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Jeanne A Teresi, Mildred Ramírez, Terry Fulmer, Julie Ellis, Stephanie Silver, Jian Kong, Joseph P Eimicke, Gabriel Boratgis, Rhoda Meador, Mark S Lachs, Karl Pillemer
Resident-to-resident elder mistreatment (R-REM) occurs frequently in long-term services and support settings. The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the effect of a R-REM training program for nursing and other frontline staff on resident falls and injuries in a cluster randomized trial of units within four nursing homes. Interview and observational data from a sample of 1,201 residents (n = 600 and n = 601 in the usual care and intervention groups, respectively) and staff were collected at baseline and 6 and 12 months...
April 19, 2018: Journal of Gerontological Nursing
Patrick Koo, Eric J Gartman, Jigme M Sethi, Eyad Kawar, F Dennis McCool
STUDY OBJECTIVES: As lung volume decreases radial traction on the upper airway is reduced, making it more collapsible. The purpose of this study was to measure change in end-expiratory lung volume (EELV) following sleep onset and to evaluate the relationship between change in EELV and sleep-disordered breathing. METHODS: Twenty subjects underwent overnight polysomnography, of whom 14 (70%) had obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Change in EELV was measured throughout the night using magnetometry...
August 15, 2017: Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine: JCSM: Official Publication of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine
Mark S Lachs, Jeanne A Teresi, Mildred Ramirez, Kimberly van Haitsma, Stephanie Silver, Joseph P Eimicke, Gabriel Boratgis, Gail Sukha, Jian Kong, Alexandra M Besas, Maria Reyes Luna, Karl A Pillemer
BACKGROUND: Resident-to-resident elder mistreatment (R-REM) in nursing homes can cause physical and psychological injury and death, yet its prevalence remains unknown. OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence of physical, verbal, and sexual R-REM in nursing home residents and subgroups. DESIGN: 1-month observational prevalence study. SETTING: 5 urban and 5 suburban New York state nursing homes. PARTICIPANTS: 2011 residents in 10 facilities randomly selected on the basis of size and location; 83% of facilities and 84% of eligible residents participated...
August 16, 2016: Annals of Internal Medicine
Dheeraj Pelluru, Roda Rani Konadhode, Narayan R Bhat, Priyattam J Shiromani
A distributed network of neurons regulates wake, non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep, and REM sleep. However, there are also glia in the brain, and there is growing evidence that neurons and astroglia communicate intimately to regulate behaviour. To identify the effect of optogenetic stimulation of astrocytes on sleep, the promoter for the astrocyte-specific cytoskeletal protein, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) was used to direct the expression of channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2) and the linked reporter gene, enhanced yellow fluorescent protein (EYFP), in astrocytes...
May 2016: European Journal of Neuroscience
Elizabeth McDevitt, Mohammad Niknazar, Sara Mednick
Daily living involves copious information processing that has the potential to "overload" the brain and result in memory loss (i.e., interference). Since we do not need to stabilize each waking experience with a nap before encountering the next, there must be a mechanism that allows the brain to rescue memories damaged by interference. Using a texture discrimination task with short training (120 trials/condition), we induced interference by testing back-to-back conditions in the same visual field before a consolidation period...
2015: Journal of Vision
Babak Mokhlesi, Erika W Hagen, Laurel A Finn, Khin Mae Hla, Jason R Carter, Paul E Peppard
BACKGROUND: Non-dipping of nocturnal blood pressure (BP) is associated with target organ damage and cardiovascular disease. Obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) is associated with incident non-dipping. However, the relationship between disordered breathing during rapid eye movement (REM) sleep and the risk of developing non-dipping has not been examined. This study investigates whether OSA during REM sleep is associated with incident non-dipping. METHODS: Our sample included 269 adults enrolled in the Wisconsin Sleep Cohort Study who completed two or more 24 h ambulatory BP studies over an average of 6...
November 2015: Thorax
Cheryl Barnabe, Ye Sun, Gilles Boire, Carol A Hitchon, Boulos Haraoui, J Carter Thorne, Diane Tin, Désirée van der Heijde, Jeffrey R Curtis, Shahin Jamal, Janet E Pope, Edward C Keystone, Susan Bartlett, Vivian P Bykerk
Our objective was to identify distinct trajectories of disease activity state (DAS) and assess variation in radiographic progression, function and quality of life over the first two years of early rheumatoid arthritis (ERA). The CATCH (Canadian early ArThritis CoHort) is a prospective study recruiting ERA patients from academic and community rheumatology clinics in Canada. Sequential DAS28 scores were used to identify five mutually exclusive groups in the cohort (n = 1,586) using growth-based trajectory modeling...
