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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108972/a-comparison-of-the-sensitivity-stability-and-reliability-of-three-diagnostic-schemes-for-hiv-associated-neurocognitive-disorders
#1
Savanna M Tierney, David P Sheppard, Victoria M Kordovski, Marika P Faytell, Gunes Avci, Steven Paul Woods
HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) occur in approximately 50% of HIV-infected individuals, yet available diagnostic criteria yield varying prevalence rates. This study examined the frequency, reliability, and sensitivity to everyday functioning problems of three HAND diagnostic criteria (DSM-5, Frascati, Gisslén). Participants included 361 adults with HIV disease and 199 seronegative adults. Neurocognitive status as defined by each of the three diagnostic systems was determined via a comprehensive neuropsychological battery...
January 20, 2017: Journal of Neurovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108946/in-vivo-neuroimaging-and-behavioral-correlates-in-a-rat-model-of-chemotherapy-induced-cognitive-dysfunction
#2
Robert L Barry, Nellie E Byun, M Noor Tantawy, Chase A Mackey, George H Wilson, Adam J Stark, Michael P Flom, Laura C Gee, C Chad Quarles
Adjuvant chemotherapy has been used for decades to treat cancer, and it is well known that disruptions in cognitive function and memory are common chemotherapeutic adverse effects. However, studies using neuropsychological metrics have also reported group differences in cognitive function and memory before or without chemotherapy, suggesting that complex factors obscure the true etiology of chemotherapy-induced cognitive dysfunction (CICD) in humans. Therefore, to better understand possible mechanisms of CICD, we explored the effects of CICD in rats through cognition testing using novel object recognition (NOR) and contextual fear conditioning (CFC), and through metabolic neuroimaging via [(18)F]fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET)...
January 20, 2017: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108638/natural-course-of-mild-cognitive-impairment-in-parkinson-disease-a-5-year-population-based-study
#3
Kenn Freddy Pedersen, Jan Petter Larsen, Ole-Bjørn Tysnes, Guido Alves
OBJECTIVE: To examine the incidence, progression, and reversion of mild cognitive impairment in patients with Parkinson disease (PD-MCI) over 5 years. METHODS: A population-based cohort of patients with incident PD underwent repeated neuropsychological testing of attention, executive function, memory, and visuospatial abilities at baseline (n = 178), 1 year (n = 175), 3 years (n = 163), and 5 years (n = 150). Patients were classified as PD-MCI and diagnosed with dementia according to published criteria...
January 20, 2017: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108491/transcriptome-analysis-identifies-multifaceted-regulatory-mechanisms-dictating-a-genetic-switch-from-neuronal-network-establishment-to-maintenance-during-postnatal-prefrontal-cortex-development
#4
Yvet Kroeze, Martin Oti, Ellen van Beusekom, Roel H M Cooijmans, Hans van Bokhoven, Sharon M Kolk, Judith R Homberg, Huiqing Zhou
The prefrontal cortex (PFC) is one of the latest brain regions to mature, which allows the acquisition of complex cognitive abilities through experience. To unravel the underlying gene expression changes during postnatal development, we performed RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq) in the rat medial PFC (mPFC) at five developmental time points from infancy to adulthood, and analyzed the differential expression of protein-coding genes, long intergenic noncoding RNAs (lincRNAs), and alternative exons. We showed that most expression changes occur in infancy, and that the number of differentially expressed genes reduces toward adulthood...
January 19, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108490/mri-shows-that-exhaustion-syndrome-due-to-chronic-occupational-stress-is-associated-with-partially-reversible-cerebral-changes
#5
I Savic, A Perski, W Osika
The present study investigates the cerebral effects of chronic occupational stress and its possible reversibility. Forty-eight patients with occupational exhaustion syndrome (29 women) and 80 controls (47 women) underwent structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and neuropsychological testing. Forty-four participants (25 patients, 19 controls) also completed a second MRI scan after 1-2 years. Only patients received cognitive therapy. The stressed group at intake had reduced thickness in the right prefrontal cortex (PFC) and left superior temporal gyrus (STG), enlarged amygdala volumes, and reduced caudate volumes...
