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Problem behavior*

Meagan Docherty, Joanna Kubik, Carolina M Herrera, Paul Boxer
Previous research indicates a link between childhood maltreatment and elevated conduct problems. Yet the literature is less clear on associations between maltreatment and callousness (e.g., lack of empathy or guilt). This is a critical gap given that callousness is a robust predictor of serious aggressive and violent behavior. We examine the association between substantiated maltreatment events in childhood and adolescence (up to age 13) and conduct problems and lack of guilt at age 14. We analyze self- and parent-report data along with official maltreatment records on 557 youth (50% female; 69% non-white) from a larger dataset (Longitudinal Studies on Childhood Abuse and Neglect; N = 1354)...
February 20, 2018: Child Abuse & Neglect
Rishav Raj Agarwal, Chia-Ching Lin, Kuan-Ta Chen, Vivek Kumar Singh
An ability to understand and predict financial wellbeing for individuals is of interest to economists, policy designers, financial institutions, and the individuals themselves. According to the Nilson reports, there were more than 3 billion credit cards in use in 2013, accounting for purchases exceeding US$ 2.2 trillion, and according to the Federal Reserve report, 39% of American households were carrying credit card debt from month to month. Prior literature has connected individual financial wellbeing with social capital...
2018: PloS One
Chia-Kuei Lee, Colleen Corte, Karen F Stein
BACKGROUND: Drinking and smoking commonly co-occur in undergraduate students. Although an identity as a drinker is a known predictor of alcohol use and alcohol problems, and early evidence suggests that it also predicts smoking, the role of these behaviors in the development of an identity as a drinker is unknown. In this study, we conceptualized a drinker identity as an enduring memory structure referred to as a self-schema, and conducted a preliminary investigation of the relationships between early drinking experiences, drinker self-schema, and alcohol and tobacco use in undergraduate students...
February 23, 2018: Substance Abuse
Ali Anwar, Michael D Yingling, Alicia Zhang, Ujjwal Ramtekkar, Ginger E Nicol
As part of a university-based quality improvement project, we aimed to evaluate child psychiatrists' knowledge, skills, attitudes, and practices regarding assessment and treatment of pediatric sleep problems. We developed a nine-question survey of knowledge, skills, attitudes, and practices regarding assessing for and treating sleep complaints in pediatric patients, and administered this survey to child psychiatrists in training and in practice in the state of Missouri. Respondents reported sleep hygiene as the first-line treatment strategy, followed by the use of supplements or over-the-counter remedies...
February 23, 2018: Medical Sciences: Open Access Journal
Alex R Kelman, Benjamin S Evare, Alinne Z Barrera, Ricardo F Muñoz, Paul Gilbert
OBJECTIVE: Depression is a prevalent and costly mental health problem that affects women as well as their larger communities, with substantial impacts on mother and infant during childbearing years. Face-to-face care has not adequately addressed this global concern due to difficulties in scaling these resources. Internet interventions, which can provide psychological tools to those lacking adequate access, show promise in filling this void. METHOD: We conducted a 2-condition proof-of-concept pilot randomized trial comparing brief Internet-based cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) and brief Internet-based compassionate mind training (CMT) for women who are currently pregnant, became pregnant within the last year, and intend to become pregnant in the future...
February 23, 2018: Clinical Psychology & Psychotherapy
S Shanun Kunnavatana, Sarah E Bloom, Andrew L Samaha, Timothy A Slocum, Casey J Clay
Differential reinforcement of alternative behavior (DRA) most often includes extinction as a treatment component. However, extinction is not always feasible and it can be counter-therapeutic if implemented without optimal treatment integrity. Researchers have successfully implemented DRA without extinction by manipulating various parameters of reinforcement such that alternative behavior is favored. We extended previous research by assessing three participants' sensitivities to quality, magnitude, and immediacy using arbitrary responses and reinforcers that maintain problem behavior...
