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Tamanna Jahan Mony, Jae Won Lee, Cheryl Dreyfus, Emanuel DiCicco-Bloom, Hee Jae Lee
Objective: We reported that postnatal exposure of rats to valproic acid (VPA) stimulated proliferation of glial precursors during cortical gliogenesis. However, there are no reports whether enhanced postnatal gliogenesis affects behaviors related to neuropsychiatric disorders. Methods: After VPA treatment during the postnatal day (PND) 2 to PND 4, four behavioral test, such as open field locomotor test, elevated plus maze test, three-chamber social interaction test, and passive avoidance test, were performed at PND 21 or 22...
November 30, 2016: Clinical Psychopharmacology and Neuroscience: the Official Scientific Journal of the Korean College of Neuropsychopharmacology
Sallie Baxendale, Pamela Thompson
The revised terminology and concepts for the organization of seizures and epilepsy proposed by the ILAE Commission on Classification and Terminology in 2010 allows for a number of new opportunities in the study of cognition and behavior in adults. This review examines the literature that has looked for behavioral and cognitive correlates of the newly recognized genetic epilepsies in adults. While some studies report clear cognitive phenotypes associated with specific genetic mutations in adults with epilepsy, others report remarkable clinical heterogeneity...
October 21, 2016: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
Michael D Nevarez, Johanna C Malone, Dorene M Rentz, Robert J Waldinger
OBJECTIVE: Identifying adaptive ways to cope with extreme stress is essential to promoting long-term health. Memory systems are highly sensitive to stress, and combat exposure during war has been shown to have deleterious effects on cognitive processes, such as memory, decades later. No studies have examined coping styles used by combat veterans and associations with later-life cognitive functioning. Defenses are coping mechanisms that manage difficult memories and feelings, with some more closely related to memory processes (e...
October 7, 2016: Comprehensive Psychiatry
Foteini Christidi, Efstratios Karavasilis, Ioannis Zalonis, Panagiotis Ferentinos, Zoi Giavri, Elisabeth A Wilde, Sophia Xirou, Michalis Rentzos, Vasiliki Zouvelou, George Velonakis, Panagiotis Toulas, Efstathios Efstathopoulos, Loukia Poulou, Georgios Argyropoulos, Athanasios Athanasakos, Thomas Zambelis, Harvey S Levin, Nikolaos Karandreas, Nikolaos Kelekis, Ioannis Evdokimidis
We aimed to investigate structural changes in vivo in memory-related white matter tracts (i.e., perforant pathway zone [PPZ]; uncinate fasciculus [UF]; fornix) using diffusion tensor tractography and evaluate possible associations with memory performance in nondemented patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Forty-two ALS patients and 25 healthy controls (HCs) underwent a 30-directional diffusion-weighted imaging on a 3T MR scanner, followed by tractography of PPZ, UF, and fornix and analysis of fractional anisotropy (FA), axial diffusivity and radial diffusivity (Dr)...
September 28, 2016: Neurobiology of Aging
Tanya T Nguyen, Sanja Kovacevic, Sheena I Dev, Kun Lu, Thomas T Liu, Lisa T Eyler
Objective: Disturbances in functional connectivity have been suggested to contribute to cognitive and emotion processing deficits observed in bipolar disorder (BD). Functional connectivity between medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and other brain regions may be particularly abnormal. The goal of the present study was to characterize the temporal dynamics of the default mode network (DMN) connectivity in BD and examine its association with cognition. Method: In a preliminary study, euthymic BD (n = 15) and healthy comparison (HC, n = 19) participants underwent resting-state functional MRI, using high-resolution sequences adapted from the Human Connectome Project, and completed neuropsychological measures of processing speed and executive function...
October 24, 2016: Neuropsychology
Yo Han Lee, Seok Jun Yoon, Arim Kim, Hyeyoung Seo, Seulki Ko
The global burden of disease study (GBD) provides valuable information for evaluating population health in terms of disease burden. This study collected and reviewed GBD data in Korea for the year 1990 and 2013. The burdens of cancer, cardiovascular disease, communicable disease, and injuries have decreased remarkably, thereby greatly diminishing the overall disease burden on Korea. Meanwhile, the burdens due to non-fatal chronic diseases such as neuropsychiatric and musculoskeletal disease became major burden contributors...
