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organ transplantation and dentistry

H S Wassif
Law and ethics is an integral part of medical and dental professional practice. The subject is touched upon in the undergraduate curriculum. Historically, dentists interested in postgraduate study in this subject have accessed courses on medical law and ethics. While there are areas of shared interest (for example, consent, confidentiality) there are differences in emphasis and content (for example, end of life care, organ transplants, etc) which are not relevant to dentistry. A new postgraduate certificate (PgCert) course was approved by the University of Bedfordshire designed specifically for dental practitioners, making it the only university accredited course in the UK that is specific to dental staff...
August 14, 2015: British Dental Journal
Ana Maria Carmona-Ribeiro, Letícia Dias de Melo Carrasco
Peptides in general hold much promise as a major ingredient in novel supramolecular assemblies. They may become essential in vaccine design, antimicrobial chemotherapy, cancer immunotherapy, food preservation, organs transplants, design of novel materials for dentistry, formulations against diabetes and other important strategical applications. This review discusses how novel formulations may improve the therapeutic index of antimicrobial peptides by protecting their activity and improving their bioavailability...
2014: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Concetta Ferretti, Monica Mattioli-Belmonte
Periosteum is a thin fibrous layer that covers most bones. It resides in a dynamic mechanically loaded environment and provides a niche for pluripotent cells and a source for molecular factors that modulate cell behaviour. Elucidating periosteum regenerative potential has become a hot topic in orthopaedics. This review discusses the state of the art of osteochondral tissue engineering rested on periosteum derived progenitor cells (PDPCs) and suggests upcoming research directions. Periosteal cells isolation, characterization and migration in the site of injury, as well as their differentiation, are analysed...
July 26, 2014: World Journal of Stem Cells
Honoka Kiso, Katsu Takahashi, Kazuyuki Saito, Yumiko Togo, Hiroko Tsukamoto, Boyen Huang, Manabu Sugai, Akira Shimizu, Yasuhiko Tabata, Aris N Economides, Harold C Slavkin, Kazuhisa Bessho
Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are highly conserved signaling molecules that are part of the transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta superfamily, and function in the patterning and morphogenesis of many organs including development of the dentition. The functions of the BMPs are controlled by certain classes of molecules that are recognized as BMP antagonists that inhibit BMP binding to their cognate receptors. In this study we tested the hypothesis that USAG-1 (uterine sensitization-associated gene-1) suppresses deciduous incisors by inhibition of BMP-7 function...
2014: PloS One
Dale M Corrigan, Mary P Walker, Ying Liu, Tanya Villalpando Mitchell
The purpose of this study was to identify predictors and/or factors associated with medically compromised patients seeking dental care in the oncology dental support clinic (ODSC) at the University of Missouri-Kansas City (UMKC) School of Dentistry. An 18-item survey was mailed to 2,541 patients who were new patients to the clinic from 2006 to 2011. The response rate was approximately 18% (n = 450). Analyses included descriptive statistics of percentages/frequencies as well as predictors based on correlations...
May 2014: Special Care in Dentistry
Shivani Mathur, Rahul Chopra, I K Pandit, Nikhil Srivastava, Neeraj Gugnani
In the face of extraordinary advances in the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of human diseases, the inability of most tissues and organs to repair and regenerate after damage is a problem that needs to be solved. Stem cell research is being pursued in the hope of achieving major medical breakthroughs. Scientists are striving to create therapies that rebuild or replace damaged cells with tissues grown from stem cells that will offer hope to people suffering from various ailments. Regeneration of damaged periodontal tissue, bone, pulp, and dentin is a problem that dentists face today...
March 2014: International Journal of Oral & Maxillofacial Implants
Mea A Weinberg, Stuart L Segelnick, Lawrence B Kay, Vinay Nair
Communication between the organ transplant team and dentist is important in formulating individualized care plans to reduce the incidence of pre- and post-transplant complications. Periodontal diseases and other oral infections may present serious risks that could compromise the success of a solid organ transplant. This article reviews why dentistry is an important component of total transplant care while the patient is on the waiting list for a transplant and after the transplantation. Recommendations regarding the care of the organ transplant patient are given...
