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Problem behavior

Marianne Goodman, David Banthin, Nicholas J Blair, Kathryn A Mascitelli, Jaime Wilsnack, Jennifer Chen, Julie W Messenger, M Mercedes Perez-Rodriguez, Joseph Triebwasser, Harold W Koenigsberg, Raymond R Goetz, Erin A Hazlett, Antonia S New
OBJECTIVE: Despite advances in suicide prevention implemented throughout the US Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) including the hiring of Suicide Prevention Coordinators (SPCs) at every VA hospital, enhanced monitoring, and the availability of 24-hour crisis hotline services, suicide by veterans remains a critical problem affecting 20 veterans daily. Few empirically based treatment strategies for suicide prevention for postdeployment military personnel exist. This study aimed to test whether dialectical behavior therapy (DBT), one of the few psychosocial treatments with proven efficacy in diminishing suicidal behavior in individuals with personality disorder, can be applied to veterans irrespective of personality diagnosis...
October 25, 2016: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
Loes A M Leenen, Ben F M Wijnen, Reina J A de Kinderen, Caroline M van Heugten, Silvia M A A Evers, Marian H J M Majoie
INTRODUCTION: Self-management for people with epilepsy (PWE) should lead to shared decision-making and thus to adherence to the treatment plan. eHealth is an important way of supporting PWE in their self-management. METHOD: In this survey, we used a mixed method to explore the following: 1) which factors were monitored by PWE and how (using pen and paper or eHealth-tools), 2) how many PWE own a computer or smartphone, and 3) how do they perceive the use of eHealth...
October 22, 2016: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
Daniel M Bear, Jean-Marc Lassance, Hopi E Hoekstra, Sandeep Robert Datta
Evolution sculpts the olfactory nervous system in response to the unique sensory challenges facing each species. In vertebrates, dramatic and diverse adaptations to the chemical environment are possible because of the hierarchical structure of the olfactory receptor (OR) gene superfamily: expansion or contraction of OR subfamilies accompanies major changes in habitat and lifestyle; independent selection on OR subfamilies can permit local adaptation or conserved chemical communication; and genetic variation in single OR genes can alter odor percepts and behaviors driven by precise chemical cues...
October 24, 2016: Current Biology: CB
Allison P Anderson, Abigail M Fellows, Kim A Binsted, Mark T Hegel, Jay C Buckey
INTRODUCTION: Living in an isolated, confined environment (ICE) can induce conflict, stress, and depression. Computer-based behavioral health countermeasures are appealing for training and treatment in ICEs because they provide confidentiality and do not require communication with the outside environment. We evaluated the Virtual Space Station (VSS), a suite of interactive computer-delivered psychological training and treatment programs, at the Hawaii Space Exploration Analog and Simulation (HI-SEAS) III expedition...
2016: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
Kelly B Filipkowski, Kristin E Heron, Joshua M Smyth
OBJECTIVE: This study cross-sectionally and prospectively examined the impact of adversity experienced prior to college on the health and well-being of students adjusting to their first college semester. METHODS: Two-hundred sixteen (216) first-year students completed measures of adverse life experiences, perceived stress, physical symptoms, and health-related behaviors during the first 2 weeks of college entry and again at the end of the first semester. RESULTS: Reported adversity prior to college predicted greater perceived stress and physical symptoms at college entry and an increase in physical symptoms over the semester; perceived stress mediated the prospective changes...
November 2016: American Journal of Health Behavior
M H Nagtegaal, K Goethals, G Meynen
So far, it is not known what costs and benefits are connected with the tbs-measure, a measure that involves a mandatory treatment programme for forensic psychiatric patients.<br/> AIM: To explore the costs and benefits that the tbs-measure has on society, on other important stakeholders such as victims and/or next-of-kin and the forensic psychiatric patients themselves. <br/> METHOD: We studied the relevant literature.<br/> RESULTS: The average costs of the tbs-treatment programme are 1.5 million euros...
