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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734240/decreased-levels-of-serum-fibroblast-growth-factor-2-in-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#1
Erman Esnafoglu, Sema Nur Ayyıldız
The neurodevelopment and functioning of the central nervous system, and especially the cerebral cortex, have basic importance to understand neuropsychiatric disorders like autism. Fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) plays a very important role in the development and functioning of the cortex. FGF-2 is related to developmental processes in the central nervous system such as neurogenesis, migration, differentiation and survival. This study researched the serum FGF-2 levels in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD)...
July 14, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734195/implementation-of-psychological-clinical-trials-in-epilepsy-review-and-guide
#2
REVIEW
Avani C Modi, Janelle Wagner, Aimee W Smith, Tanja S Kellermann, Rosa Michaelis
The International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE) Neuropsychiatry commission and United States Institute of Medicine report both identified cognitive and psychological comorbidities as a significant issue for individuals with epilepsy, with rates as high as 60%. However, there is a paucity of evidence-based treatments for many psychological conditions (e.g., learning disorders, cognitive disorders, behavioral disorders). Because of inherent challenges in the implementation of psychological therapy trials and specific considerations for the population with epilepsy, the focus of the current review was to provide guidance and recommendations to conduct psychological trials for individuals with epilepsy...
July 19, 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734121/the-impact-of-chronic-psychiatric-disorders-on-cognitive-decline
#3
R Villeneuve, C Blanchard, L Rullier, N Raoux, V Bergua, J-F Dartigues, K Pérès, H Amieva
OBJECTIVES: Based on seemingly contradictory results in the existing literature, the objective of our study was to investigate whether older individuals suffering from chronic psychiatric disorders show a more rapid decline in cognitive performances than their non-psychiatric counterparts, or if the pattern of decline through older age is similar in both groups. METHOD: A total of 820 older adults were selected from the Ageing Multidisciplinary Investigation (AMI) cohort study, which studies health-related issues of people over 65 years old living in rural areas...
July 22, 2017: Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731911/expert-and-self-assessment-of-lifetime-symptoms-and-diagnosis-of-major-depressive-disorder-in-large-scale-genetic-studies-in-the-general-population-comparison-of-a-clinical-interview-and-a-self-administered-checklist
#4
Jessica Martin, Fabian Streit, Jens Treutlein, Maren Lang, Josef Frank, Andreas J Forstner, Franziska Degenhardt, Stephanie H Witt, Thomas G Schulze, Sven Cichon, Markus M Nöthen, Marcella Rietschel, Jana Strohmaier
Major depression disorder (MDD) is a complex neuropsychiatric disorder and an increasing number of genetic risk variants are being identified. Investigation of their influence in the general population requires accurate and efficient assessment of depressive symptoms. Here, clinical interviews conducted by clinicians are the gold standard. We investigated whether valid and reliable clinical phenotypes can be obtained efficiently using self-administered instruments. Lifetime depressive symptoms and lifetime MDD diagnosis were assessed in 464 population-based individuals using a clinical interview and a structured, self-administered checklist...
July 20, 2017: Psychiatric Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731870/the-association-of-cognitive-reserve-in-chronic-phase-functional-and-neuropsychological-outcomes-following-traumatic-brain-injury
#5
Jacob B Leary, Grace Y Kim, Catherine L Bradley, Uzma Z Hussain, Maryanne Sacco, Martha Bernad, John Collins, John Dsurney, Leighton Chan
OBJECTIVE: Examine the association of cognitive reserve (CR) factors (estimated premorbid intelligence quotient [IQ], years of education, and occupational attainment) and traumatic brain injury (TBI) severity with functional and neuropsychological outcomes 1 to 5 years following TBI. PARTICIPANTS: Patients with mild (N = 58), moderate (N = 25), or severe (N = 17) TBI. MAIN MEASURES: Cognitive reserve factors (estimated premorbid IQ, years of education, and occupational attainment); neuropsychological test battery; Glasgow Outcome Scale-Extended; Short Form-36 Health Survey...
July 20, 2017: Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731453/topological-alterations-and-symptom-relevant-modules-in-the-whole-brain-structural-network-in-semantic-dementia
#6
Junhua Ding, Keliang Chen, Weibin Zhang, Ming Li, Yan Chen, Qing Yang, Yingru Lv, Qihao Guo, Zaizhu Han
BACKGROUND: Semantic dementia (SD) is characterized by a selective decline in semantic processing. Although the neuropsychological pattern of this disease has been identified, its topological global alterations and symptom-relevant modules in the whole-brain anatomical network have not been fully elucidated. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to explore the topological alteration of anatomical network in SD and reveal the modules associated with semantic deficits in this disease...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731452/temporal-order-of-alzheimer-s-disease-related-cognitive-marker-changes-in-blsa-and-wrap-longitudinal-studies
#7
Murat Bilgel, Rebecca L Koscik, Yang An, Jerry L Prince, Susan M Resnick, Sterling C Johnson, Bruno M Jedynak
Investigation of the temporal trajectories of currently used neuropsychological tests is critical to identifying earliest changing measures on the path to dementia due to Alzheimer's disease (AD). We used the Progression Score (PS) method to characterize the temporal trajectories of measures of verbal memory, executive function, attention, processing speed, language, and mental status using data spanning normal cognition, mild cognitive impairment, and AD from 1,661 participants with a total of 7,839 visits (age at last visit 77...
