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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922103/hypothalamic-activation-is-essential-for-endotoxemia-induced-acute-muscle-wasting
#1
Kaipeng Duan, Qiyi Chen, Minhua Cheng, Chenyan Zhao, Zhiliang Lin, Shanjun Tan, Fengchan Xi, Tao Gao, Jialiang Shi, Juanhong Shen, Weiqin Li, Wenkui Yu, Jieshou Li, Ning Li
Growing evidence suggests acute skeletal muscle wasting is a key factor affecting nutritional support and prognosis in critical patients. Previously, plenty of studies of muscle wasting focused on the peripheral pathway, little was known about the central role. We tested the hypothesis whether central inflammatory pathway and neuropeptides were involved in the process. In lipopolysaccharide (LPS) treated rats, hypothalamic NF-κB pathway and inflammation were highly activated, which was accompanied with severe muscle wasting...
December 6, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921381/cost-analysis-of-the-treatment-of-severe-acute-malnutrition-in-west-africa
#2
Sheila Isanaka, Nicolas A Menzies, Jessica Sayyad, Mudasiru Ayoola, Rebecca F Grais, Stéphane Doyon
We present an updated cost analysis to provide new estimates of the cost of providing community-based treatment for severe acute malnutrition, including expenditure shares for major cost categories. We calculated total and per child costs from a provider perspective. We categorized costs into three main activities (outpatient treatment, inpatient treatment, and management/administration) and four cost categories within each activity (personnel; therapeutic food; medical supplies; and infrastructure and logistical support)...
December 5, 2016: Maternal & Child Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921358/low-methoxyl-lemon-pectin-attenuates-inflammatory-responses-and-improves-intestinal-barrier-integrity-in-caerulein-induced-experimental-acute-pancreatitis
#3
Yajun Sun, Yue He, Fei Wang, Hao Zhang, Paul de Vos, Jia Sun
SCOPE: Acute pancreatitis (AP) is a common clinical acute abdominal disease. The intestinal injury associated with AP will aggravate the condition retroactively. This study investigates whether the low-methoxyl pectin (LMP) isolated from lemon could attenuate AP and associated intestinal injury. METHODS AND RESULTS: Experimental AP was induced in BALB/c mice by caerulien (CAE) hyperstimulation. Nutritional prophylactic group was pre-fed with 5% LMP supplemented forage three days before AP induction...
December 6, 2016: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920641/severe-de-novo-hepatitis-b-recovered-from-late-onset-liver-insufficiency-with-prolonged-ascites-and-hypoalbuminemia-due-to-hepatitis-b-virus-genotype-bj-with-precore-mutation
#4
Akira Sato, Toshiya Ishii, Fumiaki Sano, Takayuki Yamada, Hideaki Takahashi, Nobuyuki Matsumoto
De novo hepatitis B is associated with a high risk of hepatic failure often resulting in fatal fulminant hepatitis even when nucleotide analogues are administered. A 77-year-old female developed de novo hepatitis B after R-CHOP (rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisolone) treatment for diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. Hepatitis B virus (HBV) isolated from the patient was of genotype Bj, with a precore mutation (G1896A) exhibiting an extremely high viral load at the onset of hepatitis...
September 2016: Case Reports in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920542/protective-effect-of-tartary-buckwheat-on-renal-function-in-type-2-diabetics-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#5
Ju Qiu, Zaigui Li, Yuchang Qin, Yanfen Yue, Yanping Liu
Tartary buckwheat (TB) has been reported to be associated with a decreased risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), and T2DM has had a major impact on the development of diabetic kidney disease (DKD). Thus, the hypothesis that a daily intake of TB will improve DKD risk factors, including urinary albumin to creatinine ratio (UACR), urea nitrogen (UN), serum creatinine, and uric acid was tested. In a parallel, randomized, open-label controlled trial, 104 T2DM patients were randomly assigned to a diet control group (systematic diet plans and intensive nutritional education) or a TB intervention group (daily replacement of a portion of staple foods with TB foods)...