November 2016: Journal of Korean Medical Science
Sarah Raz, Jamie C Piercy, Andrew M Heitzer, Brittany N Peters, Julie Bapp Newman, Angela K DeBastos, Noa Ofen, Beau Batton, Daniel G Batton
OBJECTIVES: A limited body of research is available on the relationships between multiplicity of birth and neuropsychological functioning in preterm children who were conceived in the age of assisted reproductive technology and served by the modern neonatal intensive care unit. Our chief objective was to evaluate whether, after adjustment for sociodemographic factors and perinatal complications, twin birth accounted for a unique portion of developmental outcome variance in children born at-risk in the surfactant era...
October 2016: Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society: JINS
Gavino Faa, Mirko Manchia, Roberta Pintus, Clara Gerosa, Maria Antonietta Marcialis, Vassilios Fanos
Starting from the Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (DOHaD) hypotheses proposed by David Barker, namely fetal programming, in the past years, there is a growing evidence of the major role played by epigenetic factors during the intrauterine life and the perinatal period. Furthermore, it has been assessed that these factors can affect the health status in infancy and even in adulthood. In this review, we focus our attention on the fetal programming of the brain, analyzing the most recent literature concerning the epigenetic factors that can influence the development of neuropsychiatric disorders such as bipolar disorders, major depressive disorders, and schizophrenia...
October 24, 2016: Birth Defects Research. Part C, Embryo Today: Reviews
Laura W Wesseldijk, Iryna O Fedko, Meike Bartels, Michel G Nivard, Catharina E M van Beijsterveldt, Dorret I Boomsma, Christel M Middeldorp
The assessment of children's psychopathology is often based on parental report. Earlier studies have suggested that rater bias can affect the estimates of genetic, shared environmental and unique environmental influences on differences between children. The availability of a large dataset of maternal as well as paternal ratings of psychopathology in 7-year old children enabled (i) the analysis of informant effects on these assessments, and (ii) to obtain more reliable estimates of the genetic and non-genetic effects...
October 24, 2016: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part B, Neuropsychiatric Genetics
Joe Verghese, Rubina Malik, Jessica Zwerling
Given the multifaceted nature of dementia care management, an interdisciplinary comprehensive clinical approach is necessary. We describe our one-year experience with outpatient based dementia care at the Montefiore-Einstein Center for the Aging Brain (CAB) involving an multispecialty team of geriatricians, neurologists, and neuropsychologists, supported by geriatric psychiatrists, physiatrists, and social services. The goals of the CAB is to maximize dementia outcomes, including regular monitoring of patient's health and cognition, education and support to patients, their families and caregivers; initiation of pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatments as appropriate, and the facilitation of access to clinical trials...
October 24, 2016: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
Stephanie Yamin, Arne Stinchcombe, Sylvain Gagnon
Purpose. Alzheimer's disease (AD) and dementia with Lewy Bodies (DLB) constitute two of the most common forms of dementia in North America. Driving is a primary means of mobility among older adults and the risk of dementia increases with advanced age. The purpose of this paper is to describe the cognitive profile of licensed drivers with mild AD and mild DLB. Method. Licensed drivers with mild AD, mild DLB, and healthy controls completed neuropsychological tests measuring general cognition, attention, visuospatial/perception, language, and cognitive fluctuations...
2016: International Journal of Alzheimer's Disease
C H de Kogel, E J M C Westgeest
In this contribution an empirical approach is used to gain more insight into the relationship between neuroscience and criminal law. The focus is on case law in the Netherlands. Neuroscientific information and techniques have found their way into the courts of the Netherlands. Furthermore, following an Italian case in which a mentally ill offender received a penalty reduction in part because of a 'genetic vulnerability for impulsive aggression', the expectation was expressed that such 'genetic defenses' would appear in the Netherlands too...
November 2015: Journal of Law and the Biosciences
Jennifer A Chandler
This article addresses the question of how neuroscientific evidence is currently used in the Canadian criminal justice system, with a view to identifying the main contexts in which this evidence is raised, as well as to discern the impact of this evidence on judgements of responsibility, dangerousness, and treatability. The most general Canadian legal database was searched for cases in the five-year period between 2008 and 2012 in which neuroscientific evidence related to the responsibility and recidivism risk of criminal offenders was considered...
