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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218064/non-diabetic-hyperglycemia-and-some-of-its-correlates-in-icu-hospitalized-patients-receiving-enteral-nutrition
#1
Mohammad Amin Valizadeh Hasanloei, Zahra Vahdat Shariatpanahi, Davoud Vahabzadeh, Zakaria Vahabzadeh, Leila Nasiri, Ali Shargh
Introduction: Hyperglycemia is a common occurrence in critically ill patients, and its prevalence in patients receiving nutritional support is much higher than in other patients. The non-diabetic form is associated with more undesirable outcomes. This study was performed to determine the prevalence of non-diabetic hyperglycemia and its correlates in patients receiving enteral nutrition. Material and Methods: This cross-sectional study was performed between March and December 2015...
September 2017: Mædica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217485/developmental-origins-of-adult-health-and-disease-the-metabolic-role-of-bdnf-from-early-life-to-adulthood
#2
REVIEW
Despina D Briana, Ariadne Malamitsi-Puchner
Accumulating evidence suggests that the origins of adult disease may occur during fetal life. Thus, the concept of "developmental programming" has been introduced and supported by epidemiological and experimental data. This concept supports the idea that the nutritional and hormonal status during pregnancy could interfere in metabolism control. The mechanisms responsible for this "developmental programming" remain poorly documented. Current research indicates that neurotrophins and particularly brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) may play a crucial role in this process...
December 4, 2017: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216950/-effect-of-early-enteral-nutrition-standardized-treatment-on-blood-glucose-and-prognosis-in-acute-respiratory-distress-syndrome-patients-with-mechanical-ventilation
#3
Chunmiao Zhong, Chaohui Ji, Zhuquan Dai, Kai Fu, Xiaohong Wen, Huibin Pan
OBJECTIVE: To study the effect of early entreat nutrition (EN) standardized treatment on optimization of blood glucose control and prognosis in acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) patients with mechanical ventilation (MV). METHODS: Forty-two patients with MV of ARDS admitted to Huzhou First Municipal People's Hospital from April 2015 to March 2017 were enrolled. April 1st, 2016 was taken as the time node, the patients treated from April 1st, 2015 to March 31st, 2016 were assigned in the control group (n = 20), while the patients treated from April 1st, 2016 to March 31st, 2017 were included in the experimental group (n = 22)...
December 2017: Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216399/evolution-of-acidic-mammalian-chitinase-genes-chia-is-related-to-body-mass-and-insectivory-in-primates
#4
Mareike C Janiak, Morgan E Chaney, Anthony J Tosi
Insects are an important food resource for many primates, but the chitinous exoskeletons of arthropods have long been considered to be indigestible by the digestive enzymes of most mammals. However, recently mice and insectivorous bats were found to produce the enzyme acidic mammalian chitinase (AMCase) to digest insect exoskeletons. Here, we report on the gene CHIA and its paralogs, which encode AMCase, in a comparative sample of nonhuman primates. Our results show that early primates likely had three CHIA genes, suggesting that insects were an important component of the ancestral primate diet...
December 5, 2017: Molecular Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216020/hydrolyzed-formula-with-reduced-protein-content-supports-adequate-growth-a-randomized-controlled-non-inferiority-trial
#5
Birgit Ahrens, Christian Hellmuth, Nadja Haiden, Dirk Olbertz, Eckard Hamelmann, Milica Vusurovic, Manja Fleddermann, Robert Roehle, Anette Knoll, Berthold Koletzko, Ulrich Wahn, Kirsten Beyer
OBJECTIVE: A high protein content of non-hydrolyzed infant formula exceeding metabolic requirements can induce rapid weight gain and obesity. Hydrolyzed formula with too low protein (LP) content may result in inadequate growth. The aim of this study was to investigate non-inferiority of partial and extensively hydrolyzed formulas (pHF, eHF) with lower hydrolyzed protein content than conventionally, regularly used formulas, with or without synbiotics for normal growth of healthy term infants...
December 5, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215977/early-outcomes-of-state-public-health-actions-school-nutrition-strategies
#6
Seraphine Pitt Barnes, Syreeta Skelton-Wilson, Adina Cooper, Caitlin Merlo, Sarah Lee
INTRODUCTION: Since 2013, the State Public Health Actions to Prevent and Control Diabetes, Heart Disease, Obesity and Associated Risk Factors and Promote School Health (State Public Health Actions) program has been implemented to support and reinforce healthy choices and healthy behaviors among the US population. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Division of Population Health's School Health Branch has been a critical component, ensuring that state health departments support schools in adopting nutrition standards and creating a supportive nutrition environment...
December 7, 2017: Preventing Chronic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215976/supporting-obesity-prevention-in-statewide-quality-rating-and-improvement-systems-a-review-of-state-standards
#7
Nora Ann Geary, Carrie Ann Dooyema, Meredith Ann Reynolds
INTRODUCTION: A quality rating and improvement system (QRIS) is a fundamental component of most states' early care and education infrastructures. States can use a QRIS to set standards that define high-quality care and award child care providers with a quality rating designation based on how well they meet these standards. The objective of this review was to describe the extent to which states' QRIS standards include obesity prevention content. METHODS: We collected publicly available data on states' QRIS standards...
