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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933285/developmental-profile-and-diagnoses-in-children-presenting-with-motor-stereotypies
#1
Francesco Cardona, Francesca Valente, Daniela Miraglia, Caterina D'Ardia, Valentina Baglioni, Flavia Chiarotti
INTRODUCTION: Motor stereotypies represent a typical example of the difficulty in distinguishing non-clinical behaviors (physiological and transient) from symptoms or among different disorders ["primary stereotypies," associated with autistic spectrum disorder (ASD), intellectual disabilities, genetic syndromes, and sensory impairment]. The aim of this study was to obtain an accurate assessment on the relationship between stereotypies and neurodevelopmental disorders. METHODS: We studied 23 children (3 girls), aged 36-95 months, who requested a consultation due to the persistence or increased severity of motor stereotypies...
2016: Frontiers in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933098/psychosomatic-problems-among-medical-students-a-myth-or-reality
#2
J M Chinawa, Ada R C Nwokocha, Pius C Manyike, Awoere Tamunosiki Chinawa, Elias C Aniwada, Appolos Chidi Ndukuba
BACKGROUND: Medical students are exposed to stress and this can predispose them to psychological and behavioral consequences. METHODS: Psychosomatic disorders were investigated among 385 medical students from two teaching hospitals using a stratified random sampling. The Enugu somatization Scale (ESS) was used to evaluate for presence of somatization in the participants. Statistical analysis was done with the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPPS) version 19 (Chicago IL)...
2016: International Journal of Mental Health Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933026/fitness-costs-predict-emotional-moral-and-attitudinal-inbreeding-aversion
#3
Florence Lespiau, Gwenaël Kaminski
In terms of sexual intercourse, the very last people we think about are our kin. Imagining inbreeding intercourse, whether it involves our closest kin or not, induces aversion in most people who invoke inbreeding depression problems or cultural considerations. Research has focused on the disgust felt when facing inbreeding intercourse between close kin but little is known about other responses. In this study, we considered the influence of fitness costs on aversive reactions by including disgust and emotional reaction as well as moral judgment and attitudes toward inbreeding: higher costs should induce a stronger aversive reaction...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931219/influences-on-teleconsultation-project-utilization-rates-the-role-of-dominant-logic
#4
David L Paul, Reuben R McDaniel
BACKGROUND: This research analyzes teleconsultation from both a mechanistic and complex adaptive system (CAS) dominant logic in order to further understand the influence of dominant logic on utilization rates of teleconsultation projects. In both dominant logics, the objective of teleconsultation projects is to increase access to and quality of healthcare delivery in a cost efficient manner. A mechanistic dominant logic perceives teleconsultation as closely resembling the traditional service delivery model, while a CAS dominant logic focuses on the system's emergent behavior of learning resulting from the relationships and interactions of participating healthcare providers...
December 8, 2016: BMC Medical Informatics and Decision Making
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931161/swedish-acceptance-and-action-questionnaire-saaq-a-psychometric-evaluation
#5
Tobias Lundgren, Thomas Parling
Psychological inflexibility and experiential avoidance are equivalent (with somewhat different connotations) concepts and refer to an unwillingness to remain in contact with particular private events. This concept is most often measured by the Acceptance and Action Questionnaire (AAQ-II) and is strongly related to psychopathology and behavioral effectiveness. In this study, the preliminary psychometric properties of the Swedish version of the AAQ-II (Swedish Acceptance and Action Questionnaire-SAAQ) are presented...
December 9, 2016: Cognitive Behaviour Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930922/molecular-dynamics-simulations-of-cesium-adsorption-on-illite-nanoparticles
#6
Laura N Lammers, Ian C Bourg, Masahiko Okumura, Kedarnath Kolluri, Garrison Sposito, Masahiko Machida
The charged surfaces of micaceous minerals, especially illite, regulate the mobility of the major radioisotopes of Cs ((134)Cs, (135)Cs, (137)Cs) in the geosphere. Despite the long history of Cs adsorption studies, the nature of the illite surface sites remains incompletely understood. To address this problem, we present atomistic simulations of Cs competition with Na for three candidate illite adsorption sites - edge, basal plane, and interlayer. Our simulation results are broadly consistent with affinities and selectivities that have been inferred from surface complexation models...
