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Problem behavior

Julia Price, Deborah A G Drabick, Ty A Ridenour
Indices of deviant peer group involvement are inconsistent and confound type, frequency, and severity of deviant peer behaviors. These measurement approaches thus obfuscate potential meaningful differences in deviant peer involvement in terms of subtypes, developmental patterns, and long-term outcomes. The current study employed latent class analysis to derive subtypes of deviant peer involvement and examined relations to substance use disorder in adulthood, a common outcome of deviant peer involvement. Youth (76% Caucasian) completed assessments across four time points: ages 10-12 years (Time 1; N = 775, 71% male), 12-14 years (Time 2; n = 649, 72% male), 16 years (Time 3; n = 613, 73% male), and 22 years (Time 4; n = 425, 71% male)...
January 19, 2018: Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology
Barrett Allen, Munjal M Acharya, Celine Lu, Erich Giedzinski, Nicole Chmielewski, David Quach, Mike Hefferan, Karl K Johe, Charles L Limoli
Clinical management of primary and secondary central nervous system (CNS) malignancies frequently includes radiotherapy to forestall tumor growth and recurrence after surgical resection. While cranial radiotherapy remains beneficial, adult and pediatric brain tumor survivors suffer from a wide range of debilitating and progressive cognitive deficits. Although this has been recognized as a significant problem for decades, there remains no clinical recourse for the unintended neurocognitive sequelae associated with these types of cancer treatments...
January 19, 2018: Radiation Research
Wesley G Jennings, Nicholas M Perez, Jennifer M Reingle Gonzalez
There has been a considerable amount of scholarly attention to the relationship between neighborhood effects and conduct disorder, particularly in recent years. Having said this, it has been nearly two decades since a comprehensive synthesis of this literature has been conducted. Relying on a detailed and comprehensive search strategy and inclusion criteria, this article offers a systematic and interdisciplinary review of 47 empirical studies that have examined neighborhood effects and conduct disorder. Described results suggest that there are generally robust linkages between adverse neighborhood factors and conduct disorder and externalizing behavior problems, as 67 of the 93 (72...
January 19, 2018: Annual Review of Clinical Psychology
Tatiana Yuzyuk, Krista Viau, Ashley Andrews, Marzia Pasquali, Nicola Longo
Impaired activity of galactose-1-phosphate uridyltransferase (GALT) causes galactosemia, an autosomal recessive disorder of galactose metabolism. Early initiation of a galactose-restricted diet can prevent or resolve neonatal complications. Despite therapy, patients often experience long-term complications including speech impairment, learning disabilities, and premature ovarian insufficiency in females. This study evaluates clinical outcomes in 34 galactosemia patients with markedly reduced GALT activity and compares outcomes between patients with different levels of mean galactose-1-phosphate in red blood cells (GAL1P) using logistic regression: group 1 (n = 13) GAL1P ≤1...
January 19, 2018: Journal of Inherited Metabolic Disease
Mehala Subramaniapillai, Roger S McIntyre
Obesity is becoming an increasing problem worldwide. In addition to causing many physical health consequences, there is increasing evidence demonstrating that obesity is toxic to the brain and, as such, can be considered a disease of the central nervous system. Peripheral level regulators of appetite, such as leptin, insulin, ghrelin, and cholecystokinin, feed into the appetite center of the brain, which is controlled by the hypothalamus, to maintain homeostasis and energy balance. However, food consumption is not solely mediated by energy balance, but is also regulated by the mesolimbic reward system, where motivation, reward, and reinforcement factors influence obesity...
December 2017: CNS Spectrums
Josepha Katzmann, Anja Goertz-Dorten, Christopher Hautmann, Manfred Doepfner
OBJECTIVE: Social-cognitive information processing, social skills, and social interactions are problem-maintaining variables for aggressive behavior in children. We hypothesized that these factors may be possible mediators of the mechanism of change in the child-centered treatment of conduct disorders (CDs). The aim of the present study (Clinical Identifier: NCT01406067) was to examine putative mechanisms of change for the decrease in oppositional-defiant behavior resulting from child-centered treatment of patients with oppositional-defiant disorder (ODD) or CD...