February 23, 2018: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
Fatemeh Moharreri, Aazam-Sadat Heydari Yazdi
Objective: Anxiety disorders and depression during childhood and adolescence are among highly prevalent serious mental health problems, which lead to reduced performance in children and can also negatively affect children's emotional and social long-term development. This study, which was conducted in Mashhad in 2015, aimed at evaluating the effectiveness of the Friends for Life cognitive-behavioral program in reducing the symptoms of anxiety and depression in children. Method: In this controlled clinical trial, 248 male students aged 10 were screened for mild to moderate symptoms of anxiety and depression using the Revised Children's Manifest Anxiety (RCMA) and the Children's Depression Inventory (CDI)...
October 2017: Iranian Journal of Psychiatry
Susanne Thümmler, Emmanuelle Dor, Renaud David, Graziella Leali, Michele Battista, Alexia David, Florence Askenazy, Céline Verstuyft
Background: Severe mental health disorders in children and adolescents represent a major public health problem. Despite adequate drug treatment, some patients develop pharmacoresistant disease. As a consequence, physicians are confronted with prescribing challenges, prolonged hospitalization and increased risk of adverse events, thus aggravating short-, medium-, and long-term prognosis. The majority of psychotropic treatments, particularly antipsychotics and antidepressants, are metabolized at hepatic level by cytochrome P450 (CYP), particularly by CYP3A4 and CYP2D6...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Andrea Katzorke, Julia B M Zeller, Laura D Müller, Martin Lauer, Thomas Polak, Jürgen Deckert, Martin J Herrmann
The verbal fluency task (VFT) is a well-established cognitive marker for mild cognitive impairment (MCI) in the prodromal stage of Alzheimer´s dementia (AD). The behavioral VFT performance of patients allows the prediction of dementia two years later. But effective compensatory mechanism might cover or reduce the predictive value of the VFT. Therefore the aim of this study is to measure the hemodynamic response during VFT in patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) to establish the hemodynamic response during the VFT as a screening instrument for the prediction of dementia...
February 11, 2018: Psychiatry Research
Leslie Neely, Elaina Garcia, Brooke Bankston, Andrew Green
BACKGROUND: Functional communication training (FCT) is considered an evidence-based practice for treating problem behavior in individuals with developmental disabilities (e.g. autism, intellectual disabilities, down syndrome, etc.). However, there is little known on how to sustain behavioral change following FCT interventions. This systematic and quality review synthesizes the current literature base evaluating the maintenance and generalization of behavioral effects following FCT. METHOD: A systematic review identified 37 studies that met the pre-set inclusion criteria...
February 19, 2018: Research in Developmental Disabilities
Luisa Torres, Sudie-Ann Robinson, Do-Geun Kim, Angela Yan, Thomas A Cleland, Margaret S Bynoe
BACKGROUND: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease associated with cognitive decline and complete loss of basic functions. The ubiquitous apicomplexan parasite Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) infects up to one third of the world's population and is implicated in AD. METHODS: We infected C57BL/6 wild-type male and female mice with 10 T. gondii ME49 cysts and assessed whether infection led to behavioral and anatomical effects using immunohistochemistry, immunofluorescence, Western blotting, cell culture assays, as well as an array of mouse behavior tests...
February 23, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
Takashi Oshio
BACKGROUND: Education has attracted more attention as a key determinant of health in later life. In this study, the hypothesis that widened educational disparities in health can be observed in later life was investigated, and the factors that mediated the association between education and changes in health were also assessed. METHODS: Using the 9-year (10-wave) longitudinal data of 20,024 individuals (9320 men and 10,704 women) aged 50-59 years at baseline, collected from a nationwide population survey in Japan (2005-2014), the changes in self-rated health, functional limitations, and psychological distress between educational levels were compared...
February 23, 2018: BMC Public Health
Pekka Ilmakunnas, Seija Ilmakunnas
AIM: We examine the relationship between the subjective assessment of health status and retirement by using information on expected and actual retirement ages. METHODS: Subjective data from cross-sectional surveys, conducted in Finland in 2003 and 2008, are linked to information on actual retirement age from register data from 2003 to 2013. Regression models are estimated for actual and expected retirement ages. RESULTS: While the health status is positively correlated with both actual and anticipated full-time retirement age, the actual age of retirement is less sensitive to health...
