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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156684/a-prenatal-interruption-of-disc1-function-in-the-brain-exhibits-a-lasting-impact-on-adult-behaviors-brain-metabolism-and-interneuron-development
#1
Dazhi Deng, Chongdong Jian, Ling Lei, Yijing Zhou, Colleen McSweeney, Fengping Dong, Yilun Shen, Donghua Zou, Yonggang Wang, Yuan Wu, Limin Zhang, Yingwei Mao
Mental illnesses like schizophrenia (SCZ) and major depression disorder (MDD) are devastating brain disorders. The SCZ risk gene, disrupted in schizophrenia 1 (DISC1), has been associated with neuropsychiatric conditions. However, little is known regarding the long-lasting impacts on brain metabolism and behavioral outcomes from genetic insults on fetal NPCs during early life. We have established a new mouse model that specifically interrupts DISC1 functions in NPCs in vivo by a dominant-negative DISC1 (DN-DISC1) with a precise temporal and spatial regulation...
October 17, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156419/segmentation-of-the-hippocampus-by-transferring-algorithmic-knowledge-for-large-cohort-processing
#2
Benjamin Thyreau, Kazunori Sato, Hiroshi Fukuda, Yasuyuki Taki
The hippocampus is a particularly interesting target for neuroscience research studies due to its essential role within the human brain. In large human cohort studies, bilateral hippocampal structures are frequently identified and measured to gain insight into human behaviour or genomic variability in neuropsychiatric disorders of interest. Automatic segmentation is performed using various algorithms, with FreeSurfer being a popular option. In this manuscript, we present a method to segment the bilateral hippocampus using a deep-learned appearance model...
November 10, 2017: Medical Image Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156414/schizophrenia-heterogeneity-revisited-clinical-cognitive-and-psychosocial-correlates-of-statistically-derived-negative-symptoms-subgroups
#3
Anthony O Ahmed, Gregory P Strauss, Robert W Buchanan, Brian Kirkpatrick, William T Carpenter
Traditional efforts to delineate the clinical heterogeneity of schizophrenia have been unsuccessful because of the absence of a valid, stable, and meaningful subtyping scheme. A clinically-informed nosology supported by multivariate statistical classification methods may provide a better approach for classifying schizophrenia. The goals of the current study were to 1) use multivariate classification methods to validate a clinical subtyping scheme based on the profile of negative symptoms; and 2) following validation to contrast the statistically-derived subgroups to ascertain distinguishing demographic, clinical, cognitive, and functional characteristics...
November 12, 2017: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155802/investigation-of-common-low-frequency-and-rare-genome-wide-variation-in-anorexia-nervosa
#4
L M Huckins, K Hatzikotoulas, L Southam, L M Thornton, J Steinberg, F Aguilera-McKay, J Treasure, U Schmidt, C Gunasinghe, A Romero, C Curtis, D Rhodes, J Moens, G Kalsi, D Dempster, R Leung, A Keohane, R Burghardt, S Ehrlich, J Hebebrand, A Hinney, A Ludolph, E Walton, P Deloukas, A Hofman, A Palotie, P Palta, F J A van Rooij, K Stirrups, R Adan, C Boni, R Cone, G Dedoussis, E van Furth, F Gonidakis, P Gorwood, J Hudson, J Kaprio, M Kas, A Keski-Rahonen, K Kiezebrink, G-P Knudsen, M C T Slof-Op 't Landt, M Maj, A M Monteleone, P Monteleone, A H Raevuori, T Reichborn-Kjennerud, F Tozzi, A Tsitsika, A van Elburg, D A Collier, P F Sullivan, G Breen, C M Bulik, E Zeggini
Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a complex neuropsychiatric disorder presenting with dangerously low body weight, and a deep and persistent fear of gaining weight. To date, only one genome-wide significant locus associated with AN has been identified. We performed an exome-chip based genome-wide association studies (GWAS) in 2158 cases from nine populations of European origin and 15 485 ancestrally matched controls. Unlike previous studies, this GWAS also probed association in low-frequency and rare variants. Sixteen independent variants were taken forward for in silico and de novo replication (11 common and 5 rare)...