2015: PloS One
Massimo Sartelli, Mark A Malangoni, Fikri M Abu-Zidan, Ewen A Griffiths, Stefano Di Bella, Lynne V McFarland, Ian Eltringham, Vishal G Shelat, George C Velmahos, Ciarán P Kelly, Sahil Khanna, Zaid M Abdelsattar, Layan Alrahmani, Luca Ansaloni, Goran Augustin, Miklosh Bala, Frédéric Barbut, Offir Ben-Ishay, Aneel Bhangu, Walter L Biffl, Stephen M Brecher, Adrián Camacho-Ortiz, Miguel A Caínzos, Laura A Canterbury, Fausto Catena, Shirley Chan, Jill R Cherry-Bukowiec, Jesse Clanton, Federico Coccolini, Maria Elena Cocuz, Raul Coimbra, Charles H Cook, Yunfeng Cui, Jacek Czepiel, Koray Das, Zaza Demetrashvili, Isidoro Di Carlo, Salomone Di Saverio, Irina Magdalena Dumitru, Catherine Eckert, Christian Eckmann, Edward H Eiland, Mushira Abdulaziz Enani, Mario Faro, Paula Ferrada, Joseph Derek Forrester, Gustavo P Fraga, Jean Louis Frossard, Rita Galeiras, Wagih Ghnnam, Carlos Augusto Gomes, Venkata Gorrepati, Mohamed Hassan Ahmed, Torsten Herzog, Felicia Humphrey, Jae Il Kim, Arda Isik, Rao Ivatury, Yeong Yeh Lee, Paul Juang, Luis Furuya-Kanamori, Aleksandar Karamarkovic, Peter K Kim, Yoram Kluger, Wen Chien Ko, Francis D LaBarbera, Jae Gil Lee, Ari Leppaniemi, Varut Lohsiriwat, Sanjay Marwah, John E Mazuski, Gokhan Metan, Ernest E Moore, Frederick Alan Moore, Carl Erik Nord, Carlos A Ordoñez, Gerson Alves Pereira Júnior, Nicola Petrosillo, Francisco Portela, Basant K Puri, Arnab Ray, Mansoor Raza, Miran Rems, Boris E Sakakushev, Gabriele Sganga, Patrizia Spigaglia, David B Stewart, Pierre Tattevin, Jean Francois Timsit, Kathleen B To, Cristian Tranà, Waldemar Uhl, Libor Urbánek, Harry van Goor, Angela Vassallo, Jean Ralph Zahar, Emanuele Caproli, Pierluigi Viale
In the last two decades there have been dramatic changes in the epidemiology of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI), with increases in incidence and severity of disease in many countries worldwide. The incidence of CDI has also increased in surgical patients. Optimization of management of C difficile, has therefore become increasingly urgent. An international multidisciplinary panel of experts prepared evidenced-based World Society of Emergency Surgery (WSES) guidelines for management of CDI in surgical patients...
2015: World Journal of Emergency Surgery: WJES
James P Roach, Eshel Ben-Jacob, Leonard M Sander, Michal R Zochowski
Acetylcholine (ACh) is a regulator of neural excitability and one of the neurochemical substrates of sleep. Amongst the cellular effects induced by cholinergic modulation are a reduction in spike-frequency adaptation (SFA) and a shift in the phase response curve (PRC). We demonstrate in a biophysical model how changes in neural excitability and network structure interact to create three distinct functional regimes: localized asynchronous, traveling asynchronous, and traveling synchronous. Our results qualitatively match those observed experimentally...
August 2015: PLoS Computational Biology
Rachel R Markwald, Sara C Bessman, Seth A Reini, Sean P A Drummond
STUDY OBJECTIVES: Portable and automated sleep monitoring technology is becoming widely available to consumers, and one wireless system (WS) has recently surfaced as a research tool for sleep and sleep staging assessment outside the hospital/laboratory; however, previous research findings indicate low sensitivity for wakefulness detection. Because difficulty discriminating between wake and sleep is likely to affect staging performance, we sought to further evaluate the WS by comparing it to the gold-standard polysomnography (PSG) and actigraphy (ACT) for overall sleep/wakefulness detection and sleep staging, within high and low sleep efficiency sleepers...
