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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679360/mental-health-of-the-male-adolescent-and-young-man-the-copenhagen-statement
#1
REVIEW
Timothy R Rice, Lesha D Shah, Pilar Trelles, Shih-Ku Lin, Dinne Skjærlund Christensen, Andreas Walther, Leo Sher
BACKGROUND: Male adolescents and young men benefit when their mental health care is specialized to match their unique gendered and developmental needs. Sensitivity to the social circumstances of this population is important; additionally, the emerging ability to tailor care through knowledge gleaned from the intersection of psychiatry, neurology, and endocrinology informs care. DATA SOURCES: This article summarized the views of six experts in the area of the adolescent and young adult male mental health...
April 20, 2018: World Journal of Pediatrics: WJP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673649/auto-immune-disorders-in-a-child-with-pik3cd-variant-and-22q13-deletion
#2
Kyoko Kiyota, Koh-Ichiro Yoshiura, Ryoko Houbara, Hiroaki Miyahara, Seigo Korematsu, Kenji Ihara
22q13 deletion syndrome is a genetic disorder caused by the deletion or disruption of the segment of the long arm of chromosome 22. The characteristic clinical features of this syndrome include delayed expressive speech, autistic behavior and hypotonia, and clinically severe complications associated with autoimmunity are rarely reported. We herein report a girl with 22q13 deletion syndrome complicated with multiple inflammatory and autoimmune diseases during early childhood. We performed whole-exome sequencing to identify the genes responsible for her autoimmune diseases and identified the de novo variant p...
April 16, 2018: European Journal of Medical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673480/thalamic-reticular-dysfunction-as-a-circuit-endophenotype-in-neurodevelopmental-disorders
#3
REVIEW
Alexandra Krol, Ralf D Wimmer, Michael M Halassa, Guoping Feng
Diagnoses of behavioral disorders such as autism spectrum disorder and schizophrenia are based on symptomatic descriptions that have been difficult to connect to mechanism. Although psychiatric genetics provide insight into the genetic underpinning of such disorders, with a majority of cases explained by polygenic factors, it remains difficult to design rational treatments. In this review, we highlight the value of understanding neural circuit function both as an intermediate level of explanatory description that links gene to behavior and as a pathway for developing rational diagnostics and therapeutics for behavioral disorders...
April 18, 2018: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672865/dietary-iron-fortification-normalizes-fetal-hematology-hepcidin-and-iron-distribution-in-a-rat-model-of-prenatal-alcohol-exposure
#4
Shane M Huebner, Kaylee K Helfrich, Nipun Saini, Sharon E Blohowiak, Adrienne A Cheng, Pamela J Kling, Susan M Smith
BACKGROUND: Prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) causes neurodevelopmental disability. Clinical and animal studies show gestational iron deficiency exacerbates PAE's behavioral and growth deficits. In rat, PAE manifests an inability to establish iron homeostasis, increasing hepcidin (maternal and fetal) and fetal liver iron while decreasing brain iron and promoting anemia. Here, we hypothesize dietary iron fortification during pregnancy may mitigate alcohol's disruption of fetal iron homeostasis...
April 19, 2018: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672115/effects-of-aging-word-frequency-and-text-stimulus-quality-on-reading-across-the-adult-lifespan-evidence-from-eye-movements
#5
Kayleigh L Warrington, Victoria A McGowan, Kevin B Paterson, Sarah J White
Reductions in stimulus quality may disrupt the reading performance of older adults more when compared with young adults because of sensory declines that begin early in middle age. However, few studies have investigated adult age differences in the effects of stimulus quality on reading, and none have examined how this affects lexical processing and eye movement control. Accordingly, we report two experiments that examine the effects of reduced stimulus quality on the eye movements of young (18-24 years), middle-aged (41-51 years), and older (65+ years) adult readers...
