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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651355/evaluation-of-welfare-parameters-in-laying-hens-on-the-basis-of-a-bavarian-survey
#1
H Louton, S M Bergmann, E Rauch, C Liebers, S Reese, M H Erhard, C Hoeborn, A Schwarzer
Health issues like infestation with poultry red mite (Dermanyssus gallinae) and behavioral problems such as feather pecking and cannibalism are reported as current problems on laying hen farms. However, the epidemiological prevalence of these issues in Bavaria, Germany, is not known. The objective of the present survey was to determine the epidemiological prevalence of health and behavioral parameters and the management of hen farms in practice. The survey was sent to all laying hen farmers with more than 1,000 hens in Bavaria, Germany, and contained questions regarding flock management, behavior problems and health issues...
June 23, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651207/metacognitive-therapy-versus-disorder-specific-cbt-for-comorbid-anxiety-disorders-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#2
Sverre Urnes Johnson, Asle Hoffart, Hans M Nordahl, Bruce E Wampold
Few studies have compared the effects of Metacognitive therapy (MCT) and Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for comorbid anxiety disorders. In the current study we compared CBT and MCT for heterogeneous anxiety disorders in a residential setting. Ninety patients with a primary diagnosis of Post Traumatic Stress Disorder, Social Phobia or Panic disorder, with and without Agoraphobia, were randomized to either CBT or MCT. Patients were assessed at pre-treatment, post-treatment and one-year follow-up. Primary outcome measures were Beck Anxiety Inventory and ADIS IV and secondary outcome measures were SCID II, Beck Depression Inventory, Penn State Worry Questionnaire, The Symptom Checklist-90 and the Inventory of Interpersonal Problems-64...
June 15, 2017: Journal of Anxiety Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651162/antibacterial-activity-corrosion-resistance-and-wear-behavior-of-spark-plasma-sintered-ta-5cu-alloy-for-biomedical-applications
#3
Jing Cui, Liang Zhao, Weiwei Zhu, Bi Wang, Cancan Zhao, Liming Fang, Fuzeng Ren
Tantalum has been widely used in orthopedic and dental implants. However, the major barrier to the extended use of such medical devices is the possibility of bacterial adhesion to the implant surface which will cause implant-associated infections. To solve this problem, bulk Ta-5Cu alloy has been fabricated by a combination of mechanical alloying and spark plasma sintering. The effect of the addition of Cu on the hardness, antibacterial activity, cytocompatibility, corrosion resistance and wear performance was systematically investigated...
June 21, 2017: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650817/memaxes-visualization-and-analytics-for-characterizing-complex-memory-performance-behaviors
#4
Adolfo Alfredo Gimenez, Todd Gamblin, Ilir Jusufi, Abhinav Bhatele, Martin Schulz, Peer-Timo Bremer, Bernd Hamann
Memory performance is often a major bottleneck for high-performance computing (HPC) applications. Deepening memory hierarchies, complex memory management, and non-uniform access times have made memory performance behavior difficult to characterize, and users require novel, sophisticated tools to analyze and optimize this aspect of their codes. Existing tools target only specific factors of memory performance, such as hardware layout, allocations, or access instructions. However, today's tools do not suffice to characterize the complex relationships between these factors...
June 22, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650259/locomotor-effects-of-a-low-frequency-fire-alarm-on-c57bl-6-male-mice-a-preliminary-study
#5
Jessica M Povroznik, Robert E Faith, Matthew J Kessler, Frank N Ali, James Kosik, Stephen Prince, Elizabeth B Engler-Chiurazzi
Maintaining appropriate acoustic conditions for animal welfare and data collection are crucial in biomedical research facilities. Negative impacts of disruptive sound are known and can include auditory damage, immune function changes, and behavioral alterations. One type of disruptive sound occurring in research facilities is that of fire alarms. To ameliorate this problem, many facilities have incorporated the use of low-frequency fire alarms that emit tones outside the rodent audible range. The impact of these devices has been assumed to be negligible...
