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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938475/modeling-the-sex-differences-and-inter-individual-variability-in-the-activity-of-the-hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-axis
#1
Rohit T Rao, Ioannis P Androulakis
Significant sex differences exist in the activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. These differences are thought to contribute to the disparity in the prevalence of various autoimmune and infectious diseases between males and females. We use a mathematical model of the HPA axis to evaluate the hypothesis that differential sensitivity and negative feedback of the HPA axis network are causal factors for the observed sex differences in its activity. In doing so, we implicitly account for the differential influence of gonadal hormones on the HPA axis...
August 31, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938144/the-associative-brain-at-work-evidence-from-paired-associative-stimulation-studies-in-humans
#2
REVIEW
A Suppa, A Quartarone, H Siebner, R Chen, V Di Lazzaro, P Del Giudice, Walter Paulus, J C Rothwell, U Ziemann, J Classen
The original protocol of Paired Associative Stimulation (PAS) in humans implies repetitive cortical and peripheral nerve stimuli, delivered at specific inter-stimulus intervals, able to elicit non-invasively long-term potentiation (LTP)- and long-term depression (LTD)-like plasticity in the human motor cortex. PAS has been designed to drive cortical LTP/LTD according to the Hebbian rule of associative plasticity. Over the last two decades, a growing number of researchers have increasingly used the PAS technique to assess cortical associative plasticity in healthy humans and in patients with movement disorders and other neuropsychiatric diseases...
September 5, 2017: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937952/modeling-the-long-term-consequences-of-repeated-blast-induced-mild-traumatic-brain-injuries
#3
Denes V Agoston
Repeated mild traumatic brain injury (rmTBI) caused by playing collision sports or by exposure to blasts during military operations can lead to late onset, chronic diseases such as chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE), a progressive neurodegenerative condition that manifests in increasingly severe neuropsychiatric abnormalities years after the last injury. Currently, because of the heterogeneity of the clinical presentation, confirmation of a CTE diagnosis requires post-mortem examination of the brain. The hallmarks of CTE are abnormal accumulation of phosphorylated tau protein, TDP-43 immunoreactive neuronal cytoplasmic inclusions, and astroglial abnormalities, but the pathomechanism leading to these terminal findings remains unknown...
September 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937807/use-of-virtual-reality-in-improving-poststroke-neglect-promising-neuropsychological-and-neurophysiological-findings-from-a-case-study
#4
Rosaria De Luca, Viviana Lo Buono, Antonino Leo, Margherita Russo, Bianca Aragona, Simona Leonardi, Antonio Buda, Antonino Naro, Rocco Salvatore Calabrò
After experiencing a stroke in the right hemisphere, almost 50% of patients show unilateral spatial neglect (USN). Virtual Reality technologies offer impressive opportunities for both the rehabilitation and assessment of different cognitive deficits, including USN. A 57-year-old woman, affected by subarachnoid hemorrhage presented a severe left hemiparesis with severe cognitive and behavioral alterations, including temporal and spatial disorientation, reduction of attention and memory process, slowing ideation, USN, and depression of mood...
September 22, 2017: Applied Neuropsychology. Adult
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937800/when-is-neuropsychological-testing-medically-necessary-for-children-on-medicaid-in-new-mexico
#5
Noah K Kaufman, Carola Mullins, Andrew S Davis, Silvina Tonarelli, Hugo Sandoval, Luis Ramos-Duran
Healthcare for poor children, also known as Medicaid, is disproportionately relied upon by citizens of poor states such as New Mexico, where (a) there are more unintended pregnancies, (b) domestic violence during and after pregnancies occurs with regularity, (c) youth substance use is much more common, (d) crime rates are some of the worst in the country, (e) many never graduate from high school, and (f) incarceration is often inevitable. Yet, there is a dearth of research into the neuropsychological health of these children...