January 2016: Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine: JCSM: Official Publication of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine
Julia Lechinger, Dominik Philip Johannes Heib, Walter Gruber, Manuel Schabus, Wolfgang Klimesch
Based on physiological models of neurovisceral integration, different studies have shown how cognitive processes modulate heart rate and how the heartbeat, on the other hand, modulates brain activity. We tried to further determine interactions between cardiac and electrical brain activity by means of EEG. We investigated how the heartbeat modulates EEG in 23 healthy controls from wakefulness to deep sleep and showed that frontocentral heartbeat evoked EEG amplitude and phase locking (as measured by intertrial phase locking), at about 300-400 ms after the R peak, decreased with increasing sleep depth with a renewed increase during REM sleep, which underpins the assumption that the heartbeat evoked positivity constitutes an active frontocortical response to the heartbeat...
November 2015: Psychophysiology
Peter H Sudmant, Swapan Mallick, Bradley J Nelson, Fereydoun Hormozdiari, Niklas Krumm, John Huddleston, Bradley P Coe, Carl Baker, Susanne Nordenfelt, Michael Bamshad, Lynn B Jorde, Olga L Posukh, Hovhannes Sahakyan, W Scott Watkins, Levon Yepiskoposyan, M Syafiq Abdullah, Claudio M Bravi, Cristian Capelli, Tor Hervig, Joseph T S Wee, Chris Tyler-Smith, George van Driem, Irene Gallego Romero, Aashish R Jha, Sena Karachanak-Yankova, Draga Toncheva, David Comas, Brenna Henn, Toomas Kivisild, Andres Ruiz-Linares, Antti Sajantila, Ene Metspalu, Jüri Parik, Richard Villems, Elena B Starikovskaya, George Ayodo, Cynthia M Beall, Anna Di Rienzo, Michael F Hammer, Rita Khusainova, Elza Khusnutdinova, William Klitz, Cheryl Winkler, Damian Labuda, Mait Metspalu, Sarah A Tishkoff, Stanislav Dryomov, Rem Sukernik, Nick Patterson, David Reich, Evan E Eichler
In order to explore the diversity and selective signatures of duplication and deletion human copy-number variants (CNVs), we sequenced 236 individuals from 125 distinct human populations. We observed that duplications exhibit fundamentally different population genetic and selective signatures than deletions and are more likely to be stratified between human populations. Through reconstruction of the ancestral human genome, we identify megabases of DNA lost in different human lineages and pinpoint large duplications that introgressed from the extinct Denisova lineage now found at high frequency exclusively in Oceanic populations...
September 11, 2015: Science
Leigh-Anne Dell, Muhammad A Spocter, Nina Patzke, Karl Æ Karlson, Abdulaziz N Alagaili, Nigel C Bennett, Osama B Muhammed, Mads F Bertelsen, Jerome M Siegel, Paul R Manger
The species of the cetacean and artiodactyl suborders, which constitute the order Cetartiodactyla, exhibit very different sleep phenomenology, with artiodactyls showing typical bihemispheric slow wave and REM sleep, while cetaceans show unihemispheric slow wave sleep and appear to lack REM sleep. The aim of this study was to determine whether cetaceans and artiodactyls have differently organized orexinergic arousal systems by examining the density of orexinergic innervation to the cerebral cortex, as this projection will be involved in various aspects of cortical arousal...
October 2015: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
Alpar S Lazar, Francesca Panin, Anna O G Goodman, Stanley E Lazic, Zsolt I Lazar, Sarah L Mason, Lorraine Rogers, Peter R Murgatroyd, Laura P E Watson, Priya Singh, Beth Borowsky, John M Shneerson, Roger A Barker
OBJECTIVE: Huntington disease (HD) is a fatal autosomal dominant, neurodegenerative condition characterized by progressively worsening motor and nonmotor problems including cognitive and neuropsychiatric disturbances, along with sleep abnormalities and weight loss. However, it is not known whether sleep disturbances and metabolic abnormalities underlying the weight loss are present at a premanifest stage. METHODS: We performed a comprehensive sleep and metabolic study in 38 premanifest gene carrier individuals and 36 age- and sex-matched controls...
