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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549157/exposure-to-acute-psychosocial-stress-disrupts-the-luteinizing-hormone-surge-independent-of-estrous-cycle-alterations-in-female-mice
#1
Elizabeth R Wagenmaker, Suzanne M Moenter
The disruptive effects of severe stress on reproductive function are well documented, but surprisingly few studies exist that demonstrate milder psychosocial stressors interfere with the ovarian cycle in females. We hypothesized repeated application of psychosocial stress would disrupt estrous cycles in mice. Mice were transferred to a new cage, transported to a new room and restrained (2h) for 21 consecutive days. Contrary to our hypothesis, this paradigm did not affect estrous cycles. We next tested the hypothesis that a single exposure to mild stress disrupts a specific aspect of the cycle: the proestrous luteinizing hormone (LH) surge...
May 25, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548919/a-novel-method-for-quanitifying-comfort-in-child-passengers-demonstrates-an-association-between-child-restraint-comfort-and-errors-in-use-of-booster-seats
#2
Cameron K Fong, Lynne E Bilston, Gunther Paul, Julie Brown
OBJECTIVE: Misuse of child restraint systems is a widespread and long-standing problem impacting risk of injury and death in car crashes. Discomfort has been suggested as a causative factor for misuse, particularly in errors introduced by children while they use the restraints. However, the relationship between comfort and errors in use has never been studied. In this study we examine the reliability and sensitivity of a newly developed observational method for assessing comfort in children in vehicles...
May 29, 2017: Traffic Injury Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548227/changing-the-risk-threshold-for-surgical-prevention-of-ovarian-cancer
#3
Ranjit Manchanda, Rosa Legood, Antonis C Antoniou, Leigh Pearce, Usha Menon
Ovarian cancer (OC) remains a lethal disease and a major cause of deaths from gynaecological cancer particularly in western countries. Despite advances in treatment, there have been only marginal improvements in survival rates over the last 30years. Additionally, the number of OC cases in the UK is estimated to increase by 27-45%, which translates to a 15% rise in the incidence rate by 2035.(1) A national OC screening programme is unavailable as this has not yet shown a conclusive mortality benefit.(2) Hence, primary prevention continues to be the cornerstone in reducing the burden of OC and improving health outcomes...
May 26, 2017: BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546974/predicting-body-mass-index-in-women-the-value-of-the-psychological-components-of-depression-anxiety-dietary-restraint-and-nutritional-habits
#4
Behnaz Nikkar Esfahani, Majid Kolahdouzan, Abdulaziz Aflakseir, Mojgan Gharipour
BACKGROUND: Understanding the association between psychological affective disturbances and anthropometric parameters, including body mass index (BMI), is important. These issues may have potential preventive effects on weight reduction in relation to different aspects of women's lifestyles and psychopathological states. The present study aimed to predict BMI based on psychological factors including; depression, anxiety, dietary restraint, and nutritional habits, in a sample of women with sedentary jobs in several Iranian governmental organizations...
2017: Journal of Education and Health Promotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546058/the-role-of-il-6-in-neurodevelopment-after-prenatal-stress
#5
Serena B Gumusoglu, Rebecca S Fine, Samuel J Murray, Jada L Bittle, Hanna E Stevens
Prenatal stress exposure is associated with adverse psychiatric outcomes, including autism and ADHD, as well as locomotor and social inhibition and anxiety-like behaviors in animal offspring. Similarly, maternal immune activation also contributes to psychiatric risk and aberrant offspring behavior. The mechanisms underlying these outcomes are not clear. Offspring microglia and the pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-6 (IL-6), known to influence microglia, may serve as common mechanisms between prenatal stress and prenatal immune activation...
May 22, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542431/the-mediating-role-of-rumination-in-the-relation-between-attentional-bias-towards-thin-female-bodies-and-eating-disorder-symptomatology
#6
Laura Dondzilo, Elizabeth Rieger, Romina Palermo, Susan Byrne, Jason Bell
The present study sought to investigate the association between selective attentional processing of body images, rumination, and eating disorder symptoms in young women. Seventy-three undergraduate female students (ages 17-24) completed a modified dot-probe task to assess whether young women showed a differential attentional bias pattern towards thin and non-thin female bodies. Participants also completed self-report measures of eating disorder pathology. It was found that increased reports of dietary restraint and body dissatisfaction were associated with both greater attentional bias towards thin bodies and avoidance of non-thin bodies (as compared to neutral images), although the former relationship was stronger than the latter...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539417/exposure-to-stressors-facilitates-long-term-synaptic-potentiation-in-the-lateral-habenula
#7
Hoyong Park, Jeehae Rhee, Kwanghoon Park, Jung-Soo Han, Roberto Malinow, ChiHye Chung
The lateral habenula (LHb) is a small part of the epithalamus that projects to monoamine centers in the brain. Previously, neurotransmission onto the LHb was shown to be abnormally potentiated in animal models of depression. However, synaptic plasticity in this brain area and the effect of stressor exposure on synaptic plasticity of the LHb have not been investigated. Thus, we explored whether the LHb undergoes dynamic changes in synaptic efficacy or not. First, we observed that a moderate long-term potentiation (LTP) occurs in a fraction of LHb neurons obtained from naïve Sprague Dawley rats...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537738/a-peptoid-square-helix-via-synergistic-control-of-backbone-dihedral-angles
#8
Benjamin Craig Gorske, Emily M Mumford, Charles G Gerrity, Imelda Ko
The continued expansion of the fields of macromolecular chemistry and nanoscience has motivated the development of new secondary structures that can serve as architectural elements of innovative materials, molecular machines, biological probes, and even commercial medicines. Synthetic foldamers are particularly attractive systems for developing such elements because they are specifically designed to facilitate synthetic manipulation and functional diversity. However, relatively few predictive design principles exist that permit both rational and modular control of foldamer secondary structure, while maintaining the capacity for facile diversification of displayed functionality...
