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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915474/racial-differences-in-the-diagnosis-and-treatment-of-prostate-cancer
#1
REVIEW
Giuliano Di Pietro, Ganna Chornokur, Nagi B Kumar, Chemar Davis, Jong Y Park
Disparities between African American and Caucasian men in prostate cancer (PCa) diagnosis and treatment in the United States have been well established, with significant racial disparities documented at all stages of PCa management, from differences in the type of treatment offered to progression-free survival or death. These disparities appear to be complex in nature, involving biological determinants as well as socioeconomic and cultural aspects. We present a review of the literature on racial disparities in the diagnosis of PCa, treatment, survival, and genetic susceptibility...
November 2016: International Neurourology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915326/bilateral-total-cataract-after-laser-treatment-of-aggressive-posterior-retinopathy-of-prematurity
#2
Parijat Chandra, Sudarshan Khokhar, Atul Kumar
BACKGROUND: Laser is the gold standard for treatment of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP). CASE CHARACTERISTICS: A preterm baby born at 26 weeks gestation age with bilateral aggressive posterior ROP had bilateral total cataract after laser treatment. OUTCOME: Uneventful cataract surgery. MESSAGE: Aggressive laser treatment in aggressive posterior ROP can rarely lead to anterior segment ischemia and cataract.
November 7, 2016: Indian Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915325/possible-role-of-sildenafil-citrate-in-the-recurrence-of-neovascularization-in-laser-regressed-aggressive-posterior-rop
#3
Chaitra Jayadev, Phanibhushan Ramasastry, Alia Gul, Anand Vinekar
BACKGROUND: Systemic diseases and their treatment influence aggressive posterior retinopathy of prematurity. CASE CHARACTERISTICS: A premature infant with aggressive posterior retinopathy of prematurity underwent laser treatment with a favourable outcome. She was started on oral sidenafil citrate for pulmonary hypertension. Ten days later she developed neovascularization within the lasered retina. INTERVENTION/OUTCOME: Considering the possible role of sildenafil in this unusual development, the drug was withdrawn resulting in regression of the neovascularization...
November 7, 2016: Indian Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915075/building-the-case-for-a-novel-teleost-model-of-non-breeding-aggression-and-its-neuroendocrine-control
#4
Laura Quintana, Lucía Zubizarreta, Cecilia Jalabert, Gervasio Batista, Rossana Perrone, Ana Silva
In vertebrates, aggression has been traditionally associated with high levels of circulating androgens in breeding males. Nevertheless, the centrality of androgens as primary modulators of aggression is being reconsidered in at least in two particular cases: 1) territorial aggression outside the breeding season, and 2) aggression by females. We are developing the weakly electric fish, Gymnotus omarorum, as a novel, advantageous model system to address these two alternative forms of aggression. This species displays a short, escalated contest, after which a clear hierarchical status emerges...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Physiology, Paris
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914879/what-can-animal-research-tell-us-about-the-link-between-androgens-and-social-competition-in-humans
#5
REVIEW
Matthew J Fuxjager, Brian C Trainor, Catherine A Marler
The relationship between androgenic hormones, like testosterone (T), and aggression is extensively studied in human populations. Yet, while this work has illuminated a variety of principals regarding the behavioral and phenotypic effects of T, it is also hindered by inherent limitations of performing research on people. In these instances, animal research can be used to gain further insight into the complex mechanisms by which T influences aggression. Here, we explore recent studies on T and aggression in numerous vertebrate species, although we focus primarily on males and on a New World rodent called the California mouse (Peromyscus californicus)...
November 30, 2016: Hormones and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914870/co-occurrence-and-predictors-of-three-commonly-occurring-behavioral-symptoms-in-dementia-agitation-aggression-and-rejection-of-care
#6
Scott Seung W Choi, Chakra Budhathoki, Laura N Gitlin
OBJECTIVE: To investigate co-occurrences of agitation, aggression, and rejection of care in community-dwelling families living with dementia. METHODS: Cross-sectional, secondary analysis from a randomized controlled trial testing a nonpharmacological intervention to reduce behavioral symptoms. We examined frequency of occurrence of presenting behaviors at baseline and their combination. Omnibus tests compared those exhibiting combinations of behaviors on contributory factors...
November 3, 2016: American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914862/neurotensin-regulation-induces-overexpression-and-activation-of-egfr-in-hcc-and-restores-response-to-erlotinib-and-sorafenib
#7
Zherui Wu, Antoine Galmiche, Jin Liu, Nicolas Stadler, Dominique Wendum, Evelyne Segal-Bendirdjian, Valerie Paradis, Patricia Forgez
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the third leading cause of death from cancer due to the combination of late diagnosis and a lack of curative treatments. The identification of factors which promote tumor aggressiveness, and those that predict treatment responses, are a means to optimize the management of HCC patients. The complex of Neurotensin (NTS) and its high affinity receptor (NTSR1) has been shown to induce tumor growth and metastasis process in various cancers. In this paper, we propose that NTS and NTSR1 can assist in the management of HCC...