January 1, 2017: Laboratory Animals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650197/anger-hostility-and-hospitalizations-in-patients-with-heart-failure
#6
Felicia Keith, David S Krantz, Rusan Chen, Kristie M Harris, Catherine M Ware, Amy K Lee, Paula G Bellini, Stephen S Gottlieb
OBJECTIVE: Heart failure patients have a high hospitalization rate, and anger and hostility are associated with coronary heart disease morbidity and mortality. Using structural equation modeling, this prospective study assessed the predictive validity of anger and hostility traits for cardiovascular and all-cause rehospitalizations in patients with heart failure. METHOD: 146 heart failure patients were administered the STAXI and Cook-Medley Hostility Inventory to measure anger, hostility, and their component traits...
June 26, 2017: Health Psychology: Official Journal of the Division of Health Psychology, American Psychological Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650194/remotely-delivering-real-time-parent-training-to-the-home-an-initial-randomized-trial-of-internet-delivered-parent-child-interaction-therapy-i-pcit
#7
Jonathan S Comer, Jami M Furr, Elizabeth M Miguel, Christine E Cooper-Vince, Aubrey L Carpenter, R Meredith Elkins, Caroline E Kerns, Danielle Cornacchio, Tommy Chou, Stefany Coxe, Mariah DeSerisy, Amanda L Sanchez, Alejandra Golik, Julio Martin, Kathleen M Myers, Rhea Chase
OBJECTIVE: Remote technologies are increasingly being leveraged to expand the reach of supported care, but applications to early child-behavior problems have been limited. This is the first controlled trial examining video-teleconferencing to remotely deliver behavioral parent training to the home setting with a live therapist. METHOD: Racially/ethnically diverse children ages 3-5 years with disruptive behavior disorders, and their caregiver(s), using webcams and parent-worn Bluetooth earpieces, participated in a randomized trial comparing Internet-delivered parent-child interaction therapy (I-PCIT) versus standard clinic-based PCIT (N = 40)...
June 26, 2017: Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650191/perceived-problem-solving-deficits-and-suicidal-ideation-evidence-for-the-explanatory-roles-of-thwarted-belongingness-and-perceived-burdensomeness-in-five-samples
#8
Carol Chu, Kristin L Walker, Ian H Stanley, Jameson K Hirsch, Jeffrey H Greenberg, M David Rudd, Thomas E Joiner
Perceived social problem-solving deficits are associated with suicide risk; however, little research has examined the mechanisms underlying this relationship. The interpersonal theory of suicide proposes 2 mechanisms in the pathogenesis of suicidal desire: intractable feelings of thwarted belongingness (TB) and perceived burdensomeness (PB). This study tested whether TB and PB serve as explanatory links in the relationship between perceived social problem-solving (SPS) deficits and suicidal thoughts and behaviors cross-sectionally and longitudinally...
June 26, 2017: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649569/environmental-enrichment-for-broiler-breeders-an-undeveloped-field
#9
REVIEW
Anja B Riber, Ingrid C de Jong, Heleen A van de Weerd, Sanna Steenfeldt
Welfare problems, such as hunger, frustration, aggression, and abnormal sexual behavior, are commonly found in broiler breeder production. To prevent or reduce these welfare problems, it has been suggested to provide stimulating enriched environments. We review the effect of the different types of environmental enrichment for broiler breeders, which have been described in the scientific literature, on behavior and welfare. Environmental enrichment is defined as an improvement of the environment of captive animals, which increases the behavioral opportunities of the animal and leads to improvements in biological function...
2017: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649412/surface-topology-affects-wetting-behavior-of-bacillus-subtilis-biofilms
#10
Moritz Werb, Carolina Falcón García, Nina C Bach, Stefan Grumbein, Stephan A Sieber, Madeleine Opitz, Oliver Lieleg
The colonization of surfaces by bacterial biofilms constitutes a huge problem in healthcare and industry. When attempting biofilm inactivation or removal, it is crucial to sufficiently wet the biofilm surface with antibacterial agents; however, certain biofilms efficiently resist wetting, and the origin of this behavior remains to date unclear. Here, we demonstrate that, depending on the growth medium used, the model bacterium Bacillus subtilis can form biofilm colonies with distinct surface properties: we find either hydrophilic or two variants of hydrophobic behavior...
