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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647546/a-review-of-the-effects-of-very-low-nicotine-content-cigarettes-on-behavioral-and-cognitive-performance
#1
Diana R Keith, Allison N Kurti, Danielle R Davis, Ivori A Zvorsky, Stephen T Higgins
The present systematic review examines whether very low nicotine content (VLNC) cigarettes ameliorate withdrawal-induced impairments in behavioral/cognitive performance. PubMed, PsycInfo, and Web of Science were searched for performance effects of VLNC cigarettes. For inclusion, reports had to be in English, published in a peer-reviewed journal through June 2017, examine VLNC cigarettes (<0.2mg nicotine yield), include ≥2hour smoking abstinence or reduced nicotine exposure, and examine performance. 19 of 1243 articles reviewed met inclusion criteria...
June 21, 2017: Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646975/impact-of-incredible-years%C3%A2-on-teacher-perceptions-of-parental-involvement-a-latent-transition-analysis
#2
Aaron M Thompson, Keith C Herman, Melissa A Stormont, Wendy M Reinke, Carolyn Webster-Stratton
The purpose of the present study was to examine the impact of the Incredible Years® Teacher Classroom Management (IY TCM) training on teacher perceptions of parental involvement. A cluster randomized design was used to assign 42 classroom teachers to either an IY TCM training (n=19) or a control condition (n=23). Teachers rated parental involvement (i.e., bonding with teacher, parental involvement at school) for the families of 805 low income students (IY TCM=504, control=301). A latent profile transition analysis framework was used to model the effect of IY TCM on teacher perceptions of parental involvement from pre to posttest...
June 2017: Journal of School Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646974/testing-the-feasibility-of-a-briefer-school-based-preventive-intervention-with-aggressive-children-a-hybrid-intervention-with-face-to-face-and-internet-components
#3
John E Lochman, Caroline L Boxmeyer, Shannon Jones, Lixin Qu, David Ewoldsen, W Michael Nelson
This study describes the results from a feasibility study of an innovative indicated prevention intervention with hybrid face-to-face and web-based components for preadolescent youth. This intervention includes a considerably briefer set of face-to-face sessions from the evidence-based Coping Power program and a carefully integrated internet component with practice and teaching activities and cartoon videos for children and for parents. The Coping Power - Internet Enhanced (CP-IE) program introduces a set of cognitive-behavioral skills in 12 small group sessions for children delivered during the school day and 7 group sessions for parents...
June 2017: Journal of School Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646790/the-effects-of-individual-biological-rhythm-differences-on-sleep-quality-daytime-sleepiness-and-dissociative-experiences
#4
Yavuz Selvi, Ali Kandeger, Murat Boysan, Nursel Akbaba, Ayca A Sayin, Emine Tekinarslan, Basak O Koc, Omer F Uygur, Vedat Sar
Individuals who differ markedly by sleep chronotype, i.e., morning-type or evening-type also differ on a number of psychological, behavioral, and biological variables. Among several other psychological functions, dissociation may also lead to disruption and alteration of consciousness, which may facilitate dream-like experiences. Our study was aimed at an inquiry into the effects of individual biological rhythm differences on sleep quality and daytime sleepiness in conjunction with dissociative experiences...
June 17, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645086/toddler-exposure-to-flame-retardant-chemicals-magnitude-health-concern-and-potential-risk-or-protective-factors-of-exposure-observational-studies-summarized-in-a-systematic-review
#5
REVIEW
Eva J Sugeng, Marijke de Cock, Linda J Schoonmade, Margot van de Bor
Endocrine disrupting flame retardant (FR) chemicals form a human health concern, that is investigated mostly from the perspective of adult- and early life exposure. No overview of studies on toddler exposure and health effects exist. However, toddlerhood is a critical developmental period and toddlers are at increased risk for exposure because of their age-specific behavior. This systematic review encompasses toddler FR exposure studies in three countries, associated health effects and potential environmental, demographic, or behavioral risk- or protective factors for toddler exposure...