July 25, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155278/mecp2-expression-in-a-rat-model-of-risky-decision-making
#5
Jay V Deng, Caitlin A Orsini, Kristy G Shimp, Barry Setlow
Many neuropsychiatric disorders are associated with abnormal decision making involving risk of punishment, but the underlying molecular basis remains poorly understood. Methyl CpG-binding Protein 2 (MeCP2) is an epigenetic factor that regulates transcription by directly binding to methylated DNA. Here, we evaluated MeCP2 expression in the context of risk-taking behaviors using the Risky Decision-making Task (RDT), in which rats make discrete choices between a small "safe" food reward and a large "risky" food reward accompanied by varying probabilities of punishment...
November 16, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154858/visuospatial-function-predicts-one-week-motor-skill-retention-in-cognitively-intact-older-adults
#6
Jennapher Lingo VanGilder, Caitlin Rose Hengge, Kevin Duff, Sydney Yoshie Schaefer
Motor learning declines with aging, such that older adults retain less motor skill after practice compared to younger adults. However, it remains unclear if these motor learning declines are related to normal cognitive changes associated with aging. The purpose of this study was to examine which cognitive domains would best predict the amount of retention on a motor task one week after training in cognitively intact older adults. Twenty-one adults ages 65 to 84 years old were assessed with Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status, which assesses five cognitive domains (immediate and delayed memory, visuospatial/constructional, language, and attention)...
November 14, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154567/faces-and-facets-the-variability-of-emotion-recognition-in-psychopathy-reflects-its-affective-and-antisocial-features
#7
Artemis Igoumenou, Catherine J Harmer, Min Yang, Jeremy W Coid, Robert D Rogers
Psychopathy consists of a constellation of affective-interpersonal features including lack of empathy, callousness, manipulativeness and interpersonal charm, impulsiveness and irresponsibility. Despite its theoretical and predictive value in forensic contexts, the relationships between the psychometric dimensions of psychopathy, including its antisocial features, and the construct's neuropsychological characteristics remain uncertain. In this study, 685 personality-disordered prisoners with histories of serious violent or sexual offenses were assessed for psychopathy before completing a computerized and well-validated assessment of the ability to recognize emotional expressions in the face...
November 2017: Journal of Abnormal Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154368/precision-medicine-in-alcohol-dependence-a-controlled-trial-testing-pharmacotherapy-response-among-reward-and-relief-drinking-phenotypes
#8
Karl Mann, Corey R Roos, Sabine Hoffmann, Helmut Nakovics, Tagrid Leménager, Andreas Heinz, Katie Witkiewitz
Randomized trials of medications for alcohol dependence (AD) often report no differences between active medications. Few studies in AD have tested hypotheses regarding which medication will work best for which patients (ie, precision medicine). The PREDICT Study tested acamprosate and naltrexone versus placebo in 426 randomly assigned AD patients in a 3-month treatment. PREDICT proposed individuals whose drinking was driven by positive reinforcement (ie, reward drinkers) would have a better treatment response to naltrexone, whereas individuals whose drinking was driven by negative reinforcement (ie, relief drinkers) would have a better treatment response to acamprosate...
November 20, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154367/effects-of-amphetamine-on-sensorimotor-gating-and-neurocognition-in-antipsychotic-medicated-schizophrenia-patients
#9
Neal R Swerdlow, Savita G Bhakta, Jo A Talledo, Daniel M Franz, Erica L Hughes, Brinda K Rana, Gregory A Light
Prepulse inhibition (PPI) of startle is being explored both as an indicator of target engagement for, and a biomarker predicting sensitivity to, pro-cognitive effects of drugs. We now report the effects of the pro-attentional drug, d-amphetamine, on PPI and neurocognition in antipsychotic-medicated schizophrenia patients and healthy subjects (HS) who were also tested in a targeted cognitive training (TCT) module. 44 HS and 38 schizophrenia patients completed a double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study of the effects of a single dose of amphetamine (10 mg po) on PPI and MATRICS Consensus Cognitive Battery (MCCB) performance; TCT results were previously reported from 60 of these subjects...
November 20, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154366/generalization-of-conditioned-auditory-fear-is-regulated-by-maternal-effects-on-ventral-hippocampal-synaptic-plasticity
#10
Huy-Bin Nguyen, Carine Parent, Yiu Chung Tse, Tak Pan Wong, Michael J Meaney
Maternal care shapes individual differences in fear-associated neural circuitry. In rats, maternal licking and grooming (LG) in early life regulates ventral hippocampal (VH) function and plasticity in adulthood, but its consequent effect on the regulation of fear memories remains unknown. We report an effect of maternal care on generalization of learned fear, such that offspring of high LG mothers express generalized fear responses when confronted with neutral stimuli following auditory fear conditioning. These animals simultaneously display a reduction in the magnitude of VH-LTP expressed and reduced input-output transformation in Schaffer Collateral synapses...