January 19, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108320/modulation-on-brain-gray-matter-activity-and-white-matter-integrity-by-apoe-%C3%AE%C2%B54-risk-gene-in-cognitively-intact-elderly-a-multimodal-neuroimaging-study
#6
Suping Cai, Yuanyuan Jiang, Yubo Wang, Xiaoming Wu, Junchan Ren, Min Seob Lee, Sunghoon Lee, Liyu Huang
Apolipoprotein E (APOE) ε4 allele is the genetic risk factor with the most established evidence for sporadic Alzheimer's disease. Previous neuroimaging studies have demonstrated insufficiently consistent functional and structural changes among healthy APOE ε4 carriers when compared to non-carriers. Here, in a cognitively intact elderly group (a total of 110: 45 APOE ε4 carriers, 65 non-carriers), we aimed to investigate the potential role of APOE ε4 in the modulation of grey matter activity, white matter integrity, and brain morphology before the development of clinically significant symptoms and signs, by methods of: amplitude of low frequency fluctuations and regional homogeneity analysis based on resting state fMRI, and fiber tractography approach based on diffusion tensor imaging...
January 17, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108318/response-inhibition-set-shifting-and-complex-executive-function-in-patients-with-chronic-lower-back-pain
#7
Rytis Masiliūnas, Dalia Vitkutė, Edgaras Stankevičius, Vaidas Matijošaitis, Kęstutis Petrikonis
OBJECTIVE: The aim of our study was to evaluate how response inhibition, set shifting, and complex executive function (represented by risky decision-making) are altered in chronic lower back pain patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 29 patients with chronic lower back pain (CLBP >6 months) aged 49-69 years and 30 healthy volunteers matched for age, gender, and education were enrolled in a case-control study. The study was conducted in the Departments of Neurology and Neurosurgery of Panevėžys Regional Hospital, Lithuania...
January 2, 2017: Medicina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108209/the-impact-of-cognitive-impairment-on-efficacy-of-pulmonary-rehabilitation-in-patients-with-copd
#8
Fiona A H M Cleutjens, Martijn A Spruit, Rudolf W H M Ponds, Lowie E G W Vanfleteren, Frits M E Franssen, Jeanette B Dijkstra, Candy Gijsen, Emiel F M Wouters, Daisy J A Janssen
OBJECTIVES: To compare changes in pulmonary rehabilitation (PR) dropout and outcomes between chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients with and without cognitive impairment. DESIGN: A cross-sectional observational study. SETTING: Patients with COPD were recruited from a PR centre in the Netherlands. PARTICIPANTS: The study population consisted of 157 patients with clinically stable COPD who were referred for and completed PR...
January 17, 2017: Journal of the American Medical Directors Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108020/hallucinations-and-the-spectrum-of-psychosis-in-parkinson-s-disease
#9
REVIEW
Karen Frei, Daniel D Truong
Hallucinations and psychosis can be a part of Parkinson's disease and are considered to be a nonmotor symptom or a neuropsychiatric complication of the disease. Hallucinations of different modalities and delusions can occur beyond the common visual hallucinations. The various types of hallucinations and psychotic symptoms comprising the spectrum of Parkinson's disease psychosis is the subject of this review article.
January 5, 2017: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107885/comorbidities-with-chronic-physical-conditions-and-gender-profiles-of-illness-in-schizophrenia-results-from-prest-a-new-health-dataset
#10
Andrea Gabilondo, Edurne Alonso-Moran, Roberto Nuño-Solinis, Juan F Orueta, Alvaro Iruin
OBJECTIVE: Using data from a large health dataset, the objectives are to describe the epidemiology of comorbidities with chronic physical conditions in schizophrenia, to identify gender profiles of illness and to discuss findings in the light of previous research. METHODS: The PREST health database was used which combines high quality and complementary data from numerous public health care resources in the Basque Country (Spain). RESULTS: A total number of 2,255,406 patients were included in this study and 7331 had a diagnosis of schizophrenia...