November 2013: New York State Dental Journal
H C Slavkin
Today, and looking to the future, scientific discoveries from cellular, developmental and molecular biology inform our understanding of cell, tissue and organ morphogenesis as exemplified in skin, bone, cartilage, dentine, enamel, muscle, nerve and many organs such as salivary glands and teeth. Present day biomedical science yields principles for the biomimetic design and fabrication of cells, tissues and organs. Bioengineering has become a strategy that can 'mimic' biological processes, and inform clinical procedures for tissue and organ replacements...
June 2014: Australian Dental Journal
Marina M Steindorff, Helena Lehl, Andreas Winkel, Meike Stiesch
In recent years, scientists in almost every medical sector moved the focus to tissue transplantation and stem cell-based therapies for organ and tissue regeneration. In dentistry, it is of great interest in this regard to restore natural teeth with the help of stem cell-based regeneration of soft tissues and hard tooth structures. Many studies have been published in which structures resembling teeth were constructed using stem cells. In most of these studies, carrier materials (scaffolds) were used, which were colonized with cells and then implanted into an animal...
February 2014: Archives of Oral Biology
C Ramu, T V Padmanabhan
Antibiotics are frequently used in dental practice. Clinical and bacteriological epidemiological factors determine the indications of antibiotics in dentistry. Antibiotics are used in addition to appropriate treatment to aid the host defences in the elimination of remaining bacteria. It is indicated when there is evidence of clinical sign involvement and spread of infection. Antibiotics are prescribed in dental practice for treating odontoge nic infections, non-odontogenic infections, as prophylaxis against focal and local infection...
September 2012: Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine
Vishakha Grover, Anoop Kapoor, Ranjan Malhotra, Sonia Sachdeva
Although bone allografts are being widely used in dentistry, many of clinicians appear to be unfamiliar with their preparation and processing as well as their use as safe and effective graft materials. The major concerns associated with these materials are antigenicity and risk of disease transmission from donor to recipient. To minimize this risk, the production of an allograft worthy of distribution and implantation requires strict attention to detail through a comprehensive process. With an increasing clinical requirement for bone grafting procedures, there is a commensurate increase in patients' demands for assurance that bank bone will not be infected with pathogens...
May 2011: Indian Journal of Dental Research: Official Publication of Indian Society for Dental Research
Bülend Inanç, Y Murat Elçin
The accelerated pace of research in the stem cell field in recent decades and the accumulated body of knowledge has spurred the interest in potential clinical applications of stem cells in all branches of medicine including regenerative dentistry. In humans, embryonic and adult stem cells are two major groups of cells that can serve as a donor source in tissue engineering strategies based on ex-vivo cellular expansion. It has been shown that adult stem cell populations are present in all examined living tissues of the organism, thus being a crucial source of tissue homeostasis and regeneration, and offering a target population for in situ stimulation of extensive tissue regeneration...
September 2011: Stem Cell Reviews
Johannes K-H Meier, Daniel Wolff, Steve Pavletic, Hildegard Greinix, Martin Gosau, Hartmut Bertz, Stefanie J Lee, Anita Lawitschka, Sharon Elad
Chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD) is a multi-organ disease that occurs post-hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, with the mouth being one of the most frequently affected organs. In 2009, the German-Austrian-Swiss working party on bone marrow and blood stem cell transplantation held a consensus conference to define clinical management of cGVHD. The consensus conference aimed to summarize the literature on diagnosis and topical treatment options for oral cGVHD and to provide recommendations for clinical practice, including routine dental and oral care as well as monitoring for secondary malignancies and bisphophonate-induced osteonecrosis of the jaw...
