injury remains a growing and worrisome problem following both emergent and elective surgery. Although early resuscitation efforts and prompt antibiotic therapy have improved outcomes in the first 24 to 48  h, late onset sepsis is now the most common cause of death in modern intensive care units. This time shift may be, in part, a result of prolonged exposure of the host to the stressors of critical illness which, over time, erode the health promoting intestinal microbiota and allow for virulent pathogens to predominate...
May 2016: Shock
Muriel Vayssier-Taussat, Maria Kazimirova, Zdenek Hubalek, Sándor Hornok, Robert Farkas, Jean-François Cosson, Sarah Bonnet, Gwenaël Vourch, Patrick Gasqui, Andrei Daniel Mihalca, Olivier Plantard, Cornelia Silaghi, Sally Cutler, Annapaola Rizzoli
Ticks, as vectors of several notorious zoonotic pathogens, represent an important and increasing threat for human and animal health in Europe. Recent applications of new technology revealed the complexity of the tick microbiome, which may affect its vectorial capacity. Appreciation of these complex systems is expanding our understanding of tick-borne pathogens, leading us to evolve a more integrated view that embraces the 'pathobiome'; the pathogenic agent integrated within its abiotic and biotic environments...
2015: Future Microbiology
Thomas Mosser, Emilie Talagrand-Reboul, Sophie M Colston, Joerg Graf, Maria J Figueras, Estelle Jumas-Bilak, Brigitte Lamy
Aeromonad virulence remains poorly understood, and is difficult to predict from strain characteristics. In addition, infections are often polymicrobial (i.e., are mixed infections), and 5-10% of such infections include two distinct aeromonads, which has an unknown impact on virulence. In this work, we studied the virulence of aeromonads recovered from human mixed infections. We tested them individually and in association with other strains with the aim of improving our understanding of aeromonosis. Twelve strains that were recovered in pairs from six mixed infections were tested in a virulence model of the worm Caenorhabditis elegans...
2015: Frontiers in Microbiology
Jennifer Defazio, Irma D Fleming, Baddr Shakhsheer, Olga Zaborina, John C Alverdy
This article summarizes emerging concepts on the role of the intestinal microbiome in surgical patients. Revolutionary research over the past decade has shown that human beings live in close and constant contact with boundless communities of microbes. Recent innovations in the study of the human microbiome are reviewed. To demonstrate the applicability of these studies to surgical disease, the authors discuss what is known about the role of microbes in the pathogenesis of perioperative complications. Enhanced awareness of the human microbiome will empower clinicians to adopt novel practices in the prevention and treatment of a variety of surgical conditions...
December 2014: Surgical Clinics of North America
Muriel Vayssier-Taussat, Emmanuel Albina, Christine Citti, Jean-Franҫois Cosson, Marie-Agnès Jacques, Marc-Henri Lebrun, Yves Le Loir, Mylène Ogliastro, Marie-Agnès Petit, Philippe Roumagnac, Thierry Candresse
The concept of pathogenesis has evolved considerably over recent years, and the scenario "a microbe + virulence factors = disease" is probably far from reality in a number of cases. Actual pathogens have extremely broad biological diversity and are found in all major groups of microorganisms (viruses, bacteria, fungi, protozoa…). Their pathogenicity results from strong and often highly specific interactions they have with either their microbial environment, hosts and/or arthropod vectors. In this review, we explore the contribution of metagenomic approaches toward understanding pathogens within the context of microbial communities...
2014: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Edward T Ryan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2013: Journal of Infectious Diseases
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