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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036936/barriers-and-facilitators-for-health-behavior-change-among-adults-from-multi-problem-households-a-qualitative-study
#1
Gera E Nagelhout, Lette Hogeling, Renate Spruijt, Nathalie Postma, Hein de Vries
Multi-problem households are households with problems on more than one of the following core problem areas: socio-economic problems, psycho-social problems, and problems related to child care. The aim of this study was to examine barriers and facilitators for health behavior change among adults from multi-problem households, as well as to identify ideas for a health promotion program. A qualitative study involving 25 semi-structured interviews was conducted among Dutch adults who received intensive family home care for multi-problem households...
October 15, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036489/training-community-health-workers-to-promote-breast-cancer-screening-in-brazil
#2
Lorna Bittencourt, Isabel C Scarinci
Although it has been show that early detection through mammograms is the most effective way to reduce breast cancer mortality, breast cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths among women worldwide with survival rates being even lower in low- and middle-income countries as compared to high-income countries. Despite the availability of breast cancer screening programs in Brazil through the public health system, some women do not participate in these programs due to structural and/or inter/intrapersonal barriers...
September 26, 2017: Health Promotion International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036404/the-value-of-prior-knowledge-in-machine-learning-of-complex-network-systems
#3
Dana Ferranti, David Krane, David Craft
Motivation: Our overall goal is to develop machine-learning approaches based on genomics and other relevant accessible information for use in predicting how a patient will respond to a given proposed drug or treatment. Given the complexity of this problem, we begin by developing, testing and analyzing learning methods using data from simulated systems, which allows us access to a known ground truth. We examine the benefits of using prior system knowledge and investigate how learning accuracy depends on various system parameters as well as the amount of training data available...
July 7, 2017: Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036163/propagation-of-uncertainties-and-applications-in-numerical-modeling-tutorial
#4
Dominique Barchiesi, Thomas Grosges
Some inputs of computational models are commonly retrieved from external sources (handbooks, articles, dedicated measurements), and therefore are subject to uncertainties. The known experimental dispersion of the inputs can be propagated through the numerical models to produce samples of outputs. The stemming propagation of uncertainties is already significant in metrology but also has applications in optimization and inverse problem resolution of the modeled physical system. Moreover, the information on uncertainties can be used to characterize and compare models, and to deduce behavior laws...
September 1, 2017: Journal of the Optical Society of America. A, Optics, Image Science, and Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035748/body-dissatisfaction-predicts-poor-behavioral-weight-loss-treatment-adherence-in-overweight-mexican-american-women
#5
Julia L Austin, Kelsey N Serier, Ruth E Sarafin, Jane Ellen Smith
Poor adherence poses a major barrier to the success of behavioral weight loss (BWL) programs, particularly for overweight Mexican American women. Given the high prevalence and costs of overweight/obesity, factors that contribute to attendance and adherence problems should be identified, especially in ethnic minority populations. The current study examined the role of pre-treatment body dissatisfaction and depression in predicting attendance and adherence in a BWL intervention. Ninety-nine overweight/obese Mexican American women enrolled in the intervention and completed baseline measures...
October 13, 2017: Body Image
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035603/competition-level-not-associated-with-diet-quality-in-marching-artists
#6
Colleen R McConnell, Alyssa McPherson, Kathleen Woolf
Marching artists are a unique group of athletes whose performance can be influenced by nutrition. Because physical demands are thought to be moderate to high, adequate energy and a variety of nutrient-dense foods are needed. The purpose of this study was to examine diet quality, physical activity, and eating behavior of marching artists across elite and non-elite competition levels. This cross-sectional analysis used the validated National Cancer Institute Diet History Questionnaire II, International Physical Activity Questionnaire, and Eating Behavior Patterns Questionnaire...
October 16, 2017: International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035218/interacting-with-robots-to-investigate-the-bases-of-social-interaction
#7
Alessandra Sciutti, Giulio Sandini
Humans show a great natural ability at interacting with each other. Such efficiency in joint actions depends on a synergy between planned collaboration and emergent coordination, a subconscious mechanism based on a tight link between action execution and perception. This link supports phenomena as mutual adaptation, synchronization and anticipation, which cut drastically the delays in the interaction and the need of complex verbal instructions and result in the establishment of joint intentions, the backbone of social interaction...
