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monodomain model

Martín Fló, Mariana Margenat, Leonardo Pellizza, Martín Graña, Rosario Durán, Adriana Báez, Emilio Salceda, Enrique Soto, Beatriz Alvarez, Cecilia Fernández
We previously reported a multigene family of monodomain Kunitz proteins from Echinococcus granulosus (EgKU-1-EgKU-8), and provided evidence that some EgKUs are secreted by larval worms to the host interface. In addition, functional studies and homology modeling suggested that, similar to monodomain Kunitz families present in animal venoms, the E. granulosus family could include peptidase inhibitors as well as channel blockers. Using enzyme kinetics and whole-cell patch-clamp, we now demonstrate that the EgKUs are indeed functionally diverse...
February 13, 2017: PLoS Pathogens
Benjamin L Schwartz, Munish Chauhan, Rosalind J Sadleir
Presented here is a model of neural tissue in a conductive medium stimulated by externally injected currents. The tissue is described as a conductively isotropic bidomain, i.e. comprised of intra and extracellular regions that occupy the same space, as well as the membrane that divides them, and the injection currents are described as a pair of source and sink points. The problem is solved in three spatial dimensions and defined in spherical coordinates [Formula: see text]. The system of coupled partial differential equations is solved by recasting the problem to be in terms of the membrane and a monodomain, interpreted as a weighted average of the intra and extracellular domains...
December 2016: Journal of Mathematical Neuroscience
Yu Xia, Elaine Lee, Hao Hu, Mohamed Amine Gharbi, Daniel A Beller, Eva-Kristina Fleischmann, Randall D Kamien, Rudolf Zentel, Shu Yang
Controlling the molecular alignment of liquid crystal monomers (LCMs) within nano- and microstructures is essential in manipulating the actuation behavior of nematic liquid crystal elastomers (NLCEs). Here, we study how to induce uniformly vertical alignment of nematic LCMs within a micropillar array to maximize the macroscopic shape change using surface chemistry. Landau-de Gennes numerical modeling suggests that it is difficult to perfectly align LCMs vertically in every pore within a poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) mold with porous channels during soft lithography...
May 18, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Benjamin L Schwartz, Rosalind J Sadleir
The recently increasing role in medical imaging that electrophysiology plays has spurned the need for its quantitative analysis at all scales-ions, cells, tissues, organs, etc.; so, here is presented a model of nerve tissue in a spherical volume excited by a point current source at one pole and a point current sink at the opposite pole. The sphere of tissue is described as an isotropic bidomain, consisting of the intra- and extra-cellular regions and the membrane that separates them, and is immersed in an infinite isotropic conductive bath...
2015: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
Nicole Cusimano, Alfonso Bueno-Orovio, Ian Turner, Kevin Burrage
Space-fractional operators have been used with success in a variety of practical applications to describe transport processes in media characterised by spatial connectivity properties and high structural heterogeneity altering the classical laws of diffusion. This study provides a systematic investigation of the spatio-temporal effects of a space-fractional model in cardiac electrophysiology. We consider a simplified model of electrical pulse propagation through cardiac tissue, namely the monodomain formulation of the Beeler-Reuter cell model on insulated tissue fibres, and obtain a space-fractional modification of the model by using the spectral definition of the one-dimensional continuous fractional Laplacian...
2015: PloS One
Gianmauro Cuccuru, Giorgio Fotia, Fabio Maggio, James Southern
We discuss the application of the spectral element method to the monodomain and bidomain equations describing propagation of cardiac action potential. Models of cardiac electrophysiology consist of a system of partial differential equations coupled with a system of ordinary differential equations representing cell membrane dynamics. The solution of these equations requires solving multiple length scales due to the ratio of advection to diffusion that varies among the different equations. High order approximation of spectral elements provides greater flexibility in resolving multiple length scales...
2015: BioMed Research International
Yong Xia, Kuanquan Wang, Henggui Zhang
Large-scale 3D virtual heart model simulations are highly demanding in computational resources. This imposes a big challenge to the traditional computation resources based on CPU environment, which already cannot meet the requirement of the whole computation demands or are not easily available due to expensive costs. GPU as a parallel computing environment therefore provides an alternative to solve the large-scale computational problems of whole heart modeling. In this study, using a 3D sheep atrial model as a test bed, we developed a GPU-based simulation algorithm to simulate the conduction of electrical excitation waves in the 3D atria...