2016: Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920297/role-of-ribonucleotide-reductase-on-bacillus-subtilis-stress-associated-mutagenesis
#6
Karla Viridiana Castro-Cerritos, Ronald E Yasbin, Eduardo A Robleto, Mario Pedraza-Reyes
: The Gram-positive microorganism Bacillus subtilis relies on a single class Ib ribonucleotide reductase (RNR) to generate 2' -deoxyribonucleotides (dNDPs) for DNA replication and repair. In this work, we investigated the influence of RNR levels on B. subtilis stationary-phase-associated mutagenesis (SPM). Since RNR is essential in this bacterium, we engineered a conditional mutant in the strain B. subtilis YB955 (hisC952, metB5, leu427) in which expression of the nrdEF operon was modulated by isopropyl-β-D-thiogalactopyranoside (IPTG)...
December 5, 2016: Journal of Bacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919820/tnf-%C3%AE-and-cancer-cachexia-molecular-insights-and-clinical-implications
#7
REVIEW
Hetal J Patel, Bhoomika M Patel
Cancer cachexia characterized by a chronic wasting syndrome, involves skeletal muscle loss and adipose tissue loss and resistance to conventional nutritional support. Cachexia is responsible for the reduction in quality and length of life of cancer patients. It also decreases the muscle strength of the patients. The pro-inflammatory and pro-cachectic factors produced by the tumor cells have important role in genesis of cachexia. A number of pro-inflammatory cytokines, like interleukin-1 (IL-1), IL-6, tumor necrosis factor- alpha (TNF-α) may have important role in the pathological mechanisms of cachexia in cancer...
December 2, 2016: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919768/proximal-femoral-fractures-in-centenarians-a-retrospective-analysis-of-39-patients
#8
A Morice, N Reina, G Gracia, P Bonnevialle, J-M Laffosse, K Wytrykowski, E Cavaignac, N Bonnevialle
BACKGROUND: A corollary of the current population ageing in France is an increase in proximal femoral fractures (PFFs), particularly among centenarians. The outcomes of PFF in centenarians in France are unknown. We therefore conducted a retrospective study of centenarians with PFFs both to assess: 1) assess clinical outcomes according to geriatric and trauma scores, 2) and to determine whether routine surgery is warranted. HYPOTHESIS: Morbidity and mortality in a single-centre cohort of centenarians with surgically treated PFFs are consistent with previous reports...
December 2, 2016: Orthopaedics & Traumatology, Surgery & Research: OTSR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919453/dietary-tartary-buckwheat-intake-attenuates-insulin-resistance-and-improves-lipid-profiles-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#9
Ju Qiu, Yanping Liu, Yanfen Yue, Yuchang Qin, Zaigui Li
Tartary buckwheat (TB) is rich in protein, dietary fiber, and flavonoids and has been reported to affect type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in animal experiments, but limited information on the benefit of TB as a whole food in T2DM patients is available. Thus, we tested the hypothesis that a daily replacement of a portion of the staple food with TB will improve risk factors of T2DM, including fasting glucose, insulin resistance, and lipid profile. In a parallel, randomized, open-label, controlled trial, 165 T2DM patients were randomly assigned to a control diet group (DC group; systematic diet plans and intensive nutritional education) or a TB intervention group (TB group; daily replacement of a portion of staple food with TB food)...
November 17, 2016: Nutrition Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919389/older-patients-use-of-technology-for-a-post-discharge-nutritional-intervention-a-mixed-methods-feasibility-study
#10
T Lindhardt, M H Nielsen
BACKGROUND: Malnutrition is frequent in older people and a precursor for morbidity and hospitalisation; furthermore low intake and weight loss during and after hospitalisation is well-described. Such patients are often excluded from technology projects on account of lack of skills. This is a barrier for their access to many current and future health care offers. OBJECTIVES: To test the acceptability, feasibility and preliminary efficacy of technology-supported energy- and protein-enforced homedelivered meals for older patients discharged from hospital...
