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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666980/epidemiology-of-uveitis-in-a-us-population-based-study
#1
Marta Mora González, Marissé Masís Solano, Travis C Porco, Catherine E Oldenburg, Nisha R Acharya, Shan C Lin, Matilda F Chan
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study is to assess the relationship between self-reported uveitis and purported demographic and clinical risk factors, using an American adult population extracted from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) for the years 2009 and 2010. This is a cross-sectional, population-based study using a sample of 5106 subjects between 20 and 69 years old. The main outcome for our study was the self-report of a diagnosis of uveitis. The demographic analysis included age, gender, and ethnicity...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Ophthalmic Inflammation and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666202/nutritional-role-of-amniotic-fluid-clues-from-infants-with-congenital-obstruction-of-the-digestive-tract
#2
Nigel J Hall, Melanie Drewett, David Burge
AIMS: To investigate the role played by amniotic fluid in late fetal nutrition by analysis of infants born with digestive tract atresia. METHODS: Birth weight (BW), gestational age and gender of infants born with oesophageal (OA), duodenal (DA), jejunal (JA) and ileal atresia (IA) were recorded and BW Z-scores compared. Infants with incomplete obstruction (stenosis), chromosomal or syndromic conditions and multiple congenital malformations were excluded. Term infants admitted with suspected postnatal intestinal obstruction in whom no congenital malformation was found were used as a control group...
April 17, 2018: Archives of Disease in Childhood. Fetal and Neonatal Edition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665131/autophagy-and-its-implications-against-early-full-nutrition-support-in-critical-illness
#3
Lisa Van Dyck, Michaël P Casaer, Jan Gunst
The timing, dose, and route of early nutrition support in critically ill patients have been highly controversial for years. Despite the association of a caloric deficit with adverse outcome, several recent large, randomized, controlled trials have demonstrated a prolongation of organ failure and increased muscle weakness with increasing doses of nutrition in the acute phase of critical illness. A potential explanation for the negative impact of early, full feeding on outcome is feeding-induced suppression of autophagy, a cellular repair process that is necessary to clear intracellular damage...
April 17, 2018: Nutrition in Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665061/contracting-for-care-the-construction-of-the-farrier-role-in-supporting-horse-owners-to-prevent-laminitis
#4
J Lynden, J Ogden, T Hollands
BACKGROUND: Emerging research highlights how, due to demographic changes in horse owner populations in Western societies, complex owner-horse relationships are leading to inappropriate horse care, including over-nutrition, which in turn can lead to laminitis. Farriers, due to their regular visits, may be in a position to support owners in dealing with this problem. OBJECTIVES: This study explored whether UK farriers have a role in working with horse owners to support horse welfare and prevent laminitis...
April 17, 2018: Equine Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665003/the-inside-tract-the-appendicular-cecal-and-colonic-microbiome-of-captive-aye-ayes
#5
Lydia K Greene, Erin A McKenney
OBJECTIVES: The aye-aye (Daubentonia madagascariensis) is famous for its feeding strategies that target structurally defended, but high-quality resources. Nonetheless, the influence of this digestible diet on gut microbial contributions to aye-aye metabolism and nutrition remains unexplored. When four captive aye-ayes were unexpectedly lost to persin toxicity, we opportunistically collected samples along the animals' gastrointestinal tracts. Here we describe the diversity and composition of appendicular, cecal, and colonic consortia relative to the aye-aye's unusual feeding ecology...
April 17, 2018: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664498/-hypophosphatemia-in-preterm-infants-a-bimodal-disorder
#6
María Paz Cubillos Celis, Patricia Mena Nannig
New nutritional approaches to treat extreme premature babies have demonstrated relevant eviden ce of metabolic disturbances with early hypophosphatemia, especially in patients with intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). They have shown late hypophosphatemia, as well, which is characteristic in the metabolic bone disease. A sytematic search of literature describing metabolic disturbances of phosphorus in preterm newborns is presented, related to the use of early parenteral nutrition and also in the context of metabolic bone disease...