July 18, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731439/antihypertensive-treatment-is-associated-with-mri-derived-markers-of-neurodegeneration-and-impaired-cognition-a-propensity-weighted-cohort-study
#8
Jodi D Edwards, Joel Ramirez, Brandy L Callahan, Sheldon W Tobe, Paul Oh, Courtney Berezuk, Krista Lanctôt, Walter Swardfager, Sean Nestor, Alexander Kiss, Stephen Strother, Sandra E Black
BACKGROUND: Hypertension is an important risk factor for Alzheimer's disease (AD) and cerebral small vessel disease. Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) and angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) are common anti-hypertensive treatments, but have differential effects on cortical amyloid. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to evaluate associations between anti-hypertensive treatment, brain volume, and cognition, using a propensity-weighted analysis to account for confounding by indication...
July 17, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731436/impaired-processing-of-serial-order-determines-working-memory-impairments-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#9
Maya De Belder, Patrick Santens, Anne Sieben, Wim Fias
BACKGROUND: Working memory (WM) problems are commonly observed in Alzheimer's disease (AD), but the affected mechanisms leading to impaired WM are still insufficiently understood. The ability to efficiently process serial order in WM has been demonstrated to be fundamental to fluent daily life functioning. The decreased capability to mentally process serial position in WM has been put forward as the underlying explanation for generally compromised WM performance. OBJECTIVE: Determine which mechanisms, such as order processing, are responsible for deficient WM functioning in AD...
July 17, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731429/severity-of-depression-impacts-imminent-conversion-from-mild-cognitive-impairment-to-alzheimer-s-disease
#10
Michaela Defrancesco, Josef Marksteiner, Georg Kemmler, Walter Wolfgang Fleischhacker, Imrich Blasko, Eberhard A Deisenhammer
BACKGROUND: Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) has been suggested to represent a prodromal stage of dementia and to confer a high risk for conversion to dementia Alzheimer's type (DAT). OBJECTIVES: In this study, we examined the predictive value of depressive symptoms and neuropsychological variables on conversion of MCI to DAT. METHODS: Neuropsychological and clinical follow-up data of 260 MCI patients seen at the Psychiatric Memory Clinic of the Medical University of Innsbruck between 2005 and 2015 were analyzed retrospectively...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731266/a-randomized-double-blind-placebo-controlled-crossover-study-of-the-effects-of-levetiracetam-on-cognition-mood-and-balance-in-healthy-older-adults
#11
Mike R Schoenberg, Ruba S Rum, Katie E Osborn, Mary Ann Werz
OBJECTIVE: The cognitive and mood effects of levetiracetam (LEV) in older adults are not known. This study compared the cognitive and mood effects of LEV to placebo in healthy older adults. METHODS: Cognitive, mood, and balance variables were compared between LEV and placebo using a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study with two 5-week treatment periods. Healthy volunteers (n = 20) aged 65-80 (mean age 72.4) received either LEV or placebo in which the LEV target dose was 1,000 mg/day...
July 21, 2017: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730861/comparative-outcomes-in-children-and-adults-with-anti-n-methyl-d-aspartate-anti-nmda-receptor-encephalitis
#12
Eliza Gordon-Lipkin, Anusha K Yeshokumar, Deanna Saylor, Ana Arenivas, John C Probasco
This study compared neurologic disability and adaptive function in children and adults >1 year following anti- N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (anti-NMDAR) encephalitis diagnosis. Retrospective record review identified 12 patients with anti-NMDAR encephalitis. At last follow-up, all surviving patients had "good" modified Rankin Score (0-2). Four children, 6 adults, and their families participated in a telephone interview. Median duration since diagnosis was similar for children (2.42 years, interquartile range 2...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Child Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730563/functional-connectivity-and-cognitive-impairment-in-migraine-with-and-without-aura
#13
Viviana Lo Buono, Lilla Bonanno, Francesco Corallo, Laura Rosa Pisani, Riccardo Lo Presti, Rosario Grugno, Giuseppe Di Lorenzo, Placido Bramanti, Silvia Marino
BACKGROUND: Several fMRI studies in migraine assessed resting state functional connectivity in different networks suggesting that this neurological condition was associated with brain functional alteration. The aim of present study was to explore the association between cognitive functions and cerebral functional connectivity, in default mode network, in migraine patients without and with aura, during interictal episodic attack. METHODS: Twenty-eight migraine patients (14 without and 14 with aura) and 14 matched normal controls, were consecutively recruited...
December 2017: Journal of Headache and Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729755/social-cognition-deficits-current-position-and-future-directions-for-neuropsychological-interventions-in-cerebrovascular-disease
#14
REVIEW
Progress Njomboro
Neuropsychological assessments of cognitive dysfunction in cerebrovascular illness commonly target basic cognitive functions involving aspects of memory, attention, language, praxis, and number processing. Here, I highlight the clinical importance of often-neglected social cognition functions. These functions recruit a widely distributed neural network, making them vulnerable in most cerebrovascular diseases. Sociocognitive deficits underlie most of the problematic social conduct observed in patients and are associated with more negative clinical outcomes (compared to nonsocial cognitive deficits)...