April 19, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672075/the-telephone-effect-overcoming-initiation-deficits-in-two-settings
#6
Kayci L Vickers, Michael E Keesler, Kelli S Williams, Jeremy Y Charles, Roy H Hamilton
PURPOSE: Disorders of motivation substantially impair an individual's ability to communicate with their families, therapists, and doctors. One method of overcoming initiation deficits is by utilizing the telephone effect, which is the ability for individuals with severe motivation deficits to communicate more readily when speaking on a telephone. However, little is available in the extant literature on how this effect works or how best to integrate this into patient care. This article aims to provide the first report of a proposed mechanism underlying the telephone effect and the first published procedures for eliciting this effect...
April 19, 2018: Rehabilitation Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670106/olfactory-inputs-modulate-respiration-related-rhythmic-activity-in-the-prefrontal-cortex-and-freezing-behavior
#7
Andrew H Moberly, Mary Schreck, Janardhan P Bhattarai, Larry S Zweifel, Wenqin Luo, Minghong Ma
Respiration and airflow through the nasal cavity are known to be correlated with rhythmic neural activity in the central nervous system. Here we show in rodents that during conditioned fear-induced freezing behavior, mice breathe at a steady rate (~4 Hz), which is correlated with a predominant 4-Hz oscillation in the prelimbic prefrontal cortex (plPFC), a structure critical for expression of conditioned fear behaviors. We demonstrate anatomical and functional connections between the olfactory pathway and plPFC via circuit tracing and optogenetics...
April 18, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669984/circadian-rhythms-of-micturition-during-jet-lag
#8
Kakeru Ito, Miho Yasuda, Yuki Maeda, Jean-Michel Fustin, Yoshiaki Yamaguchi, Yuka Kono, Hiromitsu Negoro, Akihiro Kanematsu, Osamu Ogawa, Masao Doi, Hitoshi Okamura
Micturition behavior follows regular day/night fluctuations, and unwanted increase in micturition could occur during night in jet lag condition. To clarify the effect of jet lag on micturition behavior, we simultaneously detected circadian micturition patterns and locomotor activity rhythms of mice under experimental jet lag conditions, by applying the improved automated Voided Stain on Paper (aVSOP) method. When wild-type (WT) mice were phase-advanced for 8 hours, day-night variation of micturition was disrupted suddenly, and this irregular daily micturition continued until 8 days, although their activity rhythms entrained gradually day by day until 8 days...
2018: Biomedical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668524/disruptive-behavior-in-the-operating-room-prevalence-consequences-prevention-and-management
#9
Alexander Villafranca, Ian Fast, Eric Jacobsohn
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Disruptive workplace behavior can have serious consequences to clinicians, institutions, and patients. There is a range of disruptive behaviors, and the consequences are often underappreciated. The purpose of this manuscript is to review the definition, prevalence, consequences, prevention, and management of disruptive behavior in the operating room. RECENT FINDINGS: Although a small minority of operating room clinicians act disruptively, 98% of clinicians report having recently been exposed to disruptive behavior, with the average being 64 events per clinician per year...
April 13, 2018: Current Opinion in Anaesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667043/abnormalities-in-thalamo-cortical-connections-in-patients-with-first-episode-schizophrenia-a-two-tensor-tractography-study
#10
Hesham M Hamoda, A T Makhlouf, J Fitzsimmons, Y Rathi, N Makris, R I Mesholam-Gately, J D Wojcik, J Goldstein, R W McCarley, L J Seidman, M Kubicki, M E Shenton
The "cognitive dysmetria" hypothesis suggests that impairments in cognition and behavior in patients with schizophrenia can be explained by disruptions in the cortico-cerebellar-thalamic-cortical circuit. In this study we examine thalamo-cortical connections in patients with first-episode schizophrenia (FESZ). White matter pathways are investigated that connect the thalamus with three frontal cortex regions including the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC), and lateral oribitofrontal cortex (LOFC)...