June 14, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645056/serious-delinquency-and-later-schizophrenia-a-nationwide-register-based-follow-up-study-of-finnish-pretrial-15-to-19-year-old-offenders-sent-for-a-forensic-psychiatric-examination
#6
N Lindberg, J Miettunen, A Heiskala, R Kaltiala-Heino
BACKGROUND: Aggressive and disruptive behaviors often precede the onset of schizophrenia. In this register-based follow-up study with a case-control design, we wanted to investigate if serious delinquency was associated with future diagnoses of schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder (here, broadly defined schizophrenia) among a nationwide consecutive sample of 15- to 19-year-old Finnish delinquents sent for a forensic psychiatric examination in 1989-2010. METHODS: The sample comprised 313 delinquents with no past or current psychotic disorder...
May 15, 2017: European Psychiatry: the Journal of the Association of European Psychiatrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644255/periodic-paralysis-and-encephalopathy-as-initial-manifestations-of-graves-disease-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#7
Theocharis Tsironis, Athanasios Tychalas, Dimitrios Kiourtidis, Jannis Kountouras, Georgia Xiromerisiou, Jobst Rudolf, Georgia Deretzi
BACKGROUND: Thyrotoxic periodic paralysis (TPP) is an uncommon complication of Graves' disease, characterized by the triad of acute hypokalemia without total body potassium deficit, episodic muscle paralysis, and thyrotoxicosis. Graves' encephalopathy is an extremely rare form of encephalopathy associated with autoimmune thyroid disease (EAATD), characterized by neuropsychiatric symptoms, increased antithyroid antibodies and cerebrospinal fluid protein concentration, nonspecific electroencephalogram abnormalities, and cortico-responsiveness...
July 2017: Neurologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642688/lower-functional-connectivity-of-the-periaqueductal-gray-is-related-to-negative-affect-and-clinical-manifestations-of-fibromyalgia
#8
Marie-Andrée Coulombe, Keith St Lawrence, Dwight E Moulin, Patricia Morley-Forster, Mahsa Shokouhi, Warren R Nielson, Karen D Davis
Fibromyalgia (FM) syndrome is characterized by chronic widespread pain, muscle tenderness and emotional distress. Previous studies found reduced endogenous pain modulation in FM. This deficiency of pain modulation may be related to the attributes of chronic pain and other clinical symptoms experienced in patients with FM. Thus, we tested whether there is a link between the clinical symptoms of FM and functional connectivity (FC) of the periaqueductal gray (PAG), a key node of pain modulation. We acquired resting state 3T functional MRI (rsfMRI) data from 23 female patients with FM and 16 age- and sex- matched healthy controls (HC) and assessed FM symptoms with the Brief Pain Inventory (BPI), Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ), Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and Pain Catastrophizing Scale (PCS)...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642081/tetrahydrocannabinol-thc-impairs-encoding-but-not-retrieval-of-verbal-information
#9
Mohini Ranganathan, Rajiv Radhakrishnan, Peter H Addy, Ashley Schnakenberg, Ashley Williams, Michelle Carbuto, Jacqueline Elander, Brian Pittman, R Andrew Sewell, Patrick D Skosnik, Deepak Cyril D'Souza
INTRODUCTION: Cannabis and agonists of the brain cannabinoid receptor (CB1R) produce acute memory impairments in humans. However, the extent to which cannabinoids impair encoding and retrieval in humans has not been established. The objective of this analysis was to determine whether the administration of Δ(9)-Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the principal psychoactive constituent of cannabis, impairs encoding and/or retrieval of verbal information. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Healthy subjects were recruited from the community...
June 19, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642080/impact-of-juvenile-chronic-stress-on-adult-cortico-accumbal-function-implications-for-cognition-and-addiction
#10
REVIEW
Michael J Watt, Matthew A Weber, Shaydel R Davies, Gina L Forster
Repeated exposure to stress during childhood is associated with increased risk for neuropsychiatric illness, substance use disorders and other behavioral problems in adulthood. However, it is not clear how chronic childhood stress can lead to emergence of such a wide range of symptoms and disorders in later life. One possible explanation lies in stress-induced disruption to the development of specific brain regions associated with executive function and reward processing, deficits in which are common to the disorders promoted by childhood stress...