October 2015: Annals of Neurology
Jingjie Ge, Ping Wu, Shichun Peng, Huan Yu, Huiwei Zhang, Yihui Guan, David Eidelberg, Chuantao Zuo, Yilong Ma, Jian Wang
Idiopathic rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder (RBD) is a risk marker for subsequent development of neurodegenerative parkinsonism. In this study, we aimed to investigate whether regional cerebral metabolism is altered in patients with RBD and whether regional metabolic activities are associated with clinical measurements in individual patients. Twenty-one patients with polysomnogram-confirmed RBD and 21 age-matched healthy controls were recruited to undertake positron emission tomography imaging with [(18)F]fluorodeoxyglucose...
December 2015: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
A-M Harri, M Genzer, O Kemppinen, J Gomez-Elvira, R Haberle, J Polkko, H Savijärvi, N Rennó, J A Rodriguez-Manfredi, W Schmidt, M Richardson, T Siili, M Paton, M De La Torre-Juarez, T Mäkinen, C Newman, S Rafkin, M Mischna, S Merikallio, H Haukka, J Martin-Torres, M Komu, M-P Zorzano, V Peinado, L Vazquez, R Urqui
The Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) made a successful landing at Gale crater early August 2012. MSL has an environmental instrument package called the Rover Environmental Monitoring Station (REMS) as a part of its scientific payload. REMS comprises instrumentation for the observation of atmospheric pressure, temperature of the air, ground temperature, wind speed and direction, relative humidity (REMS-H), and UV measurements. We concentrate on describing the REMS-H measurement performance and initial observations during the first 100 MSL sols as well as constraining the REMS-H results by comparing them with earlier observations and modeling results...
September 2014: Journal of Geophysical Research. Planets
William Lu, Joshua B Cantor, R Nisha Aurora, Wayne A Gordon, Jason W Krellman, Michael Nguyen, Teresa A Ashman, Lisa Spielman, Anne F Ambrose
PRIMARY OBJECTIVE: To characterize sleep architecture and self-reported sleep quality, fatigue and daytime sleepiness in individuals with TBI. Possible relationships between sleep architecture and self-reported sleep quality, fatigue and daytime sleepiness were examined. METHODS: Forty-four community-dwelling adults with TBI completed the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), Multidimensional Assessment of Fatigue (MAF) and Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS). They underwent two nights of in-laboratory nocturnal polysomnography (NPSG)...
2015: Brain Injury: [BI]
D T Plante, M R Goldstein, J D Cook, R Smith, B A Riedner, M E Rumble, L Jelenchick, A Roth, G Tononi, R M Benca, M J Peterson
Benzodiazepines are commonly used medications that alter sleep spindles during non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep, however the topographic changes to these functionally significant waveforms have yet to be fully elucidated. This study utilized high-density electroencephalography (hdEEG) to investigate topographic changes in sleep spindles and spindle-range activity caused by temazepam during NREM sleep in 18 healthy adults. After an accommodation night, sleep for all participants was recorded on two separate nights after taking either placebo or oral temazepam 15 mg...
October 2015: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
Ruth A Reinsel, Tatiana D Starr, Barbara O'Sullivan, Steven D Passik, Neil B Kavey
STUDY OBJECTIVE: Insomnia is a frequent complaint in breast cancer patients during and after treatment. Breast cancer survivors, 1-10 years posttreatment, underwent in-lab polysomnography (PSG) to objectively define the insomnia in those patients with such a complaint. METHODS: Twenty-six breast cancer survivors (aged 39-80, mean 54.0 months posttreatment) spent 2 nights in the sleep laboratory. Sleep on Night 2 was scored for sleep stages, sleep onset latency, REM sleep onset latency, wake time, apneas and hypopneas, periodic limb movements and arousals...
December 15, 2015: Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine: JCSM: Official Publication of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine
Mark Tranmer, Christopher Steven Marcum, F Blake Morton, Darren P Croft, Selvino R de Kort
Social dynamics are of fundamental importance in animal societies. Studies on nonhuman animal social systems often aggregate social interaction event data into a single network within a particular time frame. Analysis of the resulting network can provide a useful insight into the overall extent of interaction. However, through aggregation, information is lost about the order in which interactions occurred, and hence the sequences of actions over time. Many research hypotheses relate directly to the sequence of actions, such as the recency or rate of action, rather than to their overall volume or presence...
March 1, 2015: Animal Behaviour
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