2017: Behavioural Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729735/the-wnt-receptor-ryk-is-a-negative-regulator-of-mammalian-dendrite-morphogenesis
#15
Vanessa Lanoue, Michael Langford, Amanda White, Kai Sempert, Lily Fogg, Helen M Cooper
The unique dendritic architecture of a given neuronal subtype determines its synaptic connectivity and ability to integrate into functional neuronal networks. It is now clear that abnormal dendritic structure is associated with neuropsychiatric and neurodegenerative disorders. Currently, however, the nature of the extrinsic factors that limit dendritic growth and branching within predetermined boundaries in the mammalian brain is poorly understood. Here we identify the Wnt receptor Ryk as a novel negative regulator of dendritic arborisation...
July 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729220/cognitive-enhancement-and-antipsychotic-like-activity-following-repeated-dosing-with-the-selective-m4-pam-vu0467154
#16
Robert W Gould, Michael D Grannan, Barak W Gunter, Jacob Ball, Michael Bubser, Thomas M Bridges, Jurgen Wess, Michael W Wood, Nicholas J Brandon, Mark E Duggan, Colleen M Niswender, Craig W Lindsley, P Jeffrey Conn, Carrie K Jones
Although selective activation of the M1 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (mAChR) subtype has been shown to improve cognitive function in animal models of neuropsychiatric disorders, recent evidence suggests that enhancing M4 mAChR function can also improve memory performance. Positive allosteric modulators (PAMs) targeting the M4 mAChR subtype have shown therapeutic potential for the treatment of multiple symptoms observed in schizophrenia, including positive and cognitive symptoms when assessed in acute preclinical dosing paradigms...
July 17, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728964/association-between-proton-pump-inhibitor-use-and-cognitive-function-in-women
#17
Paul Lochhead, Kaitlin Hagan, Amit D Joshi, Hamed Khalili, Long H Nguyen, Francine Grodstein, Andrew T Chan
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Studies have reported associations between proton pump inhibitor (PPI) use and dementia. However, data are lacking on long-term PPI use and cognitive function. We therefore examined associations between PPI use and performance in tests of cognitive function. Because of shared clinical indications, we examined associations for H2 receptor antagonists (H2RAs) as a secondary aim. METHODS: We used prospectively collected data on medication use and other potential risk factors from 13,864 participants in the Nurses' Health Study II who had completed a self-administered computerized neuropsychological test battery...
July 17, 2017: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728465/evaluating-the-test-retest-reliability-of-symptom-indices-associated-with-the-impact-post-concussion-symptom-scale-pcss
#18
Victoria C Merritt, Megan L Bradson, Jessica E Meyer, Peter A Arnett
OBJECTIVE: The Immediate Post-Concussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing (ImPACT) is a commonly used tool in sports concussion assessment. While test-retest reliabilities have been established for the ImPACT cognitive composites, few studies have evaluated the psychometric properties of the ImPACT's Post-Concussion Symptom Scale (PCSS). The purpose of this study was to establish the test-retest reliability of symptom indices associated with the PCSS. PARTICIPANTS AND METHODS: Participants included 38 undergraduate students (50...
July 20, 2017: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727686/fbxw7-regulates-disc1-stability-via-the-ubiquitin-proteosome-system
#19
K Yalla, C Elliott, J P Day, J Findlay, S Barratt, Z A Hughes, L Wilson, E Whiteley, M Popiolek, Y Li, J Dunlop, R Killick, D R Adams, N J Brandon, M D Houslay, B Hao, G S Baillie
Disrupted in schizophrenia 1 (DISC1) is a multi-functional scaffolding protein that has been associated with neuropsychiatric disease. The role of DISC1 is to assemble protein complexes that promote neural development and signaling, hence tight control of the concentration of cellular DISC1 in neurons is vital to brain function. Using structural and biochemical techniques, we show for we believe the first time that not only is DISC1 turnover elicited by the ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS) but that it is orchestrated by the F-Box protein, FBXW7...
July 20, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727639/effects-of-12-week-resistance-exercise-on-electroencephalogram-patterns-and-cognitive-function-in-the-elderly-with-mild-cognitive-impairment-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#20
Soon-Gook Hong, June-Hong Kim, Tae-Won Jun
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of a 12-week resistance exercise program with an elastic band on electroencephalogram (EEG) patterns and cognitive function in elderly patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). DESIGN: Randomized controlled trial. SETTING: Community center. PARTICIPANTS: Twenty-two subjects with MCI and 25 healthy volunteer subjects were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 groups: subjects with MCI who undertook the exercise program (MCI-EX; n = 10), an MCI control group (MCI-Con; n = 12), a healthy volunteer exercise group (NG-EX; n = 12), and a healthy volunteer control group (NG-Con; n = 13)...
July 14, 2017: Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine: Official Journal of the Canadian Academy of Sport Medicine
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