June 19, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642045/mutations-on-ftsz-lateral-helix-h3-that-disrupt-cell-viability-hamper-reorganization-of-polymers-on-lipid-surfaces
#11
Ileana F Márquez, Pablo Mateos-Gil, Jae Yen Shin, Rosalba Lagosb, Octavio Monasterio, Marisela Vélez
FtsZ filaments localize at the middle of the bacterial cell and participate in the formation of a contractile ring responsible for cell division. Previous studies demonstrated that the highly conserved negative charge of glutamate 83 and the positive charge of arginine 85 located in the lateral helix H3 bend of Escherichia coli FtsZ are required for in vivo cell division. In order to understand how these lateral mutations impair the formation of a contractile ring, we extend previous in vitro characterization of these mutants in solution to study their behavior on lipid modified surfaces...
June 19, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641428/liquid-liquid-phase-transition-in-an-ionic-model-of-silica
#12
Renjie Chen, Erik Lascaris, Jeremy C Palmer
Recent equation of state calculations [E. Lascaris, Phys. Rev. Lett. 116, 125701 (2016)] for an ionic model of silica suggest that it undergoes a density-driven, liquid-liquid phase transition (LLPT) similar to the controversial transition hypothesized to exist in deeply supercooled water. Here, we perform extensive free energy calculations to scrutinize the model's low-temperature phase behavior and confirm the existence of a first-order phase transition between two liquids with identical compositions but different densities...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641223/paternal-bisphenol-a-diet-changes-prefrontal-cortex-proteome-and-provokes-behavioral-dysfunction-in-male-offspring
#13
Guangying Luo, Ruifen Wei, Shaolin Wang, Jundong Wang
Relatively little attention has been given paternal effects on next generation. Given that Bisphenol A (BPA), a ubiquitous compound in maternal diet, may disrupt brain development and behavior, we hypothesized that paternal BPA diet (PBD) could affect offspring development. Prefrontal cortex (PFC), a vital brain region, is involved in emotion and social behavior. To test whether PBD could alter developing PFC, we carried out a proteomics approach for PFC in male juvenile offspring that responded to PBD (50 mg BPA/kg diet)...
June 14, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638591/replicable-in-vivo-physiological-and-behavioral-phenotypes-of-the-shank3b-null-mutant-mouse-model-of-autism
#14
Sameer C Dhamne, Jill L Silverman, Chloe E Super, Stephen H T Lammers, Mustafa Q Hameed, Meera E Modi, Nycole A Copping, Michael C Pride, Daniel G Smith, Alexander Rotenberg, Jacqueline N Crawley, Mustafa Sahin
BACKGROUND: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a clinically and biologically heterogeneous condition characterized by social, repetitive, and sensory behavioral abnormalities. No treatments are approved for the core diagnostic symptoms of ASD. To enable the earliest stages of therapeutic discovery and development for ASD, robust and reproducible behavioral phenotypes and biological markers are essential to establish in preclinical animal models. The goal of this study was to identify electroencephalographic (EEG) and behavioral phenotypes that are replicable between independent cohorts in a mouse model of ASD...
2017: Molecular Autism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638117/disrupted-functional-connectivity-between-the-periaqueductal-gray-and-other-brain-regions-in-a-rat-model-of-recurrent-headache
#15
Zhihua Jia, Wenjing Tang, Dengfa Zhao, Shengyuan Yu
Functional connectivity (FC) has been used to investigate the pathophysiology of migraine. We aimed to identify atypical FC between the periaqueductal gray (PAG) and other brain areas in rats induced by repeated meningeal nociception. The rat model was established by infusing an inflammatory soup (IS) through supradural catheters in conscious rats. Quiescent and face-grooming behaviors were observed to assess nociceptive behavior. FC analysis seeded on the PAG was performed on rats 21 days after IS infusion...