April 17, 2018: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666565/postnatal-vitamin-d-intake-modulates-hippocampal-learning-and-memory-in-adult-mice
#11
Qiujuan Liang, Chunhui Cai, Dongxia Duan, Xinyu Hu, Wanhao Hua, Peicheng Jiang, Liu Zhang, Jun Xu, Zhengliang Gao
Vitamin D (VD) is a neuroactive steroid crucial for brain development, function and homeostasis. Its deficiency is associated with numerous brain conditions. As such, VD and its variants are routinely taken by a broad of groups with/without known VD deficiency. In contrast, the harmful effects of VD overdose have been poorly studied. Similarly, the developmental stage-specific VD deficiency and overdose have been rarely explored. In the present work, we showed that postnatal VD supplementation enhanced the motor function transiently in the young adult, but not in the older one...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664768/determinants-of-parent-satisfaction-with-emergency-or-urgent-care-when-the-patient-has-autism
#12
Sarah F Kirsch, David L Meryash, Bárbara González-Arévalo
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to identify factors that predict parent satisfaction (PS) with their child with autism spectrum disorder (ASD)'s visit to a hospital emergency department (ED) or urgent care (UC) center. METHODS: Parents recruited through a national database whose child (3-21 years; N = 378) with ASD had been treated in an ED/UC center within the previous 3 years completed an anonymous on-line questionnaire. They answered questions about whether they were satisfied overall with the visit and the care provided, their demographics, patient characteristics, their expectations and preparation for the visit, and the ED/UC center experience itself, including their observations of staff interpersonal and communication skills (ICSs) and behaviors, and whether the patient was disruptive (D)...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics: JDBP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663829/no-evidence-of-atypical-attentional-disengagement-in-autism-a-study-across-the-spectrum
#13
C Ellie Wilson, David Saldaña
The ability to disengage attention and reengage elsewhere has been proposed as a fundamental deficit in the autism spectrum, potentially disrupting development of higher cognitive domains. Eye-movements were recorded while 16 autism spectrum children of mixed ability, and 18 typically developing age-matched controls, completed the Gap-Overlap paradigm. A significant difference in latency to fixate target was found between Gap and Overlap conditions. A significant interaction with group was due to autism spectrum participants' shorter latencies to fixate target in the Gap condition, but similar group responses in the Overlap condition...
April 1, 2018: Autism: the International Journal of Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662995/direct-observation-of-stepwise-intermolecular-proton-and-hydrogen-transfer-between-alcohols-and-the-triplet-state-of-4-nitro-1-naphthol
#14
Fengjin Zhang, Di Zhang, Yong Du, Peipei Jin, Yanying Zhao, Xuming Zheng, Jiadan Xue
Solvent assisted excited state intramolecular proton or hydrogen transfer has received much attention in bi-functional molecules with hydrogen donating and hydrogen accepting groups. As a typical photoacid, 1-naphthol exhibits photo-stable behavior in methanol; whether this would be disrupted by a bonded hydrogen accepting group contained in the molecule is still not assured. We present nanosecond transient absorption measurements relating to kinetics and the characteristic absorption of key intermediates upon the excitation of 4-nitro-1-naphthol in alcoholic solutions, and also transient resonance Raman spectroscopy studies combined with theoretical calculations to identify the structures of these intermediates, and we reveal the reaction mechanism to be stepwise deprotonation, hydrogen abstraction and protonation...
April 17, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661241/breaking-bad-habits-by-improving-executive-function-in-individuals-with-obesity
#15
Vanessa Allom, Barbara Mullan, Evelyn Smith, Phillipa Hay, Jayanthi Raman
BACKGROUND: Two primary factors that contribute to obesity are unhealthy eating and sedentary behavior. These behaviors are particularly difficult to change in the long-term because they are often enacted habitually. Cognitive Remediation Therapy has been modified and applied to the treatment of obesity (CRT-O) with preliminary results of a randomized controlled trial demonstrating significant weight loss and improvements in executive function. The objective of this study was to conduct a secondary data analysis of the CRT-O trial to evaluate whether CRT-O reduces unhealthy habits that contribute to obesity via improvements in executive function...