September 22, 2017: Applied Neuropsychology. Child
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937032/development-and-standardization-of-a-new-cognitive-assessment-test-battery-for-chinese-aphasic-patients-a-preliminary-study
#6
Ji-Bao Wu, Zhi-Hong Lyu, Xiao-Jia Liu, Hai-Peng Li, Qi Wang
BACKGROUND: Nonlinguistic cognitive impairment has become an important issue for aphasic patients, but currently there are few neuropsychological cognitive assessment tests for it. To get more information on cognitive impairment of aphasic patients, this study aimed to develop a new cognitive assessment test battery for aphasic patients, the Non-language-based Cognitive Assessment (NLCA), and evaluate its utility in Chinese-speaking patients with aphasia. METHODS: The NLCA consists of five nonverbal tests, which could assess five nonlinguistic cognitive domains such as visuospatial functions, attention test, memory, reasoning, and executive functions of aphasic patients...
October 5, 2017: Chinese Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935882/clinical-and-radiological-diversity-in-genetically-confirmed-primary-familial-brain-calcification
#7
Shingo Koyama, Hidenori Sato, Ryota Kobayashi, Shinobu Kawakatsu, Masayuki Kurimura, Manabu Wada, Toru Kawanami, Takeo Kato
Primary familial brain calcification (PFBC) is a rare neuropsychiatric disorder with characteristic symmetrical brain calcifications. Patients with PFBC may have a variety of symptoms, although they also may be clinically asymptomatic. Parkinsonism is one of the most common movement disorders; however, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. This condition is typically transmitted in an autosomal dominant fashion. To date, mutations in SLC20A2, PDGFRB, PDGFB, and XPR1 have been reported to cause PFBC. The aim of the study was to identify the genetic cause of brain calcification in probands from three PFBC families and in 8 sporadic patients and to perform clinical and radiological assessments focusing on parkinsonism in mutation carriers...
September 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935880/the-role-of-glutamate-transporters-in-the-pathophysiology-of-neuropsychiatric-disorders
#8
REVIEW
Sinead M O'Donovan, Courtney R Sullivan, Robert E McCullumsmith
Altered glutamate transporter expression is a common feature of many neuropsychiatric conditions, including schizophrenia. Excitatory amino acid transporters (EAATs) are responsible for the reuptake of glutamate, preventing non-physiological spillover from the synapse. Postmortem studies have revealed significant dysregulation of EAAT expression in various brain regions at the cellular and subcellular level. Recent animal studies have also demonstrated a role for glutamate spillover as a mechanism of disease...
September 21, 2017: NPJ Schizophrenia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935224/the-test-retest-reliability-of-three-computerized-neurocognitive-tests-used-in-the-assessment-of-sport-concussion
#9
Jacob E Resch, Mathew Schneider, C Munro Cullum
Computerized neurocognitive tests (CNTs) are widely used at all competitive levels of sport to assess sport concussion (SC). Whereas there are multiple CNTs available, little is known about how some of the most popular platforms compare. The purpose of this study was to investigate the test-retest reliability of the Automated Neuropsychological Assessment Metrics (ANAM), Concussion Vital Signs (CVS) and the Immediate Postconcussion and Cognitive Testing battery (ImPACT) using clinically relevant time points in healthy college-age participants...
September 18, 2017: International Journal of Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935156/activation-of-il-17-receptor-leads-to-increased-oxidative-inflammation-in-peripheral-monocytes-of-autistic-children
#10
Ahmed Nadeem, Sheikh F Ahmad, Sabry M Attia, Saleh A Bakheet, Naif O Al-Harbi, Laila Y Al-Ayadhi
Millions of children are affected by different neurodevelopmental disorders, out of which autismspectrum disorder (ASD) poses a major hurdle to normal life style due to associated behavioral abnormalities. Several studies have shown an increased expression/release of Th17 related cytokine, IL-17A in ASD. IL-17A may enhance neuroinflammation via its IL-17A receptor, i.e. IL-17RA expressed in immune cells (such as monocytes) of autistic children. Increased oxidative stress has been implicated in a number of neuropsychiatric disorders including ASD...