November 30, 2016: Cancer Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914787/elevation-of-yap-promotes-the-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition-and-tumor-aggressiveness-in-colorectal-cancer
#8
Hsiang-Hsi Ling, Chih-Chia Kuo, Bo-Xing Lin, Yen-Hua Huang, Cheng-Wei Lin
Tumor metastasis is the leading cause of death in cancer patients. Identifying metastatic biomarkers in tumor cells would help cancer diagnoses and the development of therapeutic targets. Yes-associated protein (YAP) plays an important role in organ development and has gained much attention in tumorigenesis. However, the role of YAP and the underlying mechanism in tumor metastasis of colorectal cancer (CRC) is still unclear. In this study, we generated metastatic 116-LM cells from the HCT116 CRC cell line. We found that the capacity for tumor aggressiveness was elevated in 116-LM cells and identified that YAP and its mRNA level were upregulated in 116-LM cells...
November 30, 2016: Experimental Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914759/fluid-management-in-patients-with-trauma-restrictive-versus-liberal-approach
#9
REVIEW
Lee Palmer
Massive hemorrhage remains a major cause of traumatic deaths. The ideal fluid resuscitative strategy is much debated. Research has provided inconsistent results regarding which fluid strategy is ideal; the optimum fluid type, timing, and volume remains elusive. Aggressive large-volume resuscitation has been the mainstay based on controlled hemorrhage animal models. For uncontrolled hemorrhagic shock, liberal fluid resuscitative strategies exacerbate the lethal triad, invoke resuscitative injury, and increase mortality while more restrictive fluid strategies tend to ameliorate trauma-induced coagulopathy and favor a greater chance of survival...
December 1, 2016: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Small Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914687/braf-nras-kit-tert-gnaq-gna11-mutation-profile-analysis-of-head-and-neck-mucosal-melanomas-a-study-of-42-cases
#10
Şule Öztürk Sari, İsmaİl Yilmaz, Orhun Çiğ Taşkin, Gİzem Narli, Fatma Şen, Şenol Çomoğlu, Pinar Firat, Bİlge Bİlgİç, Dİlek Yilmazbayhan, Yasemİn Özlük, Nesİmİ Büyükbabanİ
Head and neck mucosal melanoma (HNMuM), which occurs mostly in the sinonasal and oral cavity, constitutes less than 1% of all malignant melanomas. Treatment options fail to improve the prognosis of this aggressive tumour that has low overall survival rates. Thus, development of new targeted therapies is essential. Unfortunately, limited data exist regarding their molecular profile. BRAF, NRAS, KIT, TERT and GNAQ/GNA11 oncogene mutations were investigated in 42 HNMuMs (28 sinonasal, 13 oral, 1 nasopharyngeal)...
November 30, 2016: Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914261/reducing-implant-loss-rates-in-immediate-breast-reconstructions
#11
L Darragh, A Robb, C M Hardie, S McDonald, P Valand, J M O'Donogue
UK best practice guidelines for oncoplastic breast reconstruction were published in 2012. Implant-based reconstruction quality indicator (QI) targets for readmission, return to theatre and implant loss rates were set at 5% by 3 months, along with guidance to achieve these targets. The aims of this study were to quantify complication rates following implant-based reconstruction before and after the implementation of the guidelines. A retrospective audit of 86 patients with 106 implants in the 12 months to June 2013 was performed, C1...
November 30, 2016: Breast: Official Journal of the European Society of Mastology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914248/the-difficult-lives-of-individuals-with-bipolar-disorder-a-review-of-functional-outcomes-and-their-implications-for-treatment
#12
REVIEW
Michael J Gitlin, David J Miklowitz
BACKGROUND: Most longitudinal or treatment studies in bipolar disorder have used symptomatic or syndromal status as the primary outcome variable. More recently, psychosocial functioning has been highlighted as a key domain of outcome. Patients with bipolar disorder appear to be impaired in all functional domains, although the factors that cause impairment have not been clearly specified. METHODS: This paper reviews cross-sectional and longitudinal studies on functional impairment and its relationship to symptomatic, neurocognitive, personality, and stress variables in bipolar disorder; and the implications of these relationships for defining treatment targets...
November 22, 2016: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914228/osteoblastic-extraosseous-osteosarcoma-of-the-neck
#13
Andro Košec, Majda Vučić, Vladimir Bedeković, Mirko Ivkić
Extraosseous osteosarcoma as a primary tumor of the neck is exceedingly rare, with only a few cases reported to date. The most appropriate therapy is still under investigation. We report a case of an aggressive, right-sided, advanced-stage extraosseous osteosarcoma in a female patient. A 48-year-old woman presented with a right-sided infra-parotid mass encompassing neck regions II and III, measuring over 6 cm in craniocaudal diameter. She was initially treated by wide surgical resection. The definitive histopathologic diagnosis was osteoblastic extraosseous osteosarcoma...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913999/the-role-of-her2-egfr-and-other-receptor-tyrosine-kinases-in-breast-cancer
#14
Jennifer L Hsu, Mien-Chie Hung
Breast cancer affects approximately 1 in 8 women, and it is estimated that over 246,660 women in the USA will be diagnosed with breast cancer in 2016. Breast cancer mortality has decline over the last two decades due to early detection and improved treatment. Over the last few years, there is mounting evidence to demonstrate the prominent role of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) in tumor initiation and progression, and targeted therapies against the RTKs have been developed, evaluated in clinical trials, and approved for many cancer types, including breast cancer...