April 2011: Clinical Oral Investigations
Maria do Carmo Guimarães, Shirley Martins de Farias, Ana Maria Costa, Rivadávio Fernandes de Amorim
PURPOSE: The objective of the present study was to emphasise the oral and dental findings of a male patient with the Maroteaux-Lamy syndrome who successfully underwent bone marrow transplantation (BMT) at the age of 22 months. CASE REPORT: A 15-year-old boy was referred to the Dentistry Division of the Catholic University of Brasília, Brazil, for dental diagnosis. General characteristics of the Maroteaux-Lamy syndrome, such as a large head, a short neck, corneal opacity, an open mouth with macroglossia, enlargement of the skull and a long anteroposterior dimension, were observed...
2010: Oral Health & Preventive Dentistry
Reinoud J Klijn, Gert J Meijer, Ewald M Bronkhorst, John A Jansen
BACKGROUND: To date, no studies have been published that evaluated histomorphometric data from a large number of patients while comparing different sites and methods of autologous bone grafting in sinus floor augmentation procedures. A meta-analysis of the English literature from January 1995 till April 2009 was carried out. MATERIALS AND METHODS: PubMed search engine and the following journals were explored: Clinical Oral Implant Research, International Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Implants, International Journal of Periodontics and Restorative Dentistry, and the Journal of Periodontology...
June 2010: Tissue Engineering. Part B, Reviews
Margarida Figueiredo, Jose Henriques, Gabriela Martins, Fernando Guerra, Fernando Judas, Helena Figueiredo
The present work focuses on the physicochemical characterization of selected mineral-based biomaterials that are frequently used in dental applications. The selected materials are commercially available as granules from different biological origins: bovine, porcine, and coralline. Natural and calcined human bone were used for comparison purposes. Besides a classical rationalization of chemical composition and crystallinity, a major emphasis was placed on the measurement of various morphostructural properties such as particle size, porosity, density, and specific surface area...
February 2010: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part B, Applied Biomaterials
M K Bharti, S C Reddy, I Tajunisah, N A M Ali
Four hundred (400) students studying first year Medicine, Dentistry, Laboratory Technology, Pharmacy, Biomedicine and Bioengineering degree courses in the University of Malaya were assessed on their awareness and knowledge on eye donation using an open ended questionnaire. The majority of the students (344, 86%) in this study were aware about eye donation; the awareness was higher in biomedical (77.1%) and medical students (76.7%) compared to the others (55.9%-70.7%). One hundred and eight students (27%) were willing to donate their eyes...
March 2009: Medical Journal of Malaysia
Ali Hassani, Mohammad Hosein Kalantar Motamedi, Shervin Tabeshfar, Seyed Aliakbar Vahdati
Immediate implantation after extraction is advantageous when clinical circumstances allow it. However, it is often problematic. The most common problem in such cases is confronting bone loss after tooth extraction because of long-standing periodontitis. Although there are many techniques designed to manage these complications, autogenous grafts are considered to be the gold standard in grafting procedures because of their osteoinductive properties. There are many sites from which to harvest bone for grafting procedures, each possessing advantages and disadvantages...
August 2009: Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
Parimala Tyagi, Manpreet Kaur Dhindsa
Tissue engineering is a novel and highly exciting field of research. With tissue engineering techniques it may be possible to repair damaged tissues or even create replacement organs. This article reviews the principles underlying key tissue engineering strategies and the typical components used. Examples of tissue engineering include passive approaches, such as dental implants, and inductive approaches, in which specific molecular signals are used to activate cells.
April 2009: Indian Journal of Dental Research: Official Publication of Indian Society for Dental Research
Dan Holtzclaw, Nicholas Toscano, Lisa Eisenlohr, Don Callan
BACKGROUND: Recent media reports concerning "stolen body parts" have shaken the public's trust in the safety of and the use of ethical practices involving human allografts. The authors provide a comprehensive review of the safety aspects of human bone allografts. METHODS: The authors reviewed U.S. government regulations, industry standards, independent industry association guidelines, company guidelines and scientific articles related to the use of human bone allografts in the practice of dentistry published in the English language...
September 2008: Journal of the American Dental Association
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