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John C Alverdy, James N Luo
Mammals constantly face stressful situations, be it extended periods of starvation, sleep deprivation from fear of predation, changing environmental conditions, or loss of habitat. Today, mammals are increasingly exposed to xenobiotics such as pesticides, pollutants, and antibiotics. Crowding conditions such as those created for the purposes of meat production from animals or those imposed upon humans living in urban environments or during world travel create new levels of physiologic stress. As such, human progress has led to an unprecedented exposure of both animals and humans to accidental pathogens (i...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
John C Alverdy, Monika A Krezalek
The definition of sepsis has been recently modified to accommodate emerging knowledge in the field, while at the same time being recognized as challenging, if not impossible, to define. Here, we seek to clarify the current understanding of sepsis as one that has been typically framed as a disorder of inflammation to one in which the competing interests of the microbiota, pathobiota, and host immune cells lead to loss of resilience and nonresolving organ dysfunction. Here, we challenge the existence of the idea of noninfectious sepsis given that critically ill humans never exist in a germ-free state...
February 2017: Critical Care Medicine
Jayshil J Patel, Martin D Rosenthal, Keith R Miller, Robert G Martindale
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to describe established and emerging mechanisms of gut injury and dysfunction in trauma, describe emerging strategies to improve gut dysfunction, detail the effect of trauma on the gut microbiome, and describe the gut-brain connection in traumatic brain injury. RECENT FINDINGS: Newer data suggest intraluminal contents, pancreatic enzymes, and hepatobiliary factors disrupt the intestinal mucosal layer. These mechanisms serve to perpetuate the inflammatory response leading to multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS)...
August 2016: Current Opinion in Critical Care
Boris Jakuschkin, Virgil Fievet, Loïc Schwaller, Thomas Fort, Cécile Robin, Corinne Vacher
Plant-inhabiting microorganisms interact directly with each other, forming complex microbial interaction networks. These interactions can either prevent or facilitate the establishment of new microbial species, such as a pathogen infecting the plant. Here, our aim was to identify the most likely interactions between Erysiphe alphitoides, the causal agent of oak powdery mildew, and other foliar microorganisms of pedunculate oak (Quercus robur L.). We combined metabarcoding techniques and a Bayesian method of network inference to decipher these interactions...
May 5, 2016: Microbial Ecology
Monika A Krezalek, Jennifer DeFazio, Olga Zaborina, Alexander Zaborin, John C Alverdy
Sepsis following surgical injury remains a growing and worrisome problem following both emergent and elective surgery. Although early resuscitation efforts and prompt antibiotic therapy have improved outcomes in the first 24 to 48  h, late onset sepsis is now the most common cause of death in modern intensive care units. This time shift may be, in part, a result of prolonged exposure of the host to the stressors of critical illness which, over time, erode the health promoting intestinal microbiota and allow for virulent pathogens to predominate...
May 2016: Shock
Muriel Vayssier-Taussat, Maria Kazimirova, Zdenek Hubalek, Sándor Hornok, Robert Farkas, Jean-François Cosson, Sarah Bonnet, Gwenaël Vourch, Patrick Gasqui, Andrei Daniel Mihalca, Olivier Plantard, Cornelia Silaghi, Sally Cutler, Annapaola Rizzoli
Ticks, as vectors of several notorious zoonotic pathogens, represent an important and increasing threat for human and animal health in Europe. Recent applications of new technology revealed the complexity of the tick microbiome, which may affect its vectorial capacity. Appreciation of these complex systems is expanding our understanding of tick-borne pathogens, leading us to evolve a more integrated view that embraces the 'pathobiome'; the pathogenic agent integrated within its abiotic and biotic environments...
2015: Future Microbiology
Thomas Mosser, Emilie Talagrand-Reboul, Sophie M Colston, Joerg Graf, Maria J Figueras, Estelle Jumas-Bilak, Brigitte Lamy
Aeromonad virulence remains poorly understood, and is difficult to predict from strain characteristics. In addition, infections are often polymicrobial (i.e., are mixed infections), and 5-10% of such infections include two distinct aeromonads, which has an unknown impact on virulence. In this work, we studied the virulence of aeromonads recovered from human mixed infections. We tested them individually and in association with other strains with the aim of improving our understanding of aeromonosis. Twelve strains that were recovered in pairs from six mixed infections were tested in a virulence model of the worm Caenorhabditis elegans...
2015: Frontiers in Microbiology
Jennifer Defazio, Irma D Fleming, Baddr Shakhsheer, Olga Zaborina, John C Alverdy
This article summarizes emerging concepts on the role of the intestinal microbiome in surgical patients. Revolutionary research over the past decade has shown that human beings live in close and constant contact with boundless communities of microbes. Recent innovations in the study of the human microbiome are reviewed. To demonstrate the applicability of these studies to surgical disease, the authors discuss what is known about the role of microbes in the pathogenesis of perioperative complications. Enhanced awareness of the human microbiome will empower clinicians to adopt novel practices in the prevention and treatment of a variety of surgical conditions...
December 2014: Surgical Clinics of North America
Muriel Vayssier-Taussat, Emmanuel Albina, Christine Citti, Jean-Franҫois Cosson, Marie-Agnès Jacques, Marc-Henri Lebrun, Yves Le Loir, Mylène Ogliastro, Marie-Agnès Petit, Philippe Roumagnac, Thierry Candresse
The concept of pathogenesis has evolved considerably over recent years, and the scenario "a microbe + virulence factors = disease" is probably far from reality in a number of cases. Actual pathogens have extremely broad biological diversity and are found in all major groups of microorganisms (viruses, bacteria, fungi, protozoa…). Their pathogenicity results from strong and often highly specific interactions they have with either their microbial environment, hosts and/or arthropod vectors. In this review, we explore the contribution of metagenomic approaches toward understanding pathogens within the context of microbial communities...
2014: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Edward T Ryan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2013: Journal of Infectious Diseases
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