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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336254/effectiveness-of-training-patients-using-dvd-in-the-accurate-use-of%C3%A2-inhalers-for-the-treatment-of-bronchial-asthma
#1
Koichiro Takita, Rieko Kondo, Takahiko Horiguchi
BACKGROUND: Inhalants are the standard treatment for patients with bronchial asthma. Inaccurate inhaler use leads to inadequate therapeutic effects and unnecessary dosage increases. However, it is a challenge for practitioners to master the various devices available and train patients on the accurate use of inhalers. Thus, establishing a system to instruct patients on how to accurately use inhalers is essential. We prepared a DVD and accompanying user manual explaining the operation of each inhaler device used in Japan...
March 20, 2017: Allergology International: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Allergology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334727/discovering-the-relative-efficacy-of-inhaled-medications-for-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-multiple-treatment-comparisons
#2
Ying Zhu, Tong Zhang, Haiyan Li, Yang Yang, Qiong Chen, Lei Kong, Bo Tai
BACKGROUND: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is managed by three major classes of inhaled medications: inhaled corticosteroids (ICS), long-acting Beta 2-agonist (LABA), long-acting muscarinic antagonist (LAMA). Single inhaled medication is usually replaced by combined inhaled medications for efficacy enhancement. However, this practice should be supported by clinical evidence for large-scale implementations. METHODS: The relative efficacy of inhaled medications is determined by three endpoints: changes in the trough forced expiratory volume in 1 second (tFEV1), changes in the St George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ) score and the proportion of SGRQ responders which represents a reduction in SGRQ total score at week 24 of ≥4...
March 27, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333691/asthma-prevalence-and-severity-in-low-resource-communities
#3
Álvaro A Cruz, Rafael Stelmach, Eduardo V Ponte
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The prevalence of asthma was thought to be low in most low-income countries, but several reports have indicated this is not always true. This is a narrative review of recent publications on the burden of asthma in low and middle-income countries (LMIC) and underprivileged communities from developed countries. RECENT FINDINGS: Several studies have reported a low prevalence of asthma is LMIC, but indicate it is increasing. In the last few years, however, many surveys demonstrated this may not always be true...
March 22, 2017: Current Opinion in Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331629/congenital-diaphragmatic-hernia-a-review
#4
REVIEW
Praveen Kumar Chandrasekharan, Munmun Rawat, Rajeshwari Madappa, David H Rothstein, Satyan Lakshminrusimha
Congenital Diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) is a condition characterized by a defect in the diaphragm leading to protrusion of abdominal contents into the thoracic cavity interfering with normal development of the lungs. The defect may range from a small aperture in the posterior muscle rim to complete absence of diaphragm. The pathophysiology of CDH is a combination of lung hypoplasia and immaturity associated with persistent pulmonary hypertension of newborn (PPHN) and cardiac dysfunction. Prenatal assessment of lung to head ratio (LHR) and position of the liver by ultrasound are used to diagnose and predict outcomes...
2017: Maternal Health, Neonatology and Perinatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329719/drug-involvement-during-and-after-college-estimates-of-opportunity-and-use-given-opportunity
#5
Hannah K Allen, Kimberly M Caldeira, Brittany A Bugbee, Kathryn B Vincent, Kevin E O'Grady, Amelia M Arria
BACKGROUND: College students perceive widespread availability of drugs and prescription medications for non-medical use on campus, but less is known about the relationship between opportunity to use, use, and use given opportunity of these drugs during and after college. The current study describes annual trends in (1) opportunity to use, (2) use, and (3) use given opportunity of eight drugs and three prescription medications used non-medically over seven years. METHODS: Data were derived from a longitudinal cohort study of 1253 first-year college students (52% female, 72% non-Hispanic white) at one large, public university...
March 7, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328861/relationship-between-anesthesia-and-postoperative-endophthalmitis-a-retrospective-study
#6
Hou-Chuan Lai, Wei-Cheng Tseng, Shu-I Pao, Chih-Shung Wong, Ren-Chih Huang, Wei-Hung Chan, Zhi-Fu Wu
Previous study showed that patients under general anesthesia (GA) had nasopharyngeal secretions on the face at the end of ocular surgery, especially in propofol-based total intravenous anesthesia (TIVA), it might induce postoperative endophthalmitis. Therefore, we conducted a retrospective study to compare the incidence of endophthalmitis after ocular surgery under topical, inhalation anesthesia, and propofol-based TIVA in our medical center from 2011 to 2015.A total of 21,032 patients were included, and we evaluated epidemiologic factors, systemic diseases, other ocular pathologic characteristics, complications during the surgery, technique of ocular surgery, method of antibiotic prophylaxis, vitreous culture, and vision outcome in these patients...