November 20, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154365/is-neural-processing-of-negative-stimuli-altered-in-addiction-independent-of-drug-effects-findings-from-drug-na%C3%A3-ve-youth-with-internet-gaming-disorder
#11
Sarah W Yip, James J Gross, Megha Chawla, Shan-Shan Ma, Xing-Hui Shi, Lu Liu, Yuan-Wei Yao, Lei Zhu, Patrick D Worhunsky, Jintao Zhang
Difficulties in emotion regulation are commonly reported among individuals with alcohol and drug addictions and contribute to the acquisition and maintenance of addictive behaviors. Alterations in neural processing of negative affective stimuli have further been demonstrated among individuals with addictions. However, it is unclear whether these alterations are a general feature of addictions or are a result of prolonged exposure to drugs-of-abuse. To test the hypothesis of altered negative affect processing independent of drug effects, this study assessed neural function among drug-naïve youth with a behavioral addiction-Internet gaming disorder (IGD)...
November 20, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154364/non-contingent-exposure-to-amphetamine-in-adolescence-recruits-mir-218-to-regulate-dcc-expression-in-the-vta
#12
Santiago Cuesta, José Maria Restrepo-Lozano, Steven Silvestrin, Dominique Nouel, Angélica Torres-Berrio, Lauren M Reynolds, Andreas Arvanitogiannis, Cecilia Flores
The development of the dopamine input to the medial prefrontal cortex occurs during adolescence and is a process that is vulnerable to disruption by stimulant drugs such as amphetamine. We have previously linked the amphetamine-induced disruption of dopamine connectivity and prefrontal cortex maturation during adolescence to the downregulation of the Netrin-1 receptor, DCC, in dopamine neurons. However, how DCC expression in dopamine neurons is itself regulated is completely unknown. MicroRNA (miRNA) regulation of mRNA translation and stability is a prominent mechanism linking environmental events to changes in protein expression...
November 20, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154275/association-of-cerebrospinal-fluid-csf-insulin-with-cognitive-performance-and-csf-biomarkers-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#13
Stefan L C Geijselaers, Pauline Aalten, Inez H G B Ramakers, Peter Paul De Deyn, Annemieke C Heijboer, Huiberdina L Koek, Marcel G M OldeRikkert, Janne M Papma, Fransje E Reesink, Lieke L Smits, Coen D A Stehouwer, Charlotte E Teunissen, Frans R J Verhey, Wiesje M van der Flier, Geert Jan Biessels
BACKGROUND: Abnormal insulin signaling in the brain has been linked to Alzheimer's disease (AD). OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) insulin levels are associated with cognitive performance and CSF amyloid-β and Tau. Additionally, we explore whether any such association differs by sex or APOE ɛ4 genotype. METHODS: From 258 individuals participating in the Parelsnoer Institute Neurodegenerative Diseases, a nationwide multicenter memory clinic population, we selected 138 individuals (mean age 66±9 years, 65...
November 16, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154273/association-between-%C3%AE-klotho-and-deep-white-matter-lesions-in-the-brain-a-pilot-case-control-study-using-brain-mri
#14
Nagato Kuriyama, Etsuko Ozaki, Toshiki Mizuno, Masafumi Ihara, Shigeto Mizuno, Teruhide Koyama, Daisuke Matsui, Isao Watanabe, Kentaro Akazawa, Kazuo Takeda, Akihiro Takada, Masaaki Inaba, Shinsuke Yamada, Koka Motoyama, Wakiko Takeshita, Komei Iwai, Kanae Hashiguchi, Daiki Kobayashi, Masaki Kondo, Aiko Tamura, Kei Yamada, Masanori Nakagawa, Yoshiyuki Watanabe
BACKGROUND: The anti-aging protein, α-Klotho, may be involved in cognitive decline and has potential as a surrogate marker that reflects dementia. However, the role of α-Klotho in the brain has not been sufficiently investigated. OBJECTIVE: Here, we investigated the association between α-Klotho and cognitive decline that is associated with cerebral deep white matter lesions (DWMLs). METHODS: Two hundred-eighty participants (187 males and 93 females, mean age: 70...