2015: Computational and Mathematical Methods in Medicine
Qiaoxuan Zhang, Paul J Ackerman, Qingkun Liu, Ivan I Smalyukh
We experimentally realize polydomain and monodomain chiral ferromagnetic liquid crystal colloids that exhibit solitonic and knotted vector field configurations. Formed by dispersions of ferromagnetic nanoplatelets in chiral nematic liquid crystals, these colloidal ferromagnets exhibit spontaneous long-range alignment of magnetic dipole moments of individual platelets, giving rise to a continuum of the magnetization field M(r). Competing effects of surface confinement and chirality prompt spontaneous formation and enable the optical generation of localized twisted solitonic structures with double-twist tubes and torus knots of M(r), which exhibit a strong sensitivity to the direction of weak magnetic fields ∼1  mT...
August 28, 2015: Physical Review Letters
Wouter-Jan Rappel, Junaid A B Zaman, Sanjiv M Narayan
BACKGROUND: Human atrial fibrillation (AF) can terminate after ablating localized regions, which supports the existence of localized rotors (spiral waves) or focal drivers. However, it is unclear why ablation near a spiral wave tip would terminate AF and not anchor reentry. We addressed this question by analyzing competing mechanisms for AF termination in numeric simulations, referenced to clinical observations. METHODS AND RESULTS: Spiral wave reentry was simulated in monodomain 2-dimensional myocyte sheets using clinically realistic rate-dependent values for repolarization and conduction...
December 2015: Circulation. Arrhythmia and Electrophysiology
Kevin P Vincent, Matthew J Gonzales, Andrew K Gillette, Christopher T Villongco, Simone Pezzuto, Jeffrey H Omens, Michael J Holst, Andrew D McCulloch
Computational modeling of tissue-scale cardiac electrophysiology requires numerically converged solutions to avoid spurious artifacts. The steep gradients inherent to cardiac action potential propagation necessitate fine spatial scales and therefore a substantial computational burden. The use of high-order interpolation methods has previously been proposed for these simulations due to their theoretical convergence advantage. In this study, we compare the convergence behavior of linear Lagrange, cubic Hermite, and the newly proposed cubic Hermite-style serendipity interpolation methods for finite element simulations of the cardiac monodomain equation...
2015: Frontiers in Physiology
Martin A Rossotti, Andrés González-Techera, Julio Guarnaschelli, Lucia Yim, Ximena Camacho, Marcelo Fernández, Pablo Cabral, Carmen Leizagoyen, José A Chabalgoity, Gualberto González-Sapienza
Recombinant single domain antibodies (nanobodies) constitute an attractive alternative for the production of neutralizing therapeutic agents. Their small size warrants rapid bioavailability and fast penetration to sites of toxin uptake, but also rapid renal clearance, which negatively affects their performance. In this work, we present a new strategy to drastically improve the neutralizing potency of single domain antibodies based on their fusion to a second nanobody specific for the complement receptor CD11b/CD18 (Mac-1)...
2015: MAbs
Vincent Jacquemet
This paper presents the mathematical formulation, the numerical validation and several illustrations of a forward-modeling approach based on dipole-current sources to compute the contribution of a part of the heart to the electrocardiogram (ECG). Clinically relevant applications include identifying in the ECG the contributions from the right and the left atrium. In a Courtemanche-based monodomain computer model of the atria and torso, 1000 dipoles distributed throughout the atrial mid-myocardium are found to be sufficient to reproduce body surface potential maps with a relative error <1% during both sinus rhythm and atrial fibrillation...
October 1, 2015: Computers in Biology and Medicine
Ernesto Pérez-Rueda, Silvia Tenorio-Salgado, Alejandro Huerta-Saquero, Yalbi I Balderas-Martínez, Gabriel Moreno-Hagelsieb
Motivated by the experimental evidences accumulated in the last ten years and based on information deposited in RegulonDB, literature look up, and sequence analysis, we analyze the repertoire of 304 DNA-binding Transcription factors (TFs) in Escherichia coli K-12. These regulators were grouped in 78 evolutionary families and are regulating almost half of the total genes in this bacterium. In structural terms, 60% of TFs are composed by two-domains, 30% are monodomain, and 10% three- and four-structural domains...