February 2018: Revista Chilena de Pediatría
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664132/dialium-seed-coprophagy-in-wild-western-gorillas-multiple-nutritional-benefits-and-toxicity-reduction-hypotheses
#7
Shelly Masi, Thomas Breuer
Unraveling the relationship between the unusual feeding behaviors and the nutritional intake of endangered species may provide crucial information for understanding species response to habitat unpredictable changes. Primates occasionally re-ingest fruit seeds alongside ingestion of feces, a behavior called coprophagy. The nutritional benefit is one of the several non-mutual exclusive hypotheses proposed to explain this behavior. We investigated the ecological correlates of coprophagy in wild western gorillas...
April 17, 2018: American Journal of Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661852/integrated-transcriptomic-and-proteomic-analyses-suggest-the-participation-of-endogenous-protease-inhibitors-in-the-regulation-of-protease-gene-expression-in-helicoverpa-armigera
#8
Purushottam R Lomate, Veena Dewangan, Neha Mahajan, Yashwant Kumar, Abhijeet Kulkarni, Li Wang, Smita Saxsena, Vidya S Gupta, Ashok P Giri
Insects adapt to plant protease inhibitors (PIs) present in their diet by differentially regulating multiple digestive proteases. However, mechanisms regulating protease gene expression in insects are largely enigmatic. Ingestion of multi-domain recombinant Capsicum annuum protease inhibitor-7 (CanPI-7) arrests growth and development of Helicoverpa armigera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Using de novo RNA sequencing and proteomic analysis, we examined the response of H. armigera larvae fed on recombinant CanPI-7 at different time intervals...
April 16, 2018: Molecular & Cellular Proteomics: MCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661801/anti-ca15-3-and-anti-ca125-antibodies-and-ovarian-cancer-risk-results-from-the-epic-cohort
#9
Daniel W Cramer, Raina N Fichorova, Kathryn L Terry, Hidemi S Yamamoto, Allison F Vitonis, Eva Ardanaz, Dagfinn Aune, Heiner Boeing, Jenny Brändstedt, Marie-Christine Boutron-Ruault, Maria-Dolores Chirlaque, Miren Dorronsoro, Laure Dossus, Eric J Duell, Inger T Gram, Marc J Gunter, Louise Hansen, Annika Idahl, Theron Johnson, Kay-Tee Khaw, Vittorio Korgh, Marina Kvaskoff, Amalia Mattiello, Giuseppe Matullo, Melissa A Merritt, Björn Nodin, N Charlotte Onland-Moret, Philippos Orfanos, Domenico Palli, Eleni Peppa, J Ramón Quirós, Maria-José Sànchez-Pérez, Gianluca Severi, Ruth C Travis, Antonia Trichopoulou, Rosario Tumino, Elisabete Weiderpass, Renée Turzanski Fortner, Rudolf Kaaks
BACKGROUND: Neoplastic and non-neoplastic events may raise levels of mucins, CA15.3 and CA125, and generate antibodies against them; but their impact on epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) risk has not been fully defined. METHODS: CA15.3, CA125, and IgG1 antibodies against them were measured in 806 women who developed EOC and 1,927 matched controls from the European Prospective Investigation of Nutrition and Cancer. Associations between epidemiologic factors and anti-mucin antibodies were evaluated using generalized linear models; EOC risks associated with anti-mucin antibodies, by themselves or in combination with respective antigens, were evaluated using conditional logistic regression...
April 16, 2018: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661582/parents-preferences-for-interventions-to-improve-childhood-immunization-uptake-in-northern-nigeria
#10
Sachiko Ozawa, Mo Zhou, Chizoba Wonodi, Hui-Han Chen, John F P Bridges
BACKGROUND: Routine childhood immunization coverage has been low in northern Nigeria. While local authorities and international partners have been working hard to improve coverage, population preferences for interventions have not been documented. This study aimed to understand parents' preferences and identify possible interventions to improve uptake of childhood immunization. METHODS: Preferences for immunization interventions were elicited using a best-worst scaling (BWS) instrument among parents with children under five...