2016: Tijdschrift Voor Psychiatrie
Min-Seon Choi, Eun-Young Kim
PURPOSE: Precocious puberty (PP) is associated with psychological and behavioral problems. This study aimed to evaluate the perception of body image and depression in girls with PP receiving gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) analogue therapy. METHODS: From March to August 2013, 82 girls with PP receiving GnRH analogue therapy were enrolled. Height, weight, body mass index, and stages of pubertal development were assessed. Participants completed a series of questionnaires on their body image perception and pubertal self-assessment...
September 2016: Annals of Pediatric Endocrinology & Metabolism
Cheng Wang, Hongqian Chen, Xuebin Zhang, Chaoying Meng
BACKGROUND: Behavior is an important indicator reflecting the welfare of animals. Manual analysis of video is the most commonly used method to study animal behavior. However, this approach is tedious and depends on a subjective judgment of the analysts. There is an urgent need for automatic identification of individual animals and automatic tracking is a fundamental part of the solution to this problem. RESULTS: In this study, an algorithm based on a Hybrid Support Vector Machine (HSVM) was developed for the automated tracking of individual laying hens in a layer group...
2016: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
Rachel Stork Poeppelman, Cara A Liebert, Daniel Brandt Vegas, Carl A Germann, Anna Volerman
BACKGROUND : Team-based learning (TBL) promotes problem solving and teamwork, and has been applied as an instructional method in undergraduate medical education with purported benefits. Although TBL curricula have been implemented for residents, no published systematic reviews or guidelines exist for the development and use of TBL in graduate medical education (GME). OBJECTIVE : To review TBL curricula in GME, identify gaps in the literature, and synthesize a framework to guide the development of TBL curricula at the GME level...
October 2016: Journal of Graduate Medical Education
Ana Sánchez Azofra, Trilokesh D Kidambi, Rita J Jeremy, Peggy Conrad, Amie Blanco, Megan Myers, James Barkovich, Jonathan P Terdiman
BACKGROUND: Familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) is an autosomal dominant hereditary colon cancer syndrome caused by mutations in adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) with both colonic and extra-colonic manifestations. Case reports have noted an association with FAP and intellectual disability and animal studies have shown that APC is implicated in neural development and function, but no studies have investigated neuropsychological, behavioral, or structural brain characteristics of patients with FAP...
2016: Hereditary Cancer in Clinical Practice
Jani Nöthling, Sharain Suliman, Lindi Martin, Candice Simmons, Soraya Seedat
South African adolescents are exposed to high levels of violence and trauma, including community violence, abuse, and neglect. Violence and trauma are associated with negative mental health outcomes, including posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression. Demographic characteristics, additional exposure to trauma, community violence, and types of childhood abuse and neglect may place adolescents at greater risk of developing PTSD. This study aimed to first assess the weighted contribution of demographic factors, trauma load, community violence, and types of abuse and neglect in predicting PTSD symptom severity...
October 24, 2016: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
Richard Thompson, Terri Lewis, Elizabeth C Neilson, Diana J English, Alan J Litrownik, Benyamin Margolis, Laura Proctor, Howard Dubowitz
Risky sexual behavior is a serious public health problem. Child sexual abuse is an established risk factor, but other forms of maltreatment appear to elevate risky behavior. The mechanisms by which child maltreatment influence risk are not well understood. This study used data from 859 high-risk youth, followed through age 18. Official reports of each form of maltreatment were coded. At age 16, potential mediators (trauma symptoms and substance use) were assessed. At age 18, risky sexual behavior (more than four partners, unprotected sex, unassertiveness in sexual refusal) was assessed...
October 24, 2016: Child Maltreatment
Gail Myhr
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 24, 2016: Canadian Journal of Psychiatry. Revue Canadienne de Psychiatrie
T H Mina, M Lahti, A J Drake, K Räikkönen, H Minnis, F C Denison, J E Norman, R M Reynolds
BACKGROUND: Prenatal maternal obesity has been linked to adverse childhood neuropsychiatric outcomes, including increased symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), internalizing and externalizing problems, affective disorders and neurodevelopmental problems but few studies have studied neuropsychiatric outcomes among offspring born to very severely obese women or assessed potential familial confounding by maternal psychological distress. METHOD: We evaluated neuropsychiatric symptoms in 112 children aged 3-5 years whose mothers had participated in a longitudinal study of obesity in pregnancy (50 very severe obesity, BMI ⩾40 kg/m2, obese class III and 62 lean, BMI 18...