September 18, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933871/neuropsychology-and-cognitive-neuroscience-in-the-fmri-era-a-recapitulation-of-localizationist-and-connectionist-views
#11
Matthew J Sutterer, Daniel Tranel
OBJECTIVE: We highlight the past 25 years of cognitive neuroscience and neuropsychology, focusing on the impact to the field of the introduction in 1992 of functional MRI (fMRI). METHOD: We reviewed the past 25 years of literature in cognitive neuroscience and neuropsychology, focusing on the relation and interplay of fMRI studies and studies utilizing the "lesion method" in human participants with focal brain damage. RESULTS: Our review highlights the state of localist/connectionist research debates in cognitive neuroscience and neuropsychology circa 1992, and details how the introduction of fMRI into the field at that time catalyzed a new wave of efforts to map complex human behavior to specific brain regions...
September 21, 2017: Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933314/effectiveness-of-a-low-support-remotely-accessible-cognitive-remediation-training-programme-for-chronic-psychosis-cognitive-functional-and-cortical-outcomes-from-a-single-blind-randomised-controlled-trial
#12
G Donohoe, R Dillon, A Hargreaves, O Mothersill, M Castorina, E Furey, A J Fagan, J F Meaney, B Fitzmaurice, B Hallahan, C McDonald, T Wykes, A Corvin, I H Robertson
BACKGROUND: Cognitive remediation (CR) training has emerged as a promising approach to improving cognitive deficits in schizophrenia and related psychosis. The limited availability of psychological services for psychosis is a major barrier to accessing this intervention however. This study investigated the effectiveness of a low support, remotely accessible, computerised working memory (WM) training programme in patients with psychosis. METHODS: Ninety patients were enrolled into a single blind randomised controlled trial of CR...
September 21, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933212/impact-of-traumatic-brain-injury-on-dopaminergic-transmission
#13
Yuan-Hao Chen, Eagle Yi-Kung Huang, Tung-Tai Kuo, Jonathan Miller, Yung-Hsiao Chiang, Barry J Hoffer
Brain trauma is often associated with severe morbidity and is a major public health concern. Even when injury is mild and no obvious anatomic disruption is seen, many individuals suffer disabling neuropsychological impairments such as memory loss, mood dysfunction, substance abuse, and adjustment disorder. These changes may be related to subtle disruption of neural circuits as well as functional changes at the neurotransmitter level. In particular, there is considerable evidence that dopamine (DA) physiology in the nigrostriatal and mesocorticolimbic pathways might be impaired after traumatic brain injury (TBI)...
July 2017: Cell Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933064/the-influence-of-adipose-tissue-on-brain-development-cognition-and-risk-of-neurodegenerative-disorders
#14
Liliana Letra, Isabel Santana
The brain is a highly metabolic organ and thus especially vulnerable to changes in peripheral metabolism, including those induced by obesity-associated adipose tissue dysfunction. In this context, it is likely that the development and maturation of neurocognitive circuits may also be affected and modulated by metabolic environmental factors, beginning in utero. It is currently recognized that maternal obesity, either pre-gestational or gestational, negatively influences fetal brain development and elevates the risk of cognitive impairment and neuropsychiatric disorders in the offspring...
2017: Advances in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933046/nmr-backbone-resonance-assignments-of-the-prodomain-variants-of-bdnf-in-the-urea-denatured-state
#15
Jing Wang, Henrietta Bains, Agustin Anastasia, Clay Bracken
Brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a member of the neurotrophin family of proteins which plays a central role in neuronal survival, growth, plasticity and memory. A single Val66Met variant has been identified in the prodomain of human BDNF that is associated with anxiety, depression and memory disorders. The structural differences within the full-length prodomain Val66 and Met66 isoforms could shed light on the mechanism of action of the Met66 and its impact on the development of neuropsychiatric-associated disorders...