May 24, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535866/comparing-phlebotomy-by-tail-tip-amputation-facial-vein-puncture-and-tail-vein-incision-in-c57bl-6-mice-by-using-physiologic-and-behavioral-metrics-of-pain-and-distress
#9
Elizabeth S Moore, Thomas A Cleland, Wendy O Williams, Christine M Peterson, Bhupinder Singh, Teresa L Southard, Bret Pasch, Rachael N Labitt, Erin K Daugherity
Tail tip amputation with minimal restraint is not widely used for mouse phlebotomy. In part, this infrequency may reflect policies influenced by tail tip amputation procedures for genotyping, which involve greater handling and tissue removal. To assess tail tip amputation with minimal restraint as a phlebotomy technique, we compared it with 2 more common methods: scruffing with facial vein puncture and lateral tail vein incision with minimal restraint. Blood glucose levels, audible and ultrasonic vocalizations, postphlebotomy activity and grooming behavior, open field and elevated plus maze behaviors, nest-building scores, and histologic changes at the phlebotomy site were evaluated...
May 1, 2017: Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science: JAALAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535306/examination-of-psychosocial-and-physiological-risk-for-bulimic-symptoms-in-youth-with-type-1-diabetes-transitioning-to-an-insulin-pump-a-pilot-study
#10
Claire M Peterson, Deborah Young-Hyman, Sarah Fischer, Jessica T Markowitz, Andrew B Muir, Lori M Laffel
This study tested hypotheses drawn from a risk model positing that psychosocial risk plus disease-related and treatment factors contribute to bulimic symptoms in youth with type 1 diabetes (T1D) transitioning to an insulin pump. The goal of this study was to examine whether disease-related factors, particularly disease- and treatment-based disruption in hunger and satiety, contribute to report of bulimic symptoms in youth with T1D after accounting for psychosocial risk factors. 43 youth (ages 10-17, 54% female) with established T1D were recruited before transition from multiple daily injections to insulin-pump therapy from three tertiary pediatric diabetes centers...
May 23, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534715/knowledge-attitudes-and-behaviors-related-to-child-safety-restraint-in-citizens-of-shenzhen-municipality-china-and-the-associations-between-these-factors
#11
Shengyuan Liu, Haibin Zhou, Jianping Ma, Changyi Wang, Zhongwei Chen, Sihan Chen, Yingzhou Yang, Xiaoli Liu, Ji Peng, Leilei Duan, Xiao Deng
Objective-A child safety restraint (CSR) is an effective measure to reduce the risk of child injury from traffic collisions. This study aims to explore knowledge, attitudes and behaviors regarding CSR in a Chinese population. Methods-A cross-sectional survey regarding CSR use was conducted from April to May 2014 in Shenzhen Municipality. Respondents were parents who had at least one child 0 to 6 years of age and simultaneously owned a car. These parents provided a self-report of demographic characteristics as well as information about their knowledge, attitudes and behaviors toward CSR use...
May 23, 2017: Traffic Injury Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533759/changes-in-the-relative-balance-of-approach-and-avoidance-inclinations-to-use-alcohol-following-cue-exposure-vary-in-low-and-high-risk-drinkers
#12
Ross C Hollett, Werner G K Stritzke, Phoebe Edgeworth, Michael Weinborn
According to the ambivalence model of craving, alcohol craving involves the dynamic interplay of separate approach and avoidance inclinations. Cue-elicited increases in approach inclinations are posited to be more likely to result in alcohol consumption and risky drinking behaviors only if unimpeded by restraint inclinations. Current study aims were (1) to test if changes in the net balance between approach and avoidance inclinations following alcohol cue exposure differentiate between low and high risk drinkers, and (2) if this balance is associated with alcohol consumption on a subsequent taste test...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533318/putting-the-brakes-on-hypertensive-remodeling-an-atf3-mechanism-of-myofibroblast-restraint
#13
EDITORIAL
Jennifer Davis
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 23, 2017: Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532277/temporal-parameters-of-post-stress-prophylactic-glucose-treatment-in-rats
#14
M A Conoscenti, E E Hart, N J Smith, T R Minor
Acute trauma can lead to life-long changes in susceptibility to psychiatric disease, such as Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). Rats given free access to a concentrated glucose solution for 24 hours beginning immediately after trauma failed to show stress-related pathology in the learned helplessness model of PTSD and comorbid major depression. We assessed effective dosing and temporal constraints of the glucose intervention in three experiments. We exposed 120 male Sprague-Dawley rats to 100, 1 mA, 3-15s, inescapable and unpredictable electric tail shocks (over a 110 minute period) or simple restraint in the learned helplessness procedure...