February 2017: Journal of Psychosomatic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107493/white-matter-abnormalities-in-two-different-subtypes-of-amnestic-mild-cognitive-impairment
#11
Jianghong Liu, Peipeng Liang, Linlin Yin, Ni Shu, Tengda Zhao, Yi Xing, Fangyu Li, Zhilian Zhao, Kuncheng Li, Ying Han
White matter (WM) degeneration has been found during the course of cognitive decline in both Alzheimer's disease (AD) and amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI), however, it is unclear whether there are different WM microstructural abnormalities between two subtypes of aMCI, including single domain aMCI (aMCI-s) and multiple domain aMCI (aMCI-m). Thirty-two patients of aMCI single-domain (aMCI-s), twenty-three patients of aMCI multiple-domain (aMCI-m) and twenty-three healthy normal controls (NC) participated in this study...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107370/neuronal-injury-and-glial-changes-are-hallmarks-of-open-field-blast-exposure-in-swine-frontal-lobe
#12
Srinivasu Kallakuri, Alok Desai, Ke Feng, Sharvani Tummala, Tal Saif, Chaoyang Chen, Liying Zhang, John M Cavanaugh, Albert I King
With the rapid increase in the number of blast induced traumatic brain injuries and associated neuropsychological consequences in veterans returning from the operations in Iraq and Afghanistan, the need to better understand the neuropathological sequelae following exposure to an open field blast exposure is still critical. Although a large body of experimental studies have attempted to address these pathological changes using shock tube models of blast injury, studies directed at understanding changes in a gyrencephalic brain exposed to a true open field blast are limited and thus forms the focus of this study...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106561/the-modified-frontal-behavioral-inventory-fbi-mod-for-patients-with-frontotemporal-lobar-degeneration-alzheimer-s-disease-and-mild-cognitive-impairment
#13
Noora-Maria Suhonen, Ilona Hallikainen, Tuomo Hänninen, Jari Jokelainen, Johanna Krüger, Anette Hall, Maria Pikkarainen, Hilkka Soininen, Anne M Remes
While behavioral symptoms are both early and prevalent features of behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD), they can be present in other types of dementia as well, including Alzheimer's disease (AD) and even mild cognitive impairment (MCI). The Frontal Behavioral Inventory (FBI) was specifically developed to capture the behavioral and personality changes in bvFTD; it has also been modified into a self-administered caregiver questionnaire (FBI-mod). We examined the utility of the FBI-mod in differentiating bvFTD (n = 26), primary progressive aphasia (PPA) (n = 7), AD (n = 53), and MCI (n = 50) patients, and investigated how the FBI-mod may be associated with neuropsychological measures...
January 20, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106560/face-name-associative-recognition-deficits-in-subjective-cognitive-decline-and-mild-cognitive-impairment
#14
Alexandra Polcher, Ingo Frommann, Alexander Koppara, Steffen Wolfsgruber, Frank Jessen, Michael Wagner
BACKGROUND: There is a need for more sensitive neuropsychological tests to detect subtle cognitive deficits emerging in the preclinical stage of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Associative memory is a cognitive function supported by the hippocampus and affected early in the process of AD. OBJECTIVE: We developed a short computerized face-name-associative-recognition test (FNART) and tested whether it would detect memory impairment in memory-clinic patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and subjective cognitive decline (SCD)...
January 19, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106554/recovery-from-proactive-semantic-interference-in-mild-cognitive-impairment-and-normal-aging-relationship-to-atrophy-in-brain-regions-vulnerable-to-alzheimer-s-disease
#15
David A Loewenstein, Rosie E Curiel, Clinton Wright, Xiaoyan Sun, Noam Alperin, Elzabeth Crocco, Sara J Czaja, Arlene Raffo, Ailyn Penate, Jose Melo, Kimberly Capp, Monica Gamez, Ranjan Duara
BACKGROUND: There is growing evidence that proactive semantic interference (PSI) and failure to recover from PSI may represent early features of Alzheimer's disease (AD). OBJECTIVE: This study investigated the association between PSI, recovery from PSI, and reduced MRI volumes in AD signature regions among cognitively impaired and unimpaired older adults. METHODS: Performance on the LASSI-L (a novel test of PSI and recovery from PSI) and regional brain volumetric measures were compared between 38 cognitively normal (CN) elders and 29 older participants with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (MCI)...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106314/role-of-cytokine-changes-in-clozapine-induced-fever-a-cohort-prospective-study
#16
Yuan-Pin Hung, Carol Sheei-Meei Wang, Chia-Nan Yen, Hsun-Cheng Chang, Po See Chen, I Hui Lee, Kao Chin Chen, Yen Kuang Yang, Ru-Band Lu, Tzu-Yun Wang
AIM: Clozapine-associated fever is common but the specific cytokine changes and treatment durations that may cause fever remain unknown. We investigate the association between inflammatory cytokine changes and clozapine-induced fever in patients who were treated with clozapine. METHODS: Forty-three patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder, diagnosed by using the Chinese Version of the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview, were treated with clozapine for the first time (first-time use group, n = 22) or more than 6 months (long-term use group, n = 21)...