October 16, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035187/defecation-specific-behavior-in-children-with-functional-defecation-issues-a-systematic-review
#8
REVIEW
Isabelle Beaudry-Bellefeuille, Debbie Booth, Shelly J Lane
CONTEXT: Atypical defecation habits are common and distressing for children and families and can have a major impact on quality of life. Often, no underlying factor can be identified, and the defecation disorder is considered functional. Current interventions are not successful for up to 50% of children. We suggest this high failure rate may be caused by lack of consistency in descriptors of behavioral indicators for functional defecation problems. Most investigations and descriptors focus on general behavior...
2017: Permanente Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035141/usual-care-for-maltreatment-related-pediatric-posttraumatic-stress-disorder-in-germany
#9
Annika Münzer, Rita Rosner, Helene Gertrud Ganser, Alexander Naumann, Paul Lukas Plener, Andreas Witt, Lutz Goldbeck
Child maltreatment represents a major risk factor for the development of emotional and behavioral problems, especially posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). While effective trauma-focused treatments are available, little is known about the usual mental healthcare for abused youths in Germany. The present study compared the utilization of mental healthcare in abused youths who had developed a PTSD (N = 95) with a group presenting other mental disorders (N = 146). Semistructured interviews were used to assess maltreatment histories, current mental health, and healthcare utilization...
October 16, 2017: Zeitschrift Für Kinder- und Jugendpsychiatrie und Psychotherapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035080/neural-scaling-laws-for-an-uncertain-world
#10
Marc W Howard, Karthik H Shankar
Autonomous neural systems must efficiently process information in a wide range of novel environments which may have very different statistical properties. We consider the problem of how to optimally distribute receptors along a 1-dimensional continuum consistent with the following design principles. First, neural representations of the world should obey a neural uncertainty principle-making as few assumptions as possible about the statistical structure of the world. Second, neural representations should convey, as much as possible, equivalent information about environments with different statistics...
October 16, 2017: Psychological Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034733/mothers-personal-and-interpersonal-function-as-potential-mediators-between-maternal-maltreatment-history-and-child-behavior-problems
#11
Jessica Pereira, Jaclyn A Ludmer, Andrea Gonzalez, Leslie Atkinson
This study examined maternal depressive symptoms, social support, parenting, and adult attachment as mediators explaining the relation between maternal childhood maltreatment and child behavior in offspring. We assessed a community sample of 96 mother-child dyads. At child age 16 months, mothers self-reported maltreatment history, adult attachment, depressive symptoms, and social support, and maternal sensitivity was assessed via 2 hr of direct behavioral observation. Maternal reports of child behavior were collected at 5 years...
January 1, 2017: Child Maltreatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034144/exercise-treatments-for-psychosis-a-review
#12
Vijay A Mittal, Teresa Vargas, K Juston Osborne, Derek Dean, Tina Gupta, Ivanka Ristanovic, Christine I Hooker, Stewart A Shankman
Schizophrenia is a devastating mental illness that has profound effects on a person's health and quality of life. Exercise represents a promising new treatment option that may supplement current psychosocial and pharmacological interventions for psychosis. A large body of work suggests that exercise can improve cardio-metabolic and health behavior and facilitate neurogenesis in areas of the brain that are notably impacted by psychosis. Recent efforts to incorporate exercise as either stand-alone or adjunctive treatment for individuals with schizophrenia range from yoga and light stretching to moderately intense walking, bike riding, or team sports...
June 2017: Current Treatment Options in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034083/the-effect-of-cognitive-behavioral-counseling-on-anxiety-in-the-mothers-of-infants-in-the-nicu-%C3%A2-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#13
Massumeh Koochaki, Zohreh Mahmoodi, Sara Esmaelzadeh-Saeieh, Kourosh Kabir, Maryam Tehranizadeh, Mahrokh Dolatian
Background: Pressures and tensions in everyone's life can cause a wide range of mental disorders such as anxiety. One of these tensions is the birth of a baby who requires special care, which can cause personal and social problems for the mother if no appropriate measures are taken to help them. The present study was conducted to determine the effect of cognitive-behavioral counseling on anxiety in the mothers of infants in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit. Methods: This randomized controlled trial recruited 90 women presenting to Kowsar Hospital in Qazvin in 2016...
2017: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033997/the-effects-of-cognitive-behavioral-stress-management-on-nurses-job-stress
#14
Jafar Shariatkhah, Zahra Farajzadeh, Kolsoom Khazaee
BACKGROUND: Job stress is a prevalent and costly problem in different working conditions. Stress can degrade care quality in nurses and elevate their willingness to leave the job. This study aimed to determine the effects of cognitive-behavioral stress management on nurses' job stress. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this quasi-experimental study with a control group, 40 nurses from the educational hospitals in Birjand who had completed a job stress questionnaire with a score of more than 100 were selected and randomly allocated to two groups...