November 29, 2016: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929743/knowledge-behaviors-and-practices-of-community-and-hospital-pharmacists-towards-biosimilar-medicines-results-of-a-french-web-based-survey
#7
Morgane Beck, Bruno Michel, Marie-Christine Rybarczyk-Vigouret, Dominique Levêque, Christelle Sordet, Jean Sibilia, Michel Velten
This study's aims were: 1) to extract a comprehensive overview of the knowledge, experience and opinions of both community pharmacists and hospital pharmacists regarding biosimilar medicines in France; and 2) to identify the perceived problems and solutions to promoting their prescription. A 2015 web-based survey was conducted by the Observatoire des Médicaments, des Dispositifs Médicaux et de l'Innovation Thérapeutique of Alsace. A total of 802 pharmacists responded to the survey. Many (536, 66.8%, [95% confidence interval (CI) 63...
December 8, 2016: MAbs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929661/an-evaluation-of-parent-child-interaction-therapy-with-and-without-motivational-enhancement-to-reduce-attrition
#8
Haley J Webb, Rae Thomas, Leanne McGregor, Elbina Avdagic, Melanie J Zimmer-Gembeck
Although many interventions for child externalizing behavior report promising outcomes for families, high attrition prior to program completion remains a problem. Many programs report dropout rates of 50% or higher. In this trial we sought to reduce attrition and improve outcomes by augmenting a well-known evidence-based intervention, Parent-Child Interaction Therapy (PCIT), with a 3-session individual motivational enhancement component. Participants were 192 Australian caregivers (91.7% female; Mage = 34...
December 8, 2016: Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929350/the-conceptual-and-empirical-relationship-between-gambling-investing-and-speculation
#9
Jennifer N Arthur, Robert J Williams, Paul H Delfabbro
Background and aims To review the conceptual and empirical relationship between gambling, investing, and speculation. Methods An analysis of the attributes differentiating these constructs as well as identification of all articles speaking to their empirical relationship. Results Gambling differs from investment on many different attributes and should be seen as conceptually distinct. On the other hand, speculation is conceptually intermediate between gambling and investment, with a few of its attributes being investment-like, some of its attributes being gambling-like, and several of its attributes being neither clearly gambling or investment-like...
December 8, 2016: Journal of Behavioral Addictions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929332/correlates-of-self-efficacy-for-disease-management-in-adolescent-young-adult-cancer-survivors-a-systematic-review
#10
Kate L Herts, Mona M Khaled, Annette L Stanton
OBJECTIVE: The primary objective of this review was to summarize the literature regarding factors associated with self-efficacy for disease management (SEDM) in cross-sectional studies and the efficacy/effectiveness of psychosocial interventions that are designed to improve SEDM in adolescent and young adult (AYA) cancer survivors. The secondary aim was to assess the quality of included studies. METHOD: We conducted a systematic review using PsycINFO and PubMed to identify studies for review...
December 8, 2016: Health Psychology: Official Journal of the Division of Health Psychology, American Psychological Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929322/using-trial-based-functional-analysis-to-design-effective-interventions-for-students-diagnosed-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#11
Wallace Larkin, Renee O Hawkins, Tai Collins
Functional behavior assessments and function-based interventions are effective methods for addressing the challenging behaviors of children; however, traditional functional analysis has limitations that impact usability in applied settings. Trial-based functional analysis addresses concerns relating to the length of time, level of expertise required, and the contrived nature of functional analyses conducted in analogue settings. The current study expanded on previous research by assessing the function of challenging behaviors for 3 early childhood education students with autism spectrum disorder through trial-based functional analyses within an educational setting...
December 2016: School Psychology Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929317/informant-discrepancies-in-externalizing-and-internalizing-symptoms-and-adaptive-skills-of-high-functioning-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#12
Christin A McDonald, Christopher Lopata, James P Donnelly, Marcus L Thomeer, Jonathan D Rodgers, Allyson K Jordan
Assessment of clinical symptoms requires information from multiple informants. Discrepancies between informants' ratings can have significant implications in school settings (e.g., access to services, treatment planning, progress monitoring). This study examined parent-teacher discrepancies for ratings of internalizing and externalizing symptoms, and adaptive skills of high-functioning children with autism spectrum disorder. A total of 236 Behavior Assessment System for Children-2nd Edition ratings of children with high-functioning children with autism spectrum disorder from 2 informant groups (parents and teachers) were analyzed...
December 2016: School Psychology Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929315/pathways-from-maternal-effortful-control-to-child-self-regulation-the-role-of-maternal-emotional-support
#13
Selin Zeytinoglu, Susan D Calkins, Margaret M Swingler, Esther M Leerkes
This study examined the direct and indirect pathways from maternal effortful control to 2 aspects of children's self-regulation-executive functioning and behavioral regulation-via maternal emotional support. Two hundred seventy-eight children and their primary caregivers (96% mothers) participated in laboratory visits when children were 4 and 5 years, and teachers reported on children's behavior at kindergarten. At the 4-year assessment, maternal effortful control was measured using the Adult Temperament Questionnaire (Evans & Rothbart, 2007) and maternal emotional support was observed during a semistructured mother-child problem-solving task...