January 20, 2017: Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106041/glutamatergic-projections-from-the-entorhinal-cortex-to-dorsal-dentate-gyrus-mediate-context-induced-reinstatement-of-heroin-seeking
#17
Feifei Ge, Na Wang, Cailian Cui, Yijing Li, Yan Liu, Yaoying Ma, Shuli Liu, Haolin Zhang, Xiaowei Sun
Re-exposure to the context associated with heroin intake provokes relapse to drug taking after abstinence. The dorsal dentate gyrus (dDG) and entorhinal cortex (EC) have been implicated in contextual memory processing, but the underlying circuit mechanisms in context-induced relapse remains poorly understood. In this study, using a self-administration rat model, we found that activation and synaptic transmission of glutamatergic projections from the EC to the upper blade of dentate gyrus (dDGub) were significantly enhanced during context-induced reinstatement of heroin seeking...
January 20, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106040/the-effects-of-prior-stress-on-anxiety-like-responding-to-intra-bnst-pituitary-adenylate-cyclase-activating-polypeptide-pacap-in-male-and-female-rats
#18
S Bradley King, Kim R Lezak, Micaela O'Reilly, Donna J Toufexis, William A Falls, Karen Braas, Victor May, Sayamwong E Hammack
Chronic or repeated exposure to stressful stimuli can result in several maladaptive consequences, including increased anxiety-like behaviors and altered peptide expression in anxiety-related brain structures. Among these structures, the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) has been implicated in emotional behaviors as well as regulation of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity. In male rodents, chronic variate stress (CVS) has been shown to increase BNST pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) and its cognate PAC1 receptor transcript, and BNST PACAP signaling may mediate the maladaptive changes associated with chronic stress...
January 20, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105985/impact-of-traumatic-brain-injury-on-dopaminergic-transmission
#19
Yuan-Hao Chen, Eagle Yi-Kung, Tung-Tai Kuo, Jonathan Miller, Yung-Hsiao Chiang, Barry J
Brain trauma is often associated with severe morbidity and is a major public health concern. Even when injury is mild and no obvious anatomic disruption is seen, many individuals suffer disabling neuropsychological impairments such as memory loss, mood dysfunction, substance abuse, and adjustment disorder. These changes may be related to subtle disruption of neural circuits as well as functional changes at the neurotransmitter level. In particular, there is considerable evidence that dopamine physiology in the nigrostriatal and mesocorticolimbic pathways might be impaired after TBI...
January 20, 2017: Cell Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105532/machiavellian-emotion-regulation-in-a-cognitive-reappraisal-task-an-fmri-study
#20
Anita Deak, Barbara Bodrogi, Brigitte Biro, Gabor Perlaki, Gergely Orsi, Tamas Bereczkei
Affective coldness is one of the main features of Machiavellianism. Recent studies have revealed that Machiavellians are emotionally detached and that this "affective blunting" is associated with intense feelings, emotional instability, negative emotions, and difficulty in enduring distress. We used brain-imaging techniques to investigate emotion regulation in Machiavellianism at a neuropsychological level. We used situations in which participants were required to demonstrate emotional flexibility to explore the controversy surrounding the fact that Machiavellianism is associated with both cold-mindedness and emotional instability...
January 19, 2017: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
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