April 16, 2018: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660861/the-accumulation-transformation-and-effects-of-quinestrol-in-duckweed-spirodela-polyrhiza-l
#16
Qianqian Geng, Tian Li, Pingliang Li, Xin Wang, Weijing Chu, Yanan Ma, Hui Ma, Hanwen Ni
Potential risk of endocrine disrupting compounds on non-target organisms has received extensive attentions in recent years. The present work aimed to investigate the behavior and effect of a synthetic steroid estrogen quinestrol in duckweed Spirodela polyrhiza L. Experimental results showed that quinestrol could be uptaken, accumulated, and biotransformed into 17 α-ethynylestradiol in S. polyrhiza L. The accumulation of quinestrol had a positive relation to the exposure concentration. The bioaccumulation rate was higher when the duckweed was exposed to quinestrol solutions at low concentrations than at high concentration...
April 11, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660609/aflatoxin-b-1-contaminated-diet-disrupts-the-blood-brain-barrier-and-affects-fish-behavior-involvement-of-neurotransmitters-in-brain-synaptosomes
#17
Matheus D Baldissera, Carine F Souza, Carla Cristina Zeppenfeld, Sharine N Descovi, Karen Luise S Moreira, Maria Izabel U M da Rocha, Marcelo L da Veiga, Aleksandro S da Silva, Bernardo Baldisserotto
It is known that the cytotoxic effects of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1 ) in endothelial cells of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) are associated with behavioral dysfunction. However, the effects of a diet contaminated with AFB1 on the behavior of silver catfish remain unknown. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate whether an AFB1 -contaminated diet (1177 ppb kg feed-1 ) impaired silver catfish behavior, as well as whether disruption of the BBB and alteration of neurotransmitters in brain synaptosomes are involved...
April 4, 2018: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659809/a-new-mouse-model-of-arx-dup24-recapitulates-the-patients-behavioural-and-fine-motor-alterations
#18
Aline Dubos, Hamid Meziane, Giovanni Iacono, Aurore Curie, Fabrice Riet, Christelle Martin, Nadège Loaëc, Marie-Christine Birling, Mohammed Selloum, Elisabeth Normand, Guillaume Pavlovic, Tania Sorg, Henk G Stunnenberg, Jamel Chelly, Yann Humeau, Gaëlle Friocourt, Yann Hérault
The Aristaless-related homeobox (ARX) transcription factor is involved in the development of GABAergic and cholinergic neurons in the forebrain. ARX mutations have been associated with a wide spectrum of neurodevelopmental disorders in humans, among which the most frequent, a 24bp duplication in the polyalanine tract 2 (c.428_451dup24), gives rise to intellectual disability, fine motor defects with or without epilepsy. To understand the functional consequences of this mutation, we generated a partially humanized mouse model carrying the c...
April 5, 2018: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659001/state-of-the-science-apathy-as-a-model-for-investigating-behavioral-and-psychological-symptoms-in-dementia
#19
Lauren Massimo, Helen C Kales, Ann Kolanowski
Apathy is one of the most common and pervasive of the behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSDs). Apathy has profound consequences for morbidity, mortality, and caregiver burden. Treatment of apathy has been hindered because of poor understanding of the mechanisms underlying this heterogeneous syndrome. Research has demonstrated that apathy is associated with disruption of the frontal-striatal system in individuals with neurodegenerative disease. As with other BPSDs, these neural mechanisms alone do not completely account for the syndrome; individual, caregiver, and environmental factors also contribute to apathy...
April 2018: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655598/individual-differences-in-the-energizing-effects-of-caffeine-on-effort-based-decision-making-tests-in-rats
#20
Noemí SanMiguel, Marta Pardo, Carla Carratalá-Ros, Laura López-Cruz, John D Salamone, Mercè Correa
Motivated behavior is characterized by activation and high work output. Nucleus accumbens (Nacb) modulates behavioral activation and effort-based decision-making. Caffeine is widely consumed because of its energizing properties. This methylxanthine is a non-selective adenosine A1 /A2A receptor antagonist. Adenosine receptors are highly concentrated in Nacb. Adenosine agonists injected into Nacb, shift preference towards low effort alternatives. The present studies characterized effort-related effects of caffeine in a concurrent progressive ratio (PROG)/free reinforcer choice procedure that requires high levels of work output, and generates great variability among different animals...
April 12, 2018: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
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