May 22, 2017: Stress: the International Journal on the Biology of Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528892/hot-chicks-cold-feet
#15
Randi Oppermann Moe, Jon Bohlin, Andreas Flø, Guro Vasdal, Solveig Marie Stubsjøen
Infrared thermography (IRT) is increasingly applied as a noninvasive technique for measuring surface body temperature alterations related to e.g. stress, emotions and leg pathologies in avian species. As a basis for the validation of IRT as a future tool for veterinary diagnostics such as detection and/or prediction of subclinical footpad pathologies in broiler chickens, this study explored effects of manual restraint at two different ages on footpad temperatures. Head region temperatures were applied as additional measures of emotional arousal and stress...
May 18, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528529/the-influence-of-depolarization-block-on-seizure-like-activity-in-networks-of-excitatory-and-inhibitory-neurons
#16
Christopher M Kim, Duane Q Nykamp
The inhibitory restraint necessary to suppress aberrant activity can fail when inhibitory neurons cease to generate action potentials as they enter depolarization block. We investigate possible bifurcation structures that arise at the onset of seizure-like activity resulting from depolarization block in inhibitory neurons. Networks of conductance-based excitatory and inhibitory neurons are simulated to characterize different types of transitions to the seizure state, and a mean field model is developed to verify the generality of the observed phenomena of excitatory-inhibitory dynamics...
May 20, 2017: Journal of Computational Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524236/commitment-to-care-the-most-important-coping-strategies-among-family-caregivers-of-patients-undergoing-haemodialysis
#17
Shahriar Salehi-Tali, Fazlollah Ahmadi, Kourosh Zarea, Malek Fereidooni-Moghadam
BACKGROUND: Caregivers of patients undergoing haemodialysis often experience an intensive burden of care; therefore, it is important to understand the type of strategies that are used by caregivers to adapt and to commit themselves to caring for another individual. AIM: The aim of this study was to explore the specific coping strategies used by family caregivers of patients undergoing haemodialysis. METHODS: In this qualitative study, 16 family caregivers of patients undergoing haemodialysis were selected through purposive sampling in four dialysis centres in south of Iran...
May 19, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522965/adolescent-ethanol-exposure-leads-to-stimulus-specific-changes-in-cytokine-reactivity-and-hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-axis-sensitivity-in-adulthood
#18
Andrew S Vore, Tamara Doremus-Fitzwater, Anny Gano, Terrence Deak
Adolescent alcohol use comprises a significant public health concern and is often characterized by binge-like consumption patterns. While ethanol exposure in adulthood has been shown to alter the stress response, including the Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal (HPA) axis, few studies have examined whether binge-like ethanol exposure during adolescence results in enduring changes in HPA axis sensitivity in adulthood. In the present studies, adolescent Sprague-Dawley rats were given intragastric (i.g.) intubations of ethanol (4 g/kg) or vehicle once per day for three consecutive days, beginning on postnatal day (P) 30 (±1)...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521360/exposure-of-the-external-carotid-artery-through-the-posterior-triangle-of-the-neck-a-novel-approach-to-facilitate-bypass-procedures-to-the-posterior-cerebral-circulation
#19
Ali Tayebi Meybodi, Michael T Lawton, Pooneh Mokhtari, Olivia Kola, Ivan H El-Sayed, Arnau Benet
BACKGROUND: The external carotid artery (ECA) is the main high-flow donor for extracranial-intracranial revascularization procedures. However, anatomic restraints limit the availability of ECA in posterior exposures of the craniocervical junction aimed for bypass to distal vertebral artery segments. OBJECTIVE: To examine the feasibility and safety of exposure of the ECA through the posterior triangle of the neck. METHODS: A preliminary feasibility study on the posterior neck exposure of the ECA was performed in 1 cadaveric head (2 sides) followed by a morphometric study on 9 cadaveric heads (18 sides)...
June 1, 2017: Operative Neurosurgery (Hagerstown, Md.)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521325/effect-of-high-salt-diet-on-age-related-high-blood-pressure-and-hypothalamic-redox-signaling
#20
Bilgen Basgut, Melissa A Whidden, Nataliya Kirichenko, Mary Woods, Benedek Erdos, Philip J Scarpace, Nihal Tümer
AIM: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of a high salt (HS) diet on age-related changes in blood pressure (BP) and the possible role played by regulatory central mechanisms. METHODS: Young (5 months) and old (27 months) male Fischer 344 × Brown Norway (F344/BN) rats were fed standard chow or 8% HS diet for 12 days. BP and heart rate (HR) were measured by telemetry. RESULTS: Mean arterial BP (MAP) was significantly elevated in old rats during the day and night when compared with young animals...
May 19, 2017: Pharmacology
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