February 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health
Julia Waldhauer, Benjamin Kuntz, Thomas Lampert
BACKGROUND: Social inequalities in health can already be found among children and adolescents to the disadvantage of socially deprived population groups. This paper aims to detect, whether differences in subjective health, mental health and health behavior among young people are due to the secondary school type attended and whether these associations exist independently of the family's socioeconomic position (SEP). METHODS: The data basis was the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents (KiGGS Wave 1, 2009-2012)...
February 22, 2018: Bundesgesundheitsblatt, Gesundheitsforschung, Gesundheitsschutz
Wei Wang, Chenchang Xiao, Xing Yao, Yinmei Yang, Hong Yan, Shiyue Li
BACKGROUND: Suicide is a serious cause of mortality worldwide and is considered as a psychiatric emergency. People living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) have higher rates of suicidal behavior than the general population. This study assessed the prevalence and verified the syndemic effect of psychosocial health conditions on suicidal ideation among PLWHA in China. METHODS: An institutional-based cross-sectional study was conducted from July to August 2016 in Nanjing, China, using a self-report questionnaire...
2018: PloS One
Birama Apho Ly, Elizabeth Kristjansson, Ronald Labonté, Ivy Lynn Bourgeault
BACKGROUND: In Senegal, physicians are unevenly distributed, leading to unequal access to healthcare in underserved areas. Telemedicine is seen as a potential means to address this problem. INTRODUCTION: Telemedicine's potential to improve access depends, in part, on physicians' intention to use the technology. In Senegal that intention is not well known. This study aimed to determine that intention and the factors that influence it. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study between January and February 2015 with a random sample of 168 physicians working in public hospitals and 153 in district health centers in Senegal...
February 22, 2018: Telemedicine Journal and E-health: the Official Journal of the American Telemedicine Association
Peter K Deschamps, Esmee E Verhulp, Bram Orobio de Castro, Walter Matthys
The course of proactive aggressive behavior may be affected by empathy in response to sadness and distress of others. The aim of the current study is to examine empathy in response to sadness and distress and its relation to proactive and reactive aggression in a clinical sample of children with externalizing behavior problems. At baseline (T1) and 12 months later (T2), parents and teachers of 104 six- and seven-year-old children completed the Instrument for Reactive and Proactive Aggression. At T1, parents and teachers also reported empathy in response to sadness and distress on the Griffith Empathy Measure...
February 22, 2018: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry
Xu-Xu Zhuang, Xuan Zang, Guang-Yao Zheng, Nan Hua, Yi Sun, Yu-Hui Hu, Ling He
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a very common neurodegenerative disorder in the elderly and brings considerable financial and social problems worldwide. In this study, polyprenols were firstly evaluated the effects on the cognitive deficits and neuropathology in APP/PS1 mice model of AD. At 3 months old, the APP/PS1 mice were divided into model group; polyprenols low, middle, and high dosage group; and positive drug group. Age-matched wild-type mice were chosen in control group. The administration by oral gavage lasted 6 months...
February 22, 2018: Phytotherapy Research: PTR
Katherine R Lichtblau, Patrick W Romani, Brian D Greer, Wayne W Fisher, Allie K Bragdon
We used a biobehavioral treatment consisting of melatonin and a standardized bed and wake time to decrease one girl's head and mouth touches associated with sleep-related trichotillomania and trichophagia. We remotely coached the girl's caregiver to implement all procedures and monitored response to treatment using a DropCam Pro video camera equipped with night-vision capabilities. Head and mouth touches decreased, and her sleep pattern improved with the combination of treatment strategies. We discuss our use of a novel mode of service delivery to treat sleep-related problem behavior...
February 21, 2018: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
Hebah S Mejbel, Andrew M Simons
Environmental unpredictability is known to result in the evolution of bet-hedging traits. Variable dormancy enhances survival through harsh conditions, and is widely cited as a diversification bet-hedging trait. The floating aquatic plant, Spirodela polyrhiza (Greater Duckweed), provides an opportunity to study diversification because although partially reliable seasonal cues exist, its growing season is subject to an unpredictable and literally "hard" termination when the surface water freezes, and overwinter survival depends on a switch from production of normal daughter fronds to production of dense, sinking "turions" prior to freeze-over...
February 2018: Ecology and Evolution
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