June 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637324/the-effects-of-phytosterols-on-the-sexual-behavior-and-reproductive-function-in-the-japanese-quail-coturnix-coturnix-japonica
#16
Mohammad Ibrahim Qasimi, Kentaro Nagaoka, Gen Watanabe
Phytosterols (PS) are plant origin sterols naturally found in many foods and added as food additives. Since 1950, PS have attracted considerable attention due to their ability to lower serum cholesterol and inhibit cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, recent studies have found that PS act as endocrine-disrupting chemicals in laboratory animals. Therefore, this study was aimed at finding the mechanism(s) for PS effects on the sexual behaviors and reproductive functions in male Japanese quails (Coturnix coturnix japonica)...
June 16, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636424/fluid-shear-stress-regulates-hepg2-cell-migration-though-time-dependent-integrin-signaling-cascade
#17
Hongchi Yu, Yang Shen, Jingsi Jin, Yingying Zhang, Tang Feng, Xiaoheng Liu
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a subtype of malignant liver cancer with poor prognosis and limited treatment options. It is noteworthy that mechanical forces in tumor microenvironment play a pivotal role in mediating the behaviors and functions of tumor cells. As an instrumental type of mechanical forces in vivo, fluid shear stress (FSS) has been reported having potent physiologic and pathologic effects on cancer progression. However, the time-dependent mechanochemical transduction in HCC induced by FSS remains unclear...
June 21, 2017: Cell Adhesion & Migration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634445/antioxidant-treatment-with-n-acetyl-cysteine-prevents-the-development-of-cognitive-and-social-behavioral-deficits-that-result-from-perinatal-ketamine-treatment
#18
Aarron Phensy, Hasmik E Duzdabanian, Samantha Brewer, Anurag Panjabi, Christopher Driskill, Annuska Berz, George Peng, Sven Kroener
Alterations of the normal redox state can be found in all stages of schizophrenia, suggesting a key role for oxidative stress in the etiology and maintenance of the disease. Pharmacological blockade of N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA) receptors can disrupt natural antioxidant defense systems and induce schizophrenia-like behaviors in animals and healthy human subjects. Perinatal administration of the NMDA receptor (NMDAR) antagonist ketamine produces persistent behavioral deficits in adult mice which mimic a range of positive, negative, and cognitive symptoms that characterize schizophrenia...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633048/affective-traits-and-history-of-depression-are-related-to-ventral-striatum-connectivity
#19
Sophie R DelDonno, Lisanne M Jenkins, Natania A Crane, Robin Nusslock, Kelly A Ryan, Stewart A Shankman, K Luan Phan, Scott A Langenecker
INTRODUCTION: Studying remitted Major Depressive Disorder (rMDD) facilitates a better understanding of neural mechanisms for risk, given that confounding effects of active symptoms are removed. Disrupted functional connectivity has been reported in multiple networks in MDD. However, no study to date of rMDD has specifically examined connectivity of the ventral striatum (VS), a region highly implicated in reward and motivation. We investigated functional connectivity of the VS in individuals with and without a history of MDD, and in relation to affective personality traits...
June 15, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632163/melatonin-as-a-novel-interventional-candidate-for-fragile-x-syndrome-with-autism-spectrum-disorder-in-humans
#20
REVIEW
Jinyoung Won, Yunho Jin, Jeonghyun Choi, Sookyoung Park, Tae Ho Lee, Sang-Rae Lee, Kyu-Tae Chang, Yonggeun Hong
Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is the most common monogenic form of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). FXS with ASD results from the loss of fragile X mental retardation (fmr) gene products, including fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP), which triggers a variety of physiological and behavioral abnormalities. This disorder is also correlated with clock components underlying behavioral circadian rhythms and, thus, a mutation of the fmr gene can result in disturbed sleep patterns and altered circadian rhythms. As a result, FXS with ASD individuals may experience dysregulation of melatonin synthesis and alterations in melatonin-dependent signaling pathways that can impair vigilance, learning, and memory abilities, and may be linked to autistic behaviors such as abnormal anxiety responses...
June 20, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
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