November 16, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154148/the-relationship-between-executive-functions-and-emotion-regulation-in-females-attending-therapeutic-community-treatment-for-substance-use-disorder
#15
Ely M Marceau, Peter J Kelly, Nadia Solowij
BACKGROUND: Difficulties in emotion regulation influence the development of substance use disorder (SUD), its severity, course, treatment outcomes, and relapse. Impaired executive functions (EFs) are common in SUD populations and may relate to emotion dysregulation. The current study tested whether performance on three basic EF tasks ('working memory', 'inhibition', and 'task-switching') and/or inventory-based assessment of EF were related to difficulties in emotion regulation in females attending residential SUD therapeutic community treatment...
November 12, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153599/lps-induced-cortical-kynurenic-acid-and-neurogranin-nfat-signaling-is-associated-with-deficits-in-stimulus-processing-during-pavlovian-conditioning
#16
A Oliveros, K Wininger, J Sens, M K Larsson, X C Liu, S Choi, A Faka, L Schwieler, G Engberg, S Erhardt, D S Choi
The N-Methyl-d-Aspartate receptor (NMDAR) antagonist kynurenic acid (KYNA) and the post-synaptic calmodulin binding protein neurogranin (Nrgn) have been implicated in neurological and neuropsychiatric conditions including Alzheimer's disease and schizophrenia. This study indicates that systemic dual-lipopolysaccharide (LPS) injections increases KYNA in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), which is accompanied with increased phosphorylation of nuclear factor kappa chain of activated B cells (NFκB) and activation of the nuclear factor of activated T- cells (NFAT)...
December 15, 2017: Journal of Neuroimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153386/new-normative-data-from-the-spanish-language-version-of-the-repeatable-battery-for-the-assessment-of-neuropsychological-status-rbans-form-a
#17
S Muntal, E Doval, D Badenes, L Casas-Hernanz, N Cerulla, N Calzado, M Aguilar
INTRODUCTION: The Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status (RBANS) is frequently used in clinical practice to evaluate cognitive function. It is quick to administer (20-30minutes) and is not influenced by a learning effect. The RBANS includes 4 parallel versions and has a high discriminative ability. Our study provides normative data from the RBANS-E (Spanish-language version of RBANS form A) for a Spanish population aged 20 to 89 years. METHODS: The study included 609 subjects aged 20 to 89 years...
November 15, 2017: Neurología: Publicación Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Neurología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152902/the-genetics-of-human-personality
#18
REVIEW
Sandra Sanchez-Roige, Joshua C Gray, James K MacKillop, Chi-Hua Chen, Abraham A Palmer
Personality traits are the relatively enduring patterns of thoughts, feelings, and behaviors that reflect the tendency to respond in certain ways under certain circumstances. Twin and family studies have demonstrated that personality traits are moderately heritable, and can predict various lifetime outcomes, including psychopathology. The Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) characterizes psychiatric diseases as extremes of normal tendencies, including specific personality traits. This implies that heritable variation in personality traits, such as neuroticism, would share a common genetic basis with psychiatric diseases, such as major depressive disorder (MDD)...
November 20, 2017: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152901/broad-spectrum-of-neuropsychiatric-phenotypes-associated-with-white-matter-disease-in-pten-hamartoma-tumor-syndrome
#19
Tugce B Balci, Jorge Davila, Denice Lewis, Addo Boafo, Erick Sell, Julie Richer, Sarah M Nikkel, Christine M Armour, Eva Tomiak, Matthew A Lines, Sarah L Sawyer
White matter lesions have been described in patients with PTEN hamartoma tumor syndrome (PHTS). How these lesions correlate with the neurocognitive features associated with PTEN mutations, such as autism spectrum disorder (ASD) or developmental delay, has not been well established. We report nine patients with PTEN mutations and white matter changes on brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), eight of whom were referred for reasons other than developmental delay or ASD. Their clinical presentations ranged from asymptomatic macrocephaly with normal development/intellect, to obsessive compulsive disorder, and debilitating neurological disease...
November 20, 2017: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part B, Neuropsychiatric Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152666/neuroanatomical-background-and-functional-considerations-for-stereotactic-interventions-in-the-h-fields-of-forel
#20
REVIEW
Clemens Neudorfer, Mohammad Maarouf
The H fields of Forel constitute an intricate neuroanatomical structure that occupies a central position within the posterior subthalamus. Anatomically, it features a dense concentration of fiber bundles including corticofugal, pallidothalamic, cerebellothalamic and other projections that connect functionally relevant areas of the brain. Functionally, the fields of Forel are embedded within the cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical circuit and constitute the main link between the striatopallidal system and the thalamocortical network...
November 20, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
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