December 7, 2017: Preventing Chronic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215631/which-patients-with-mild-acute-pancreatitis-require-prolonged-hospitalization
#8
Harkirat Singh, Amir Gougol, Rawad Mounzer, Dhiraj Yadav, Efstratios Koutroumpakis, Adam Slivka, David C Whitcomb, Georgios I Papachristou
OBJECTIVES: In our experience, a subset of mild acute pancreatitis (AP) patients, as defined by the Revised Atlanta Classification, has longer than expected hospitalization. Our aims are to report the prevalence of patients with mild AP who have a prolonged length of stay (LOS), evaluate the etiology, thoroughly phenotype, and finally compare this subset to those with expected LOS. METHODS: Patients admitted with AP from 2003 to 2015 were prospectively enrolled into this cohort study...
December 7, 2017: Clinical and Translational Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214975/home-based-health-promotion-for-older-people-with-mild-frailty-the-homehealth-intervention-development-and-feasibility-rct
#9
Kate Walters, Rachael Frost, Kalpa Kharicha, Christina Avgerinou, Benjamin Gardner, Federico Ricciardi, Rachael Hunter, Ann Liljas, Jill Manthorpe, Vari Drennan, John Wood, Claire Goodman, Ana Jovicic, Steve Iliffe
BACKGROUND: Mild frailty or pre-frailty is common and yet is potentially reversible. Preventing progression to worsening frailty may benefit individuals and lower health/social care costs. However, we know little about effective approaches to preventing frailty progression. OBJECTIVES: (1) To develop an evidence- and theory-based home-based health promotion intervention for older people with mild frailty. (2) To assess feasibility, costs and acceptability of (i) the intervention and (ii) a full-scale clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness randomised controlled trial (RCT)...
December 2017: Health Technology Assessment: HTA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214834/source-and-size-of-social-support-network-on-sedentary-behavior-among-older-adults
#10
Paul D Loprinzi, Elizabeth A Crush
PURPOSE: To examine the association of source of social support and size of social support network on sedentary behavior among older adults. DESIGN: Cross-sectional. SETTING: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003 to 2006. PARTICIPANTS: 2519 older adults (60+ years). MEASURES: Sedentary behavior was assessed via accelerometry over a 7-day period. Social support was assessed via self-report...
January 1, 2017: American Journal of Health Promotion: AJHP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214457/gut-microbiota-and-host-juvenile-growth
#11
REVIEW
Martin Schwarzer, Maura Strigini, François Leulier
Good genes, good food, good friends. That is what parents hope will sustain and nurture the harmonious growth of their children. The impact of the genetic background and nutrition on postnatal growth has been in the spot light for long, but the good friends have come to the scene only recently. Among the good friends perhaps the most crucial ones are those that we are carrying within ourselves. They comprise the trillions of microbes that collectively constitute each individual's intestinal microbiota. Indeed, recent epidemiological and field studies in humans, supported by extensive experimental data on animal models, demonstrate a clear role of the intestinal microbiota on their host's juvenile growth, especially under suboptimal nutrient conditions...
December 6, 2017: Calcified Tissue International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214071/is-bronchoscopy-an-obsolete-tool-in-cystic-fibrosis-the-role-of-bronchoscopy-in-cystic-fibrosis-and-its-clinical-use
#12
REVIEW
Lisa Paul
Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a progressive life threatening multisystem genetic disease which affects the CF transmembrane conductance regulator channel. Respiratory causes remain the most common mortality in CF. With the onset of newborn screening, initiating treatments both for prophylaxis and disease management, optimizing nutritional support, and developing therapies targeting CF transmembrane conductance regulator protein, this has significantly changed the face of managing this devastating disease. Bronchoscopy and related procedures such as bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL), transbronchial biopsies, and protected brush sampling have been looked at in the management of CF as patients with CF continue to live longer with the help of newer therapies, the microbiome in the lung becomes less diverse along with increased occurrences for noninfectious causes of airway diseases...
September 2017: Journal of Thoracic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212627/how-do-infant-feeding-apps-in-china-measure-up-a-content-quality-assessment
#13
Jing Zhao, Becky Freeman, Mu Li
BACKGROUND: Globally, with the popularization of mobile phones, the number of health-related mobile phone apps has skyrocketed to 259,000 in 2016. In the digital era, people are accessing health information through their fingertips. In China, there are several apps that claim to provide infant feeding and nutrition guidance. However, the quality of information in those apps has not been extensively assessed. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to assess the quality of Chinese infant feeding apps using comprehensive quality assessment criteria and to explore Chinese mothers' perceptions on apps' quality and usability...
December 6, 2017: JMIR MHealth and UHealth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212501/equity-implications-for-sanitation-from-recent-health-and-nutrition-evidence
#14
EDITORIAL
A A Cronin, M E Gnilo, M Odagiri, S Wijesekera
Recent evidence points to the possible underestimation of the health and nutrition impact of sanitation. Community sanitation coverage may first need to reach thresholds in the order of 60% or higher, to optimize health and nutrition gains. Increasing coverage of sanitation to levels below 60% of community coverage may not result in substantial gains. For example, moving Indonesia from 60% to 100% improved sanitation coverage could significantly reduce diarrhoea in children under 5 years old (by an estimated 24% reduction in odds ratio for child diarrhoea morbidity) with gains split equally by reaching underserved communities and the unserved within communities...