December 8, 2016: Journal of Family Psychology: JFP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27928763/rationality-perception-and-the-all-seeing-eye
#14
Teppo Felin, Jan Koenderink, Joachim I Krueger
Seeing-perception and vision-is implicitly the fundamental building block of the literature on rationality and cognition. Herbert Simon and Daniel Kahneman's arguments against the omniscience of economic agents-and the concept of bounded rationality-depend critically on a particular view of the nature of perception and vision. We propose that this framework of rationality merely replaces economic omniscience with perceptual omniscience. We show how the cognitive and social sciences feature a pervasive but problematic meta-assumption that is characterized by an "all-seeing eye...
December 7, 2016: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27928733/developing-approaches-to-competence-away-from-the-metaphor-of-competence-as-a-hidden-object
#15
Patrick Byers
Assessments of linguistic ability amongst inner city African American children in the 1960's and cross-cultural assessments of problem solving skills amongst participants without formal education in several contexts around the world have both demonstrated the need for investigators to distinguish the possible existence of some form of competency from the matter of whether evidence of that competency can be elicited with a particular assessment tool. In both of the previously mentioned cases, the evidence suggests that participants had the competencies in question and failed to demonstrate them (at least partially) as a result of the nature of the assessment context...
December 7, 2016: Integrative Psychological & Behavioral Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27928433/psychopathology-and-psychotherapeutic-intervention-in-diabetes-particularities-challenges-and-limits
#16
REVIEW
Popa-Velea O, Bubulac L, Petrescu L, Purcarea Rm
Diabetes is a problem of great public health importance, creating a considerable burden to the affected individuals and society. The psychological approach of this disease implies the early acknowledging of behavioral symptoms and the construction of effective psychotherapeutic interventions. Regarding the psychological symptoms, cognitive malfunctions in diabetes include a slowing of information processing, attention, memory, and concentration, which, in turn, can significantly diminish motivation for therapy, compliance, and ability for self-care...
October 2016: Journal of Medicine and Life
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927902/challenges-in-species-tree-estimation-under-the-multispecies-coalescent-model
#17
REVIEW
Bo Xu, Ziheng Yang
The multispecies coalescent (MSC) model has emerged as a powerful framework for inferring species phylogenies while accounting for ancestral polymorphism and gene tree-species tree conflict. A number of methods have been developed in the past few years to estimate the species tree under the MSC. The full likelihood methods (including maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference) average over the unknown gene trees and accommodate their uncertainties properly but involve intensive computation. The approximate or summary coalescent methods are computationally fast and are applicable to genomic datasets with thousands of loci, but do not make an efficient use of information in the multilocus data...
December 2016: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926793/information-seeking-when-problem-solving-perspectives-of-public-health-professionals
#18
Kristine Newman, Maureen Dobbins, Jennifer Yost, Donna Ciliska
OBJECTIVES: Given the many different types of professionals working in public health and their diverse roles, it is likely that their information needs, information-seeking behaviors, and problem-solving abilities differ. Although public health professionals often work in interdisciplinary teams, few studies have explored their information needs and behaviors within the context of teamwork. This study explored the relationship between Canadian public health professionals' perceptions of their problem-solving abilities and their information-seeking behaviors with a specific focus on the use of evidence in practice settings...
December 7, 2016: Worldviews on Evidence-based Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926440/fatigue-with-up-vs-downregulated-brain-arousal-should-not-be-confused
#19
U Hegerl, C Ulke
Fatigue is considered to be an important and frequent factor in motivation problems. However, this term lacks clinical and pathophysiological validity. Semantic precision has to be improved. Lack of drive and tiredness with increased sleepiness as observed in fatigue in the context of inflammatory and immunological processes (hypoaroused fatigue) has to be separated from inhibition of drive and tiredness with prolonged sleep onset latency as observed in major depression (hyperaroused fatigue). Subjective experiences as reported by patients, as well as clinical, behavioral, and neurobiological findings support the validity and importance of this distinction...
2016: Progress in Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925604/sequence-based-deterministic-initialization-for-evolutionary-algorithms
#20
Saber Elsayed, Ruhul Sarker, Carlos A Coello Coello
It is well known that the performances of evolutionary algorithms are influenced by the quality of their initial populations. Over the years, many different techniques for generating an initial population by uniformly covering as much of the search space as possible have been proposed. However, none of these approaches considers any input from the function that must be evolved using that population. In this paper, a new initialization technique, which can be considered a heuristic space-filling approach, based on both function to be optimized and search space, is proposed...
December 1, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Cybernetics
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