April 13, 2018: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661446/multivisceral-transplantation-rehabilitation-program-case-report
#11
T M Loschi, M P R G Cinacchi, M D T A Baccan, F Marques, P T Pedroso, S P Meira Filho, T Scacchetti, D N Pavão
Multivisceral transplantation is the treatment for multiple abdominal organ failure. The patient experiences reduced food intake and absorption of nutrients, contributing to weight loss and decreased muscle mass, reducing functional capacity. A physical and nutritional rehabilitation program based on adequate caloric intake associated with supervised physical exercise seems to support a gain of muscle mass, re-establishing its capacity and functional independence. A rehabilitation program was carried out, consisting of low-intensity aerobic exercise on treadmill, exercises of global strengthening (50% of 1 maximum repetition [1RM], with progressive increase), and nutritional monitoring (oral hypercaloric diet, hyperproteic supplementation daily and after exercise)...
April 2018: Transplantation Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661290/factors-affecting-the-caloric-and-protein-intake-over-time-in-critically-ill-trauma-patients
#12
Tobias Haltmeier, Kenji Inaba, Beat Schnüriger, Stefano Siboni, Elizabeth Benjamin, Lydia Lam, Damon Clark, Demetrios Demetriades
BACKGROUND: Major trauma leads to increased nutritional requirements. However, little is known about the actual amount of calories and protein administered and the factors affecting the intake over time in critically ill trauma patients. METHODS: Prospective study including 100 trauma patients admitted to the Los Angeles County + University of Southern California Medical Center intensive care unit between March 2014 and October 2014. Inclusion criteria were age > 16 y, surgery at admission, and no oral nutrition...
June 2018: Journal of Surgical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660804/nutritional-stress-reduces-flight-performance-and-exploratory-behavior-in-a-butterfly
#13
Elisabeth Reim, Danny Eichhorn, Jan D Roy, Philip O M Steinhoff, Klaus Fischer
Anthropogenic global change, including agricultural intensification and climate change, poses a substantial challenge to many herbivores due to a reduced availability of feeding resources. The concomitant food stress is expected to detrimentally affect performance, amongst others in dispersal-related traits. Thus, while dispersal is of utmost importance to escape from deteriorating habitat conditions, such conditions may negatively feedback on the ability to do so. Therefore, we here investigate the impact of larval and adult food stress on traits related to dispersal ability, including morphology, physiology, flight performance, and exploratory behavior, in a butterfly...
April 16, 2018: Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659694/nutritional-genomics-and-direct-to-consumer-genetic-testing-an-overview
#14
Marta Guasch-Ferré, Hassan S Dashti, Jordi Merino
The increasing prevalence in polygenic diseases, such as obesity, cardiovascular disease, and type 2 diabetes, observed over the past few decades is more likely linked to a rapid transition in lifestyle rather than to changes in the sequence of the nuclear genome. In the new era of precision medicine, nutritional genomics holds the promise to be translated into tailored nutritional strategies to prevent and manage polygenic diseases more effectively. Nutritional genomics aims to prevent, treat, and manage polygenic diseases through targeted therapies formulated from individuals' genetic makeup and dietary intake...
March 1, 2018: Advances in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659684/%C3%AF-3-fatty-acids-impaired-fetal-growth-and-cardiovascular-risk-nutrition-as-precision-medicine
#15
Michael R Skilton
Precision medicine refers to treatment or prevention strategies in a group of individuals identified by their phenotype or genotype. Dietary components or patterns may play an important role in precision medicine. There is emerging evidence to support a role for n-3 (ω-3) fatty acids in lowering blood pressure and reducing the extent of subclinical atherosclerosis in people born with impaired fetal growth, a group at increased risk of coronary artery disease partly due to an increased risk of hypertensive disorders...
March 1, 2018: Advances in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29658187/overview-of-intensive-care-unit-related-physical-and-functional-impairments-and-rehabilitation-related-devices
#16
REVIEW
Katie Koester, Heidi Troeller, Sara Panter, Emily Winter, Jayshil J Patel
Rehabilitation after critical illness requires a multidisciplinary effort. Nutrition support of critically ill patients aims to correct the imbalance between protein synthesis and protein degradation to maximize strengthening and muscle mass, whereas physical and occupational therapists focus on optimizing strength and mobility through functional activity to help intensive care (ICU) patients return to their precritical illness level of function and improve quality of life. Early mobility has become the new standard of care for ICU patients...