December 6, 2017: International Journal for Equity in Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211716/atmospheric-trace-gases-support-primary-production-in-antarctic-desert-surface-soil
#15
Mukan Ji, Chris Greening, Inka Vanwonterghem, Carlo R Carere, Sean K Bay, Jason A Steen, Kate Montgomery, Thomas Lines, John Beardall, Josie van Dorst, Ian Snape, Matthew B Stott, Philip Hugenholtz, Belinda C Ferrari
Cultivation-independent surveys have shown that the desert soils of Antarctica harbour surprisingly rich microbial communities. Given that phototroph abundance varies across these Antarctic soils, an enduring question is what supports life in those communities with low photosynthetic capacity. Here we provide evidence that atmospheric trace gases are the primary energy sources of two Antarctic surface soil communities. We reconstructed 23 draft genomes from metagenomic reads, including genomes from the candidate bacterial phyla WPS-2 and AD3...
December 6, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211705/a-workshop-on-dietary-sweetness-is-it-an-issue
#16
A Wittekind, K Higgins, L McGale, C Schwartz, N S Stamataki, G K Beauchamp, A Bonnema, P Dussort, S Gibson, C de Graaf, J C G Halford, C F M Marsaux, R D Mattes, J McLaughlin, D J Mela, S Nicklaus, P J Rogers, I A Macdonald
This report summarises a workshop convened by ILSI Europe on 3rd and 4th April 2017 to discuss the issue of dietary sweetness. The objectives were to understand the roles of sweetness in the diet; establish whether exposure to sweetness affects diet quality and energy intake; and consider whether sweetness per se affects health. Although there may be evidence for tracking of intake of some sweet components of the diet through childhood, evidence for tracking of whole diet sweetness, or through other stages of maturity are lacking...
December 6, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29210832/quality-of-caregiving-is-positively-associated-with-neurodevelopment-during-the-first-year-of-life-among-hiv-exposed-uninfected-children-in-uganda
#17
Itziar Familiar, Shalean M Collins, Alla Sikorskii, Horacio Ruisenor-Escudero, Barnabas Natamba, Paul Bangirana, Elizabeth M Widen, Daniel Achidri, Harriet Achola, Daniel Onen, Michael Boivin, Sera L Young
OBJECTIVE: We sought to evaluate if maternal characteristics and infant developmental milieu were predictive of early cognitive development in HIV-exposed uninfected (HEU) and un-exposed uninfected (HU) infants in Uganda. DESIGN: Longitudinal pregnancy study. METHODS: Ugandan women (n=228) were enrolled into the Postnatal Nutrition and Psychosocial Health Outcomes (PostNAPS) study with a 2:1 HIV-uninfected:infected ratio. Maternal socio-demographic, perceived social support, and depressive symptomatology were assessed...
November 27, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29210101/problems-of-dual-vulnerability-in-nutrition-a-qualitative-study-of-older-persons-caring-for-under-5-year-olds-in-post-disaster-haiti
#18
Stephanie Raybould, Thomas Ward, Renée Burnett, Logan Manikam, Mackentoch Tibe, Barry Munslow
SITUATION: Malnutrition plays a significant role in under-five mortality rates following disasters. Older people play an important role in childcare in non-Western societies, which often increases in displacement contexts. Until now, policy, in general, and nutrition programmes, in particular, have focused on the mother-child dyad. AIM: To gather information on possible barriers to older carers accessing nutritional services for the children they care for and explore ways to overcome these obstacles...
December 5, 2017: International Journal of Health Planning and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209506/border-terriers-under-primary-veterinary-care-in-england-demography-and-disorders
#19
Dan G O'Neill, Elisabeth C Darwent, David B Church, Dave C Brodbelt
Background: The Border Terrier is a working terrier type that is generally considered to be a relatively healthy and hardy breed. This study aimed to characterise the demography and common disorders of Border Terriers receiving veterinary care in England using de-identified electronic patient record data within the VetCompass™ Programme. Results: Annual birth proportion for Border Terriers showed a decreasing trend from 1.46% in 2005 to 0.78% in 2014. The median adult bodyweight for males (10...
2017: Canine Genetics and Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208370/design-and-development-of-a-manual-pump-for-bolus-enteral-nutrition
#20
Judit Romano-García, Juan Luis Fernández-Morera
INTRODUCTION: Enteral nutrition (EN) is based on administration of liquid solutions into the gastrointestinal tract using a tube. After identifying unsolved practical difficulties in administration of EN using volume syringes, a new device to overcome such technical difficulties was proposed. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Specific technologies (CAD, 3D printing) were used in collaboration with the PRODINTEC Foundation (Gijón, Asturias). Clarke Modet, a law firm specialized in intellectual property, provided legal advice on formulas for legal protection of the invention...
December 2, 2017: Endocrinología, Diabetes y Nutrición
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