January 19, 2018: Psychotherapy Research: Journal of the Society for Psychotherapy Research
Derya Meretuk, Julia Plück, Franz Petermann, Gerd Lehmkuhl
"How Beautiful Must I be?"- Physical Attractiveness and Mental Health in Adolescents Physical attractiveness is a high priority for young people. The beauty ideals and presentations spread in the media often reinforce self-doubt and self-insecurity. In 730 adolescents (age 13 to 20 years) it was measured, how they experience appearance-related social pressure (FASD), the extent to which physical deficits are perceived (BDDQ), and how these features are related to mental symptoms (SDQ). The results demonstrate that young people are very concerned about their appearance (30...
January 2018: Praxis der Kinderpsychologie und Kinderpsychiatrie
Juan Martin Gomez Penedo, Michael J Constantino, Alice E Coyne, Samantha L Bernecker, Lotte Smith-Hansen
OBJECTIVE: We tested an aptitude by treatment interaction; namely, whether patients' baseline interpersonal problems moderated the comparative efficacy of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) vs. interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT) for bulimia nervosa (BN). METHOD: Data derived from a randomized-controlled trial. Patients reported on their interpersonal problems at baseline; purge frequency at baseline, midtreatment, and posttreatment; and global eating disorder severity at baseline and posttreatment...
January 19, 2018: Psychotherapy Research: Journal of the Society for Psychotherapy Research
Emilio N M Cirillo, Matteo Colangeli
Uphill currents are observed when mass diffuses in the direction of the density gradient. We study this phenomenon in stationary conditions in the framework of locally perturbed one-dimensional zero range processes (ZRPs). We show that the onset of currents flowing from the reservoir with smaller density to the one with larger density can be caused by a local asymmetry in the hopping rates on a single site at the center of the lattice. For fixed injection rates at the boundaries, we prove that a suitable tuning of the asymmetry in the bulk may induce uphill diffusion at arbitrarily large, finite volumes...
November 2017: Physical Review. E
Arman Pazouki, Michał Kwarta, Kyle Williams, William Likos, Radu Serban, Paramsothy Jayakumar, Dan Negrut
We summarize and numerically compare two approaches for modeling and simulating the dynamics of dry granular matter. The first one, the discrete-element method via penalty (DEM-P), is commonly used in the soft matter physics and geomechanics communities; it can be traced back to the work of Cundall and Strack [P. Cundall, Proc. Symp. ISRM, Nancy, France 1, 129 (1971); P. Cundall and O. Strack, Geotechnique 29, 47 (1979)GTNQA80016-850510.1680/geot.1979.29.1.47]. The second approach, the discrete-element method via complementarity (DEM-C), considers the grains perfectly rigid and enforces nonpenetration via complementarity conditions; it is commonly used in robotics and computer graphics applications and had two strong promoters in Moreau and Jean [J...
October 2017: Physical Review. E
K C Ng, T W H Sheu
It has been observed previously that the physical behaviors of Schmidt number (Sc) and Prandtl number (Pr) of an energy-conserving dissipative particle dynamics (eDPD) fluid can be reproduced by the temperature-dependent weight function appearing in the dissipative force term. In this paper, we proposed a simple and systematic method to develop the temperature-dependent weight function in order to better reproduce the physical fluid properties. The method was then used to study a variety of phase-change problems involving solidification...
October 2017: Physical Review. E
Zhenwei Yao
Various lattice gas automata have been proposed in the past decades to simulate physics and address a host of problems on collective dynamics arising in diverse fields. In this work, we employ the lattice gas model defined on the sphere to investigate the curvature-driven dynamic structures and analyze the statistical behaviors in equilibrium. Under the simple propagation and collision rules, we show that the uniform collective movement of the particles on the sphere is geometrically frustrated, leading to several nonequilibrium dynamic structures not found in the planar lattice, such as the emergent bubble and vortex structures...
December 2017: Physical Review. E
Raz Halifa Levi, Yacov Kantor, Mehran Kardar
A polymer repelled by unfavorable interactions with a uniform flat surface may still be pinned to attractive edges and corners. This is demonstrated by considering adsorption of a two-dimensional ideal polymer to an attractive corner of a repulsive wedge. The well-known mapping between the statistical mechanics of an ideal polymer and the quantum problem of a particle in a potential is then used to analyze the singular behavior of the unbinding transition of the polymer. The divergence of the localization length is found to be governed by an exponent that varies continuously with the angle (when reflex)...