December 2, 2016: Cancer Metastasis Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913542/new-therapies-for-hemophilia
#15
Steven W Pipe
Individuals with severe hemophilia have benefitted from 5 decades of advances that have led to widespread availability of safe and efficacious factors VIII and IX, a multidisciplinary integrated care model through a network of specialized hemophilia treatment centers, and aggressive introduction of prophylactic replacement therapy to prevent bleeding and preserve joint health. Yet, there are remaining challenges and treatment gaps which have prevented complete abrogation of all joint bleeding, and progressive joint deterioration may continue in some affected individuals over the course of a lifetime...
December 2, 2016: Hematology—the Education Program of the American Society of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913510/frontline-therapy-and-role-of-high-dose-consolidation-in-mantle-cell-lymphoma
#16
Simon Rule
Mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) is a rare and aggressive form of non-Hodgkin lymphoma. It is predominantly a disease of older individuals, with a median age at presentation of ∼70 years. For the majority of patients, the management revolves around immuno-chemotherapy often followed by maintenance rituximab, and at relapse, a range of options are available. For the younger patient, it is possible to be more intensive with therapy, consolidate responses with high-dose procedures, and in a few there might be the prospect of a cure...
December 2, 2016: Hematology—the Education Program of the American Society of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913503/diffuse-large-b-cell-lymphoma-r-chop-failure-what-to-do
#17
Bertrand Coiffier, Clémentine Sarkozy
Although rituximab plus cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone (R-CHOP) is the standard treatment for patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), ∼30% to 50% of patients are not cured by this treatment, depending on disease stage or prognostic index. Among patients for whom R-CHOP therapy fails, 20% suffer from primary refractory disease (progress during or right after treatment) whereas 30% relapse after achieving complete remission (CR). Currently, there is no good definition enabling us to identify these 2 groups upon diagnosis...
December 2, 2016: Hematology—the Education Program of the American Society of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913491/prognostic-factors-in-follicular-lymphoma-new-tools-to-personalize-risk
#18
Carla Casulo
Follicular lymphoma (FL) is the most common indolent lymphoma, and it has a long median overall survival (OS). However, the recent discovery of clinical and biological prognostic biomarkers in FL is shedding light on FL heterogeneity and the need for a precise and risk-stratified individual approach at diagnosis and relapse. Many FL patients who are asymptomatic with indolent disease can be vulnerable to the toxicity, emotional distress, and financial burden of overtreatment. Yet a subset of FL patients develop chemoresistance to standard chemoimmunotherapy, experience transformation to aggressive lymphoma and rapid progression, and represent the population most in need of novel therapies and curative approaches...
December 2, 2016: Hematology—the Education Program of the American Society of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913457/treatment-of-blastic-plasmacytoid-dendritic-cell-neoplasm
#19
Jill M Sullivan, David A Rizzieri
Blastic plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasm (BPDCN) is a rare myeloid malignancy with no defined standard of care. BPDCN presents most commonly with skin lesions with or without extramedullary organ involvement before leukemic dissemination. As a result of its clinical ambiguity, differentiating BPDCN from benign skin lesions or those of acute myeloid leukemia with leukemia cutis is challenging. BPDCN is most easily defined by the phenotype CD4(+)CD56(+)CD123(+)lineage(-)MPO(-), although many patients will present with variable expression of CD4, CD56, or alternate plasmacytoid markers, which compounds the difficulty in differentiating BPDCN from other myeloid or lymphoid malignancies...
December 2, 2016: Hematology—the Education Program of the American Society of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912977/functional-outcomes-in-hirschsprung-disease-a-single-institution-s-12-year-experience
#20
Hemanshoo S Thakkar, Christopher Bassett, Andy Hsu, Riccardo Manuele, Dorothy Kufeji, Catherine A Richards, Meena Agrawal, Alireza S Keshtgar
AIMS: Hirschsprung disease (HD) is a chronic condition associated with long-term morbidity. We assessed the short and long-term functional outcomes of operated patients in a single institution over a 12-year period. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted a retrospective review of all children operated for HD between 2002 and 2014. Postoperative functional outcomes were assessed using the Rintala Bowel Function Score (BFS, 0-20, 20=best score). We assessed hospital admissions, complications including Hirschsprung associated enterocolitis (HAEC) and the need for further surgical procedures...
November 14, 2016: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
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