September 20, 2017: Biomolecular NMR Assignments
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932205/face-and-word-recognition-can-be-selectively-affected-by-brain-injury-or-developmental-disorders
#16
REVIEW
Ro J Robotham, Randi Starrfelt
Face and word recognition have traditionally been thought to rely on highly specialised and relatively independent cognitive processes. Some of the strongest evidence for this has come from patients with seemingly category-specific visual perceptual deficits such as pure prosopagnosia, a selective face recognition deficit, and pure alexia, a selective word recognition deficit. Together, the patterns of impaired reading with preserved face recognition and impaired face recognition with preserved reading constitute a double dissociation...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931452/factors-associated-with-appropriate-psychotropic-drug-prescription-in-nursing-home-patients-with-severe-dementia
#17
Klaas van der Spek, Raymond Tcm Koopmans, Martin Smalbrugge, Marjorie Hjmg Nelissen-Vrancken, Roland B Wetzels, Claudia Hw Smeets, Steven Teerenstra, Sytse U Zuidema, Debby L Gerritsen
BACKGROUND: We studied the patient and non-patients factors of inappropriate psychotropic drug (PD) prescription for neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPS) in nursing home patients with severe dementia. METHODS: In a cross-sectional study, the appropriateness of prescriptions was explored using the Appropriate Psychotropic drug use In Dementia (APID) index sum score. This index assesses information from medical records on indication, evaluation, dosage, drug-drug interactions, drug-disease interactions, duplications, and therapy duration...
September 21, 2017: International Psychogeriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931446/prevalence-estimates-of-mild-behavioral-impairment-in-a-population-based-sample-of-pre-dementia-states-and-cognitively-healthy-older-adults
#18
Moyra E Mortby, Zahinoor Ismail, Kaarin J Anstey
BACKGROUND: A dearth of population-based epidemiological research examines neuropsychiatric symptom (NPS) in sub-clinical populations across the spectrum from normal aging to mild cognitive impairment (MCI). The construct of mild behavioral impairment (MBI) describes the emergence of sustained and impactful NPS in advance of or in combination with MCI. This is the first epidemiological study to operationalize the recently published diagnostic criteria for MBI and determine prevalence estimates across the spectrum from cognitively normal to MCI...
September 21, 2017: International Psychogeriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931444/treatment-effects-of-ginkgo-biloba-extract-egb-761%C3%A2-on-the-spectrum-of-behavioral-and-psychological-symptoms-of-dementia-meta-analysis-of-randomized-controlled-trials
#19
Egemen Savaskan, Heiko Mueller, Robert Hoerr, Armin von Gunten, Serge Gauthier
BACKGROUND: In randomized controlled trials, Ginkgo biloba extract EGb 761® has been found to be effective in the treatment of behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD). METHODS: To assess the effects of EGb 761® on specific BPSD, we analyzed data from all randomized, placebo-controlled, at least 20-week, trials of EGb 761® enrolling patients with dementia (probable Alzheimer's disease (AD), probable vascular dementia or probable AD with cerebrovascular disease) who had clinically significant BPSD (Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI) total score at least 6)...
September 21, 2017: International Psychogeriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931443/conversational-assessment-of-cognitive-dysfunction-among-residents-living-in-long-term-care-facilities
#20
Hikaru Oba, Shinichi Sato, Hiroaki Kazui, Yoshiko Nitta, Tatsuya Nashitani, Akio Kamiyama
BACKGROUND: There are some existing barriers posed by neuropsychological tests that interfere with the assessment of cognitive functioning by staff who work in long-term care facilities. The purpose of this study was to investigate the feasibility of assessing cognitive function through conversation. METHODS: A total of 100 care staff was randomly selected as participants. Each staff member evaluated cognitive function in one to three residents using the Conversational Assessment of Neurocognitive Dysfunction (CANDy), which is a screening test for dementia using conversation...
September 21, 2017: International Psychogeriatrics
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