December 2017: Physical Review. E
M V Ushcats, L A Bulavin, V M Sysoev, S Yu Ushcats
For realistic interaction models, which include both molecular attraction and repulsion (e.g., Lennard-Jones, modified Lennard-Jones, Morse, and square-well potentials), the asymptotic behavior of the virial expansions for pressure and density in powers of activity has been studied taking power terms of high orders into account on the basis of the known finite-order irreducible integrals as well as the recent approximations of infinite irreducible series. Even in the divergence region (at subcritical temperatures), this behavior stays thermodynamically adequate (in contrast to the behavior of the virial equation of state with the same set of irreducible integrals) and corresponds to the beginning of the first-order phase transition: the divergence yields the jump (discontinuity) in density at constant pressure and chemical potential...
December 2017: Physical Review. E
Avanish Kumar, Chaitanya Narayanam, Rajesh Khanna, Sanjay Puri
We address in detail the problem of true morphological phase separation (MPS) in three-dimensional or (2+1)-dimensional unstable thin liquid films (>100nm) under the influence of gravity. The free-energy functionals of these films are asymmetric and show two points of common tangency, which facilitates the formation of two equilibrium phases. Three distinct patterns formed by relative preponderance of these phases are clearly identified in "true MPS". Asymmetricity induces two different pathways of pattern formation, viz...
December 2017: Physical Review. E
F Cobos-Campos, J G Wouchuk
The Richtmyer-Meshkov instability for the case of a reflected rarefaction is studied in detail following the growth of the contact surface in the linear regime and providing explicit analytical expressions for the asymptotic velocities in different physical limits. This work is a continuation of the similar problem when a shock is reflected [Phys. Rev. E 93, 053111 (2016)1539-375510.1103/PhysRevE.93.053111]. Explicit analytical expressions for the asymptotic normal velocity of the rippled surface (δv_{i}^{∞}) are shown...
July 2017: Physical Review. E
Bertrand Ottino-Löffler, Jacob G Scott, Steven H Strogatz
We study a stochastic model of infection spreading on a network. At each time step a node is chosen at random, along with one of its neighbors. If the node is infected and the neighbor is susceptible, the neighbor becomes infected. How many time steps T does it take to completely infect a network of N nodes, starting from a single infected node? An analogy to the classic "coupon collector" problem of probability theory reveals that the takeover time T is dominated by extremal behavior, either when there are only a few infected nodes near the start of the process or a few susceptible nodes near the end...
July 2017: Physical Review. E
Stanislav Patlazhan, Sergei Vagner
The peculiarities of simple shear flow of shear thinning fluids over a superhydrophobic wall consisting of a set of parallel gas-filled grooves and solid stripes (domains with slip and stick boundary conditions) are studied numerically. The Carreau-Yasuda model is used to provide further insight into the problem of the slip behavior of non-Newtonian fluids having a decreasing viscosity with a shear rate increase. This feature is demonstrated to cause a nonlinear velocity profile leading to the apparent slip...
July 2017: Physical Review. E
Qiang Ma, Zhenqian Chen, Hao Liu
In this paper, to predict the dynamics behaviors of flow and mass transfer with adsorption phenomena in porous media at the representative elementary volume (REV) scale, a multiple-relaxation-time (MRT) lattice Boltzmann (LB) model for the convection-diffusion equation is developed to solve the transfer problem with an unsteady source term in porous media. Utilizing the Chapman-Enskog analysis, the modified MRT-LB model can recover the macroscopic governing equations at the REV scale. The coupled MRT-LB model for momentum and mass transfer is validated by comparing with the finite-difference method and the analytical solution...
July 2017: Physical Review. E
Alexei Boulbitch, Yury M Gufan, Alexander L Korzhenevskii
Stress concentration at a crack tip generates a solid structural transformation in its vicinity, the process zone. We argue that its formation represents a local phase transition described by a multicomponent order parameter. We derive a system of equations describing the dynamics of the order parameter driven by an inhomogeneous, time-dependent stress field in the solid and show that it exhibits a bifurcation. The latter corresponds to the emergence of a process zone characterized by the distribution of the order parameter localized in the vicinity of the crack tip...
July 2017: Physical Review. E
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