January 2017: International Journal of Medical Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919301/the-integration-of-epigenetics-and-genetics-in-nutrition-research-for-cvd-risk-factors
#11
Yiyi Ma, Jose M Ordovas
There is increasing evidence documenting gene-by-environment (G × E) interactions for CVD related traits. However, the underlying mechanisms are still unclear. DNA methylation may represent one of such potential mechanisms. The objective of this review paper is to summarise the current evidence supporting the interplay among DNA methylation, genetic variants, and environmental factors, specifically (1) the association between SNP and DNA methylation; (2) the role that DNA methylation plays in G × E interactions...
December 6, 2016: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918629/new-routes-for-plant-iron-mining
#12
REVIEW
Catherine Curie, Stéphane Mari
I. II. III. IV. References SUMMARY: Plant iron (Fe) uptake relies to a large extent on the capacity of cells to control and extract Fe pools safely conserved in extracytoplasmic environments such as the apoplast and vacuoles, at least as much as on the transport machinery nested in plasma membranes. Recent studies on root and embryo Fe nutrition support this assertion and show that the root Fe-deficiency response also includes the dynamic use of a large Fe reservoir bound to cell wall components in the root apoplast, secretion in the apoplast of phenolic compounds of the coumarin family, which solubilize Fe in calcareous soils, and inhibition of suberization of endodermal cells in order to allow apoplastic and transcellular radial transport of Fe...
December 5, 2016: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917606/generation-of-%C3%AE-lactoglobulin-modified-transgenic-goats-by-homologous-recombination
#13
Hongmei Zhu, Linyong Hu, Jun Liu, Huatao Chen, Chenchen Cui, Yujie Song, Yaping Jin, Yong Zhang
β-Lactoglobulin (BLG) is a dominant allergen present in the milk of goats and other ungulates, although it is not found in human breast milk. Thus, the presence of BLG restricts the consumption of goat's milk by humans. In the present study, we examined whether the disruption of the BLG gene in goats by homologous recombination (HR) reduced BLG content in goat's milk and decreased the allergic response to milk. In one approach, exon 2 of the BLG gene was efficiently targeted using HR with a BLG knockout vector...
December 5, 2016: FEBS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917485/school-wellness-programs-magnitude-and-distribution-in-new-york-city-public-schools
#14
Leanna Stiefel, Brian Elbel, Melissa Pflugh Prescott, Siddhartha Aneja, Amy E Schwartz
BACKGROUND: Public schools provide students with opportunities to participate in many discretionary, unmandated wellness programs. Little is known about the number of these programs, their distribution across schools, and the kinds of students served. We provide evidence on these questions for New York City (NYC) public schools. METHODS: Data on wellness programs were collected from program websites, NYC's Office of School Food and Wellness, and direct contact with program sponsors for 2013...
January 2017: Journal of School Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917468/dry-skin-conditions-are-related-to-the-recovery-rate-of-skin-temperature-after-cold-stress-rather-than-to-blood-flow
#15
Yasuko Yoshida-Amano, Tomoko Nomura, Yoshinori Sugiyama, Kayoko Iwata, Yuko Higaki, Masanori Tanahashi
BACKGROUND: Cutaneous blood flow plays an important role in the thermoregulation, oxygen supply, and nutritional support necessary to maintain the skin. However, there is little evidence for a link between blood flow and skin physiology. Therefore, we conducted surveys of healthy volunteers to determine the relationship(s) between dry skin properties and cutaneous vascular function. METHODS: Water content of the stratum corneum, transepidermal water loss, and visual dryness score were investigated as dry skin parameters...