2017: NPJ Biofilms and Microbiomes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649212/similarities-and-differences-between-individuals-seeking-treatment-for-gambling-problems-vs-alcohol-and-substance-use-problems-in-relation-to-the-progressive-model-of-self-stigma
#11
Belle Gavriel-Fried, Tal Rabayov
Aims: People with gambling as well as substance use problems who are exposed to public stigmatization may internalize and apply it to themselves through a mechanism known as self-stigma. This study implemented the Progressive Model for Self-Stigma which consists four sequential interrelated stages: awareness, agreement, application and harm on three groups of individuals with gambling, alcohol and other substance use problems. It explored whether the two guiding assumptions of this model (each stage is precondition for the following stage which are trickle-down in nature, and correlations between proximal stages should be larger than correlations between more distant stages) would differentiate people with gambling problems from those with alcohol and other substance use problems in terms of their patterns of self-stigma and in terms of the stages in the model...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649211/online-and-mobile-interventions-for-problem-gambling-alcohol-and-drugs-a-systematic-review
#12
Isabelle Giroux, Annie Goulet, Jonathan Mercier, Christian Jacques, Stéphane Bouchard
Online interventions for gambling, alcohol, and illegal drug related problems have been developing at a fast pace over the past decade. Yet, little is known about the content and efficacy of interventions provided entirely online for reducing drug/alcohol use and gambling, or about the characteristics of those who use these interventions. This systematic review aims to describe the characteristics of online interventions, their efficacy, and the profile of their clientele. Documentation was mainly obtained through four scientific databases in psychology, technology, and medical research (PsychINFO, MedLine, Francis, and INSPEC) using three keywords (substances or gambling, intervention, Internet)...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648990/a-numerical-experimental-protocol-to-characterize-corneal-tissue-with-an-application-to-predict-astigmatic-keratotomy-surgery
#13
M Á Ariza-Gracia, Á Ortillés, J Á Cristóbal, J F Rodríguez Matas, B Calvo
Tonometers are intended to determine the intraocular pressure (IOP) and the quality of corneal tissue. In contrast to the physiological state of stress of the cornea, tonometers induce non-physiological bending stress. Recently, the use of a single experiment to calibrate a set of corneal mechanical properties was suggested to be an ill-posed problem. Thus, we propose a numerical-experimental protocol that uses inflation and indentation experiments simultaneously, restricting the optimization space to circumvent the ambiguity of the fitting...
June 15, 2017: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648497/selective-optogenetic-control-of-purkinje-cells-in-monkey-cerebellum
#14
Yasmine El-Shamayleh, Yoshiko Kojima, Robijanto Soetedjo, Gregory D Horwitz
Purkinje cells of the primate cerebellum play critical but poorly understood roles in the execution of coordinated, accurate movements. Elucidating these roles has been hampered by a lack of techniques for manipulating spiking activity in these cells selectively-a problem common to most cell types in non-transgenic animals. To overcome this obstacle, we constructed AAV vectors carrying the channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2) gene under the control of a 1 kb L7/Pcp2 promoter. We injected these vectors into the cerebellar cortex of rhesus macaques and tested vector efficacy in three ways...
June 21, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648172/serial-parallel-and-hierarchical-decision-making-in-primates
#15
Ariel Zylberberg, Jeannette Am Lorteije, Brian G Ouellette, Chris I De Zeeuw, Mariano Sigman, Pieter Roelfsema
The study of decision-making has mainly focused on isolated decisions where choices are associated with motor actions. However, problem-solving often involves considering a hierarchy of sub-decisions. In a recent study (Lorteije et al. 2015), we reported behavioral and neuronal evidence for hierarchical decision making in a task with a small decision tree. We observed a first phase of parallel evidence integration for multiple sub-decisions, followed by a phase in which the overall strategy formed. It has been suggested that a 'flat' competition between the ultimate motor actions might also explain these results...