April 2018: Nutrition in Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656913/faith-activity-and-nutrition-randomized-dissemination-and-implementation-study-countywide-adoption-reach-and-effectiveness
#17
Sara Wilcox, Ruth P Saunders, Andrew T Kaczynski, Melinda Forthofer, Patricia A Sharpe, Cheryl Goodwin, Margaret Condrasky, Vernon L Kennedy, Danielle E Jake-Schoffman, Deborah Kinnard, Brent Hutto
INTRODUCTION: Faith-based organizations can contribute to improving population health, but few dissemination and implementation studies exist. This paper reports countywide adoption, reach, and effectiveness from the Faith, Activity, and Nutrition dissemination and implementation study. DESIGN: This was a group-randomized trial. Data were collected in 2016. Statistical analyses were conducted in 2017. SETTING/PARTICIPANTS: Churches in a rural, medically underserved county in South Carolina were invited to enroll, and attendees of enrolled churches were invited to complete questionnaires (n=1,308 participated)...
April 9, 2018: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656825/parenteral-nutrition-for-preterm-infants-issues-and-strategy
#18
D Darmaun, A Lapillonne, U Simeoni, J-C Picaud, J-C Rozé, E Saliba, A Bocquet, J-P Chouraqui, C Dupont, F Feillet, M-L Frelut, J-P Girardet, D Turck, A Briend
Due to transient gut immaturity, most very preterm infants receive parenteral nutrition (PN) in the first few weeks of life. Yet providing enough protein and energy to sustain optimal growth in such infants remains a challenge. Extrauterine growth restriction is frequently observed in very preterm infants at the time of discharge from hospital, and has been found to be associated with later impaired neurodevelopment. A few recent randomized trials suggest that intensified PN can improve early growth; whether or not such early PN improves long-term neurological outcome is still unclear...
April 12, 2018: Archives de Pédiatrie: Organe Officiel de la Sociéte Française de Pédiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656381/cowpea-an-overview-on-its-nutritional-facts-and-health-benefits
#19
REVIEW
Chathuni Jayathilake, Rizliya Visvanathan, Afka Deen, Ruksheela Bangamuwage, Barana C Jayawardana, Srinivas Nammi, Ruvini Liyanage
Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) is a legume consumed as a high-quality plant protein source in many parts of the world. High protein and carbohydrate contents with relatively low fat content and complementary amino acid pattern to that of cereal grains make cowpea an important nutritional food in the human diet. Cowpea has gained more attention recently from consumers and researchers worldwide due to its exerted health beneficial properties including anti-diabetic, anti-cancer, anti-hyperlipidemic, anti-inflammatory and anti-hypertensive properties...
April 15, 2018: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656109/bile-acids-are-important-direct-and-indirect-regulators-of-the-secretion-of-appetite-and-metabolism-regulating-hormones-from-the-gut-and-pancreas
#20
Rune E Kuhre, Nicolai J Wewer Albrechtsen, Olav Larsen, Sara L Jepsen, Emilie Balk-Møller, Daniel B Andersen, Carolyn F Deacon, Kristina Schoonjans, Frank Reimann, Fiona M Gribble, Reidar Albrechtsen, Bolette Hartmann, Mette M Rosenkilde, Jens J Holst
OBJECTIVE: Bile acids (BAs) facilitate fat absorption and may play a role in glucose and metabolism regulation, stimulating the secretion of gut hormones. The relative importance and mechanisms involved in BA-stimulated secretion of appetite and metabolism regulating hormones from the gut and pancreas is not well described and was the purpose of this study. METHODS: The effects of bile acids on the secretion of gut and pancreatic hormones was studied in rats and compared to the most well described nutritional secretagogue: glucose...
March 17, 2018: Molecular Metabolism
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