September 2017: Iranian Journal of Nursing and Midwifery Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033866/neural-substrate-of-group-mental-health-insights-from-multi-brain-reference-frame-in-functional-neuroimaging
#15
Dipanjan Ray, Dipanjan Roy, Brahmdeep Sindhu, Pratap Sharan, Arpan Banerjee
Contemporary mental health practice primarily centers around the neurobiological and psychological processes at the individual level. However, a more careful consideration of interpersonal and other group-level attributes (e.g., interpersonal relationship, mutual trust/hostility, interdependence, and cooperation) and a better grasp of their pathology can add a crucial dimension to our understanding of mental health problems. A few recent studies have delved into the interpersonal behavioral processes in the context of different psychiatric abnormalities...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033858/honosca-d-as-a-measure-of-the-severity-of-diagnosed-mental-disorders-in-children-and-adolescents-psychometric-properties-of-the-german-translation
#16
Agnes von Wyl, Stephan Toggweiler, Ruedi Zollinger
The Health of the Nation Outcome Scales for Children and Adolescents (HoNOSCA), in use worldwide, is a 13-item measure assessing the biopsychosocial severity of mental health problems in children and adolescents. This article introduces the authorized German-language version of HoNOSCA, the HoNOSCA-D, and examines and discusses its psychometric properties based on a clinical sample of 1,533 children and adolescents aged 4;0 to 17;11 years. For the HoNOSCA-D total score (severity of mental health problems), internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha) was 0...
2017: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033643/dandy-walker-malformation-presenting-with-affective-symptoms
#17
Mert Batmaz, Zeynep Ezgi Balçik, Ürün Özer, Burcu Hamurişçi Yalçin, Şakir Özen
Dandy-Walker malformation is defined by enlarged posterior fossa, cystic dilatation of the fourth ventricle, and cerebellar hypoplasia. Although developmental delay and mental retardation are common in Dandy-Walker malformation cases, other comorbid psychiatric conditions have been rarely reported. There are limited numbers of case reports about comorbidity of bipolar disorder with Dandy-Walker malformation in the literature. Herein, a Dandy-Walker malformation case presenting affective symptoms is reported, and psychiatric symptoms which might be seen in this rare malformation are discussed along with diagnosis, treatment, and follow-up processes...
September 2017: Noro Psikiyatri Arsivi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032449/effectiveness-of-a-self-help-cognitive-behavioural-treatment-program-for-problem-gamblers-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#18
T P S Oei, N Raylu, W W Lai
The study aimed to strengthen the scarce literature on self-help treatments for Problem Gambling (PG) by comparing the effectiveness of a Self-Help Cognitive Behavioral Treatment (SHCBT) program (n = 23) with a 6-week Waitlist condition (n = 32) in problem gamblers. Participants were community volunteers with gambling problems and were randomly allocated to the Waitlist and treatment conditions. Results showed significant improvements at post-treatment in gambling behaviors including frequency of gambling, average amount gambled per day and PG symptoms as well as a number of gambling correlates including psychological states (e...
October 14, 2017: Journal of Gambling Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032446/homogenization-analysis-of-invasion-dynamics-in-heterogeneous-landscapes-with-differential-bias-and-motility
#19
Brian P Yurk
Animal movement behaviors vary spatially in response to environmental heterogeneity. An important problem in spatial ecology is to determine how large-scale population growth and dispersal patterns emerge within highly variable landscapes. We apply the method of homogenization to study the large-scale behavior of a reaction-diffusion-advection model of population growth and dispersal. Our model includes small-scale variation in the directed and random components of movement and growth rates, as well as large-scale drift...
October 14, 2017: Journal of Mathematical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032223/glyphosate-and-roundup-%C3%A2-alter-morphology-and-behavior-in-zebrafish
#20
Daiane Bridi, Stefani Altenhofen, Jonas Brum Gonzalez, Gustavo Kellerman Reolon, Carla Denise Bonan
Glyphosate has become the most widely used herbicide in the world, due to the wide scale adoption of transgenic glyphosate resistant crops after its introduction in 1996. Glyphosate may be used alone, but it is commonly applied as an active ingredient of the herbicide Roundup(®). This pesticide contains several adjuvants, which may promote an unknown toxicity. The indiscriminate application poses numerous problems, both for the health of the applicators and consumers, and for the environment, contaminating the soil, water and leading to the death of plants and animals...
October 11, 2017: Toxicology
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