November 2015: Journal of Law and the Biosciences
Jia Zhao, Jiangang Liu, Xin Jiang, Guifei Zhou, Guowei Chen, Xiao P Ding, Genyue Fu, Kang Lee
Executive function (EF) plays vital roles in our everyday adaptation to the ever-changing environment. However, limited existing studies have linked EF to the resting-state brain activity. The functional connectivity in the resting state between the sub-regions of the brain can reveal the intrinsic neural mechanisms involved in cognitive processing of EF without disturbance from external stimuli. The present study investigated the relations between the behavioral executive function (EF) scores and the resting-state functional network topological properties in the Prefrontal Cortex (PFC)...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Norie Ito, Hidetoshi Takei, Susumu Chiba, Kikuro Fukushima
We reported recently that during a memory-based smooth-pursuit task, most Parkinson's disease (PD) patients exhibited normal cue-information memory but impaired smooth-pursuit preparation and execution. A minority of PD patients had abnormal cue-information memory or difficulty in understanding the task. To further examine differences between these two groups, we assigned an anti-saccade task and compared correct rates with various neuropsychological and motor symptom evaluations. The anti-saccade task requires voluntary saccades in the opposite direction to a visual stimulus, and patients with frontal cortical impairments are known to exhibit reflexive saccades (errors)...
October 21, 2016: Rinshō Shinkeigaku, Clinical Neurology
Dattatraya Muzumdar, Manoj Patil, Atul Goel, Sangeeta Ravat, Nina Sawant, Urvashi Shah
Mesial temporal lobe epilepsy is one of the commonest indications for epilepsy surgery. Presurgical evaluation for drug resistant epilepsy and identification of appropriate candidates for surgery is essential for optimal seizure freedom. The anatomy of mesial temporal lobe is complex and needs to be understood in the context of the advanced imaging, ictal and interictal Video_EEG monitoring, neuropsychology and psychiatric considerations. The completeness of disconnection of epileptogenic neural networks is paramount and is correlated with the extent of resection of the mesial temporal structures...
October 20, 2016: International Journal of Surgery
Vidya Narayanaswami, Linda P Dwoskin
Obesity is a global epidemic that contributes to a number of health complications including cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, cancer and neuropsychiatric disorders. Pharmacotherapeutic strategies to treat obesity are urgently needed. Research over the past two decades has increased substantially our knowledge of central and peripheral mechanisms underlying homeostatic energy balance. Homeostatic mechanisms involve multiple components including neuronal circuits, some originating in hypothalamus and brain stem, as well as peripherally-derived satiety, hunger and adiposity signals that modulate neural activity and regulate eating behavior...
October 20, 2016: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
Lorena Fernández de la Cruz, Mina Rydell, Bo Runeson, Gustaf Brander, Christian Rück, Brian M D'Onofrio, Henrik Larsson, Paul Lichtenstein, David Mataix-Cols
BACKGROUND: Persons with neuropsychiatric disorders are at increased risk of suicide, but there is little data concerning Tourette's and chronic tic disorders (TD/CTD). We aimed to quantify the risk of suicidal behavior in a large nationwide cohort of patients with TD/CTD, establish the contribution of psychiatric comorbidity to this risk, and identify predictors of suicide. METHODS: Using a validated algorithm, we identified 7736 TD/CTD cases in the Swedish National Patient Register during a 44-year period (1969-2013)...
August 26, 2016: Biological Psychiatry
Yi Xing, Yi Tang, Lina Zhao, Qi Wang, Wei Qin, Xiaojuan Ji, Jinlan Zhang, Jianping Jia
BACKGROUND: The abnormal metabolism of ceramides may account for the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease dementia (PDD). However, the effect of ceramides on cognitive domain impairments and neuropsychiatric symptoms of PDD remains unknown. METHODS: A total of 38 PDD, 40 PD with no cognitive impairment (PD-NC) and 40 normal controls were included. A series of cognitive tests and the Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI) were used to assess cognitive domains and neuropsychiatric symptoms...
November 15, 2016: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
Matthew Swan, Nancy Doan, Robert A Ortega, Matthew Barrett, William Nichols, Laurie Ozelius, Jeannie Soto-Valencia, Sarah Boschung, Andres Deik, Harini Sarva, Jose Cabassa, Brooke Johannes, Deborah Raymond, Karen Marder, Nir Giladi, Joan Miravite, William Severt, Rivka Sachdev, Vicki Shanker, Susan Bressman, Rachel Saunders-Pullman
Mutations in GBA1 are a well-established risk factor for Parkinson disease (PD). GBA-associated PD (GBA-PD) may have a higher burden of nonmotor symptoms than idiopathic PD (IPD). We sought to characterize the relationship between GBA-PD and neuropsychiatric symptoms. Subjects were screened for common GBA1 mutations. GBA-PD (n=31) and non-carrier (IPD; n=55) scores were compared on the Unified Parkinson Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS), Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), and the State-Trait Anxiety Index (STAI)...
November 15, 2016: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
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