June 26, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647681/daily-associations-between-cannabis-motives-and-consumption-in-emerging-adults
#16
Erin E Bonar, Jason E Goldstick, R Lorraine Collins, James A Cranford, Rebecca M Cunningham, Stephen T Chermack, Frederic C Blow, Maureen A Walton
BACKGROUND: Increasing rates of cannabis use among emerging adults is a growing public health problem. Intensive longitudinal data can provide information on proximal motives for cannabis use, which can inform interventions to reduce use among emerging adults. METHOD: As part of a larger longitudinal study, patients aged 18-25 years (N=95) recruited from an urban Emergency Department completed daily text message assessments of risk behaviors for 28days, including daily cannabis quantity and motives...
June 15, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647404/patient-centered-outcomes-and-treatment-preferences-regarding-sexual-problems-a-qualitative-study-among-midlife-women
#17
Holly N Thomas, Megan Hamm, Rachel Hess, Sonya Borrero, Rebecca C Thurston
BACKGROUND: Sexual dysfunction is common in midlife women and can have a significant negative impact on quality of life. Although treatments exist, there is little research on which sexual function outcomes and treatments midlife women prefer. AIM: To better understand the sexual function outcomes that were most important to sexually active women 45 to 60 years old and the types of treatments they would prefer from individual interviews and focus groups. METHODS: Twenty individual interviews and three focus groups (N = 39) were led by a trained facilitator, audio recorded, and transcribed...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Sexual Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647006/a-meta-analysis-of-gaze-differences-to-social-and-nonsocial-information-between-individuals-with-and-without-autism
#18
REVIEW
Thomas W Frazier, Mark Strauss, Eric W Klingemier, Emily E Zetzer, Antonio Y Hardan, Charis Eng, Eric A Youngstrom
OBJECTIVE: Numerous studies have identified abnormal gaze in individuals with autism. However, only some findings have been replicated, the magnitude of effects is unclear, and the pattern of gaze differences across stimuli remains poorly understood. To address these gaps, a comprehensive meta-analysis of autism eye-tracking studies was conducted. METHOD: PubMed and a manual search of 1,132 publications were used to identify studies comparing looking behavior to social and/or nonsocial stimuli between individuals with autism and controls...
July 2017: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646977/the-efficacy-of-conjoint-behavioral-consultation-in-the-home-setting-outcomes-and-mechanisms-in-rural-communities
#19
Susan M Sheridan, Amanda L Witte, Shannon R Holmes, ChaoRong Wu, Sonya A Bhatia, Samantha R Angell
This study reports the results of a randomized controlled trial examining the effect of Conjoint Behavioral Consultation (CBC), a family-school partnership intervention, on children's behaviors, parents' skills, and parent-teacher relationships in rural community and town settings. Participants were 267 children, 267 parents, and 152 teachers in 45 Midwestern schools. Using an Intent to Treat approach and data analyzed within a multilevel modeling framework, CBC yielded promising results for some but not all outcomes...
June 2017: Journal of School Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646974/testing-the-feasibility-of-a-briefer-school-based-preventive-intervention-with-aggressive-children-a-hybrid-intervention-with-face-to-face-and-internet-components
#20
John E Lochman, Caroline L Boxmeyer, Shannon Jones, Lixin Qu, David Ewoldsen, W Michael Nelson
This study describes the results from a feasibility study of an innovative indicated prevention intervention with hybrid face-to-face and web-based components for preadolescent youth. This intervention includes a considerably briefer set of face-to-face sessions from the evidence-based Coping Power program and a carefully integrated internet component with practice and teaching activities and cartoon videos for children and for parents. The Coping Power - Internet Enhanced (CP-IE) program introduces a set of cognitive-behavioral skills in 12 small group sessions for children delivered during the school day and 7 group sessions for parents...
June 2017: Journal of School Psychology
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