October 2015: Computational Biology and Chemistry
Yves Coudière, Jacques Henry, Simon Labarthe
Numerical simulations of the cardiac electrophysiology in the atria are often based on the standard bidomain or monodomain equations stated on a two-dimensional manifold. These simulations take advantage of the thinness of the atrial tissue, and their computational cost is reduced, as compared to three-dimensional simulations. However, these models do not take into account the heterogeneities located in the thickness of the tissue, like discontinuities of the fiber direction, although they can be a substrate for atrial arrhythmia (Hocini et al...
December 2015: Journal of Mathematical Biology
Christopher T Villongco, David E Krummen, Paul Stark, Jeffrey H Omens, Andrew D McCulloch
Patient-specific computational models have promise to improve cardiac disease diagnosis and therapy planning. Here a new method is described to simulate left-bundle branch block (LBBB) and RV-paced ventricular activation patterns in three dimensions from non-invasive, routine clinical measurements. Activation patterns were estimated in three patients using vectorcardiograms (VCG) derived from standard 12-lead electrocardiograms (ECG). Parameters of a monodomain model of biventricular electrophysiology were optimized to minimize differences between the measured and computed VCG...
August 2014: Progress in Biophysics and Molecular Biology
Antonio J Martín-Galiano, José Yuste, María I Cercenado, Adela G de la Campa
BACKGROUND: The major Gram-positive coccoid pathogens cause similar invasive diseases and show high rates of antimicrobial resistance. Uncharacterised proteins shared by these organisms may be involved in virulence or be targets for antimicrobial therapy. RESULTS: Forty four uncharacterised proteins from Streptococcus pneumoniae with homologues in Enterococcus faecalis and/or Staphylococcus aureus were selected for analysis. These proteins showed differences in terms of sequence conservation and number of interacting partners...
2014: BMC Genomics
Christopher J Arthurs, Martin J Bishop, David Kay
We present an application of high order hierarchical finite elements for the efficient approximation of solutions to the cardiac monodomain problem. We detail the hurdles which must be overcome in order to achieve theoretically-optimal errors in the approximations generated, including the choice of method for approximating the solution to the cardiac cell model component. We place our work on a solid theoretical foundation and show that it can greatly improve the accuracy in the approximation which can be achieved in a given amount of processor time...
May 20, 2012: Journal of Computational Physics
Pras Pathmanathan, Richard A Gray
For computational models of cardiac activity to be used in safety-critical clinical decision-making, thorough and rigorous testing of the accuracy of predictions is required. The field of 'verification, validation and uncertainty quantification' has been developed to evaluate the credibility of computational predictions. The first stage, verification, is the evaluation of how well computational software correctly solves the underlying mathematical equations. The aim of this paper is to introduce novel methods for verifying multi-cellular electro-physiological solvers, a crucial first stage for solvers to be used with confidence in clinical applications...
May 2014: International Journal for Numerical Methods in Biomedical Engineering
Alejandro Lopez Rincon, Mostafa Bendahmane, Bedreddine Ainseba
The inverse problem in electrocardiography is to reconstruct the voltage in the surface of the heart, using a high density electrocardiogram. This problem is usually solved using regularization techniques, which tend to give the minimum energy response in a static scheme. In our work, we propose to calculate a dynamic inverse solution using the Monodomain as a model of electrical heart activity, thus constraining the family of solutions to one that satisfies the model.
2013: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
Edward Vigmond, Simon Labarthe, Hubert Cochet, Yves Coudiere, Jacques Henry, Pierre Jais
Atrial fibrillation is the most commonly encountered clinical arrhythmia. Despite recent advances in treatment by catheter ablation, its origin is still incompletely understood and it may be difficult to treat. Computer modelling offers an attractive complement to experiment. Simulations of fibrillation, however, are computationally demanding since the phenomenon requires long periods of observation. Because the atria are thin walled structures, they are often modelled as surfaces. However, this may not always be appropriate as the crista terminalis and pectinate muscles are discrete fibrous structures lying on the endocardium and cannot be incorporated into the surface...
2013: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
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