October 25, 2016: Psychological Medicine
Apurva Narechania, Richard Baker, Rob DeSalle, Barun Mathema, Sergios-Orestis Kolokotronis, Barry Kreiswirth, Paul J Planet
BACKGROUND: Collective animal behavior, such as the flocking of birds or the shoaling of fish, has inspired a class of algorithms designed to optimize distance-based clusters in various applications, including document analysis and DNA microarrays. In a flocking model, individual agents respond only to their immediate environment and move according to a few simple rules. After several iterations the agents self-organize, and clusters emerge without the need for partitional seeds. In addition to its unsupervised nature, flocking offers several computational advantages, including the potential to reduce the number of required comparisons...
October 24, 2016: GigaScience
Katja Krug, Katharina I Kraus, Kathrin Herrmann, Stefanie Joos
BACKGROUND: In Germany, complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) in primary health care is offered by general practitioners (GPs) and by natural health practitioners, so called 'Heilpraktiker' (HPs). Considering the steadily growing number of unregulated HPs, the aim of the study was to assess characteristics of patients consulting HPs in comparison to patients consulting GPs. METHODS: In a cross-sectional study, patients of randomly selected GPs and HPs were asked to complete a questionnaire about their health care status, health care behavior, and symptoms rated on the Measure Yourself Medical Outcome Profile (MYMOP-D)...
October 24, 2016: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Helga Myrseth, Guy Notelaers
The aim of the present study was to improve the weaknesses of the three-dimensional Gambling Motives Questionnaire and to examine the psychometric properties and factor structure of the Gambling Motives Questionnaire-Revised. The Gambling Motives Questionnaire was administered to a sample of 418 gamblers (92% men, mean age 19.5years). Participants completed the Gambling Motives Questionnaire and an additional item tapping boredom, as well as a variety of measures of gambling behavior and gambling problems as criterion measures...
October 14, 2016: Addictive Behaviors
Qichao Zhang, Dongbin Zhao, Ding Wang
In this paper, the robust control problem for a class of continuous-time nonlinear system with unmatched uncertainties is investigated using an event-based control method. First, the robust control problem is transformed into a corresponding optimal control problem with an augmented control and an appropriate cost function. Under the event-based mechanism, we prove that the solution of the optimal control problem can asymptotically stabilize the uncertain system with an adaptive triggering condition. That is, the designed event-based controller is robust to the original uncertain system...
October 18, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Neural Networks and Learning Systems
Matthew A Jarrett, Anna Van Meter, Eric A Youngstrom, Dane C Hilton, Thomas H Ollendick
Guidelines exist for the assessment of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), but they are often unclear as to how a clinician should consider multiple informants, methods, and co-occurring symptoms to reach an overall diagnostic probability for an individual patient. The current study used receiver operating characteristic analyses and evidence-based medicine methods to evaluate the Achenbach System of Empirically Based Assessment measures and the Conners' Continuous Performance Test for ADHD diagnosis in youth...
October 24, 2016: Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology
Matthew Blake, Joanna M Waloszek, Orli Schwartz, Monika Raniti, Julian G Simmons, Laura Blake, Greg Murray, Ronald E Dahl, Richard Bootzin, Paul Dudgeon, John Trinder, Nicholas B Allen
Objective: Sleep problems are a major risk factor for the emergence of mental health problems in adolescence. The aim of this study was to investigate the post intervention effects of a cognitive-behavioral/mindfulness-based group sleep intervention on sleep and mental health among at-risk adolescents. Method: A randomized controlled trial (RCT) was conducted across High schools in Melbourne, Australia. One hundred forty-four adolescents (aged 12-17 years) with high levels of anxiety and sleeping difficulties, but without past or current depressive disorder, were randomized into either a sleep improvement intervention or an active control 'study skills' intervention...
October 24, 2016: Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology
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