December 4, 2016: International Journal of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916608/functional-properties-of-hepatocytes-in-vitro-are-correlated-with-cell-polarity-maintenance
#16
Anja Zeigerer, Anne Wuttke, Giovanni Marsico, Sarah Seifert, Yannis Kalaidzidis, Marino Zerial
Exploring the cell biology of hepatocytes in vitro could be a powerful strategy to dissect the molecular mechanisms underlying the structure and function of the liver in vivo. However, this approach relies on appropriate in vitro cell culture systems that can recapitulate the cell biological and metabolic features of the hepatocytes in the liver whilst being accessible to experimental manipulations. Here, we adapted protocols for high-resolution fluorescence microscopy and quantitative image analysis to compare two primary hepatocyte culture systems, monolayer and collagen sandwich, with respect to the distribution of two distinct populations of early endosomes (APPL1 and EEA1-positive), endocytic capacity, metabolic and signaling activities...
December 1, 2016: Experimental Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916337/nutritionday-10-years-of-growth
#17
REVIEW
Karin Schindler, Claude Pichard, Isabella Sulz, Dorothee Volkert, Melanie Streicher, Pierre Singer, Olle Ljungqvist, Andre Van Gossum, Peter Bauer, Michael Hiesmayr
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Despite high prevalence at hospital admission, disease related malnutrition (DRM) remains under recognized and undertreated. DRM is associated with increased morbidity, hospital readmission rate, and burden for the healthcare system. The compelling need to increase awareness and knowledge through an international survey has triggered the launch of the nutritionDay (ND) concept. METHODS: ND is a worldwide annual systematic collection and analysis of data in hospital wards, intensive care units and nursing homes...
November 11, 2016: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916005/malnutrition-in-healthcare-settings-and-the-role-of-gastrostomy-feeding
#18
Matthew Kurien, Jake Williams, David S Sanders
Malnutrition can adversely affect physical and psychological function, influencing both morbidity and mortality. Despite the prevalence of malnutrition and its associated health and economic costs, malnutrition remains under-detected and under-treated in differing healthcare settings. For a subgroup of malnourished individuals, a gastrostomy (a feeding tube placed directly into the stomach) may be required to provide long-term nutritional support. In this review we explore the spectrum and consequences of malnutrition in differing healthcare settings...
December 5, 2016: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915963/kidney-transplant-recipients-requiring-critical-care-admission-within-one-year-of-transplant
#19
Okechukwu O Okidi, David Van Dellen, Cassandra Sobajo, Angela Summers, John R Greer, Titus Augustine
OBJECTIVES: Kidney transplant is the gold standard for treatment of renal failure. With the increasing age of the recipient population, which carries significant comorbidities, and the use of more marginal organs, there is potential for increased critical care admissions. In this study, we investigated the incidence, indications, and outcomes of patients admitted to critical care within 1 year of transplant. We also aimed to identify any precipitating factors or events that may trigger these admissions, as well as establish variables that could affect mortality...
December 2, 2016: Experimental and Clinical Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914922/negative-regulation-of-hepatic-fat-mass-and-obesity-associated-fto-gene-expression-by-insulin
#20
Tooru M Mizuno, Pei San Lew, Yanming Luo, Arnold Leckstrom
AIMS: To investigate the role of glucose and insulin in the regulation of hepatic fat mass and obesity associated (Fto) gene expression and the role of hepatic Fto in the regulation of gluconeogenic gene expression. MAIN METHODS: To determine the effect of hyperglycemia on hepatic Fto expression, levels of Fto mRNA in liver were compared between normoglycemic/normoinsulinemic, hypereglycemic/hyperinsulinemic, and hyperglycemic/hypoinsulinemic mice. To determine the direct effect of insulin on Fto expression, levels of Fto, glucose-6-phosphatase (G6pase), and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (Pepck) mRNA levels were compared between control and insulin-treated mouse liver tissues cultured ex vivo and immortalized mouse hepatocytes AML12...
November 30, 2016: Life Sciences
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