March 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327480/pharmacotherapy-of-patients-with-stable-bronchial-asthma
#7
REVIEW
Ashutosh Nath Aggarwal
Several reliever and controller medications are available for managing patients with stable asthma. Inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) are the mainstay of treatment, and can be combined with long-acting beta-agonists (LABA) for patients with moderate or severe disease. An ICS-LABA combination is best administered as a single inhaler used for both maintenance and emergency use. A stepwise approach to therapy has recently been proposed as part of Indian guidelines for management of asthma. Clinicians should advise proper use of inhaled medications, and step up or step down treatment based on adequacy of asthma control...
November 2016: National Medical Journal of India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326174/copd-stage-and-treatment-in-a-large-outpatient-clinic
#8
Claire Præst Holm, Jakob Holm, Annette Nørgaard, Nina Godtfredsen
Some COPD patients suffer from frequent exacerbations despite triple inhalation treatment. These frequent exacerbators should be identified, as exacerbations often lead to decreasing lung function and increasing mortality. Roflumilast reduces exacerbations in patients with a previous history of exacerbations. Our aim was to describe COPD patient characteristics and compare roflumilast treatment eligible to non-eligible patients. An observational cross-section study was conducted. Patients were included from a large COPD outpatient clinic...
2017: European Clinical Respiratory Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325118/is-asthma-associated-with-cognitive-impairments-a-meta-analytic-review
#9
Farzin Irani, Jordan Mark Barbone, Janet Beausoleil, Lynn Gerald
INTRODUCTION: Asthma is a chronic disease with significant health burden and socioeconomic and racial/ethnic disparities related to diagnosis and treatment. Asthma primarily affects the lungs, but can impact brain function through direct and indirect mechanisms. Some studies have suggested that asthma negatively impacts cognition, while others have failed to identify asthma-related cognitive compromise. We aimed to conduct a meta-analysis of cognition in individuals with asthma compared to that in healthy controls...
March 21, 2017: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28304180/nanomedicine-for-the-treatment-of-acute-respiratory-distress-syndrome-the-2016-ats-bear-cage-award-winning-proposal
#10
Jacob S Brenner
After dozens of clinical trials, there are still no FDA-approved drugs which improve mortality in acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). These poor results may in part be caused by three unique pharmacological challenges presented by ARDS: 1) ARDS patients are fragile due to concomitant multiple organ dysfunction, so do not tolerate off-target side effects of drugs; 2) inhaled drug delivery is impeded by the column of proteinaceous fluid covering the injured alveoli; 3) ARDS is heterogeneous in its underlying pathophysiology, so targeting one pathway is unlikely to improve most patients...
March 17, 2017: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302425/characteristics-of-pediatric-emergency-revisits-after-an-asthma-related-hospitalization
#11
Laurie H Johnson, Andrew F Beck, Robert S Kahn, Bin Huang, Patrick H Ryan, Kelly K Olano, Katherine A Auger
STUDY OBJECTIVE: We identify and characterize factors related to subsequent emergency revisits among children hospitalized for asthma. METHODS: This population-based, prospective, observational cohort included children aged 2 to 16 years, hospitalized for asthma at an urban pediatric facility and followed for greater than or equal to 12 months. The primary outcome was asthma-related emergency revisit within 12 months of discharge. Revisits were identified by billing codes, respiratory chief complaints, and medications administered (eg, albuterol, systemic corticosteroids), dispensed, or prescribed...
March 14, 2017: Annals of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295605/peri-meatal-pein-and-urethral-scc-a-case-report
#12
P R Doiron, H du P Menage, A Freeman, A Muneer, C B Bunker
A 55-year-old man presented with an asymptomatic lesion adjacent to the urethral meatus of one year's duration (Fig. 1). His medical history was significant for quiescent lung sarcoidosis (treatment never required), asthma and irritable bowel syndrome. His only medication was a budesonide/formoterol inhaler. The plaque had slowly been increasing in size, had not ulcerated or bled and had not impacted sexual or urinary function. Examination did not reveal extension into the urethra. Biopsy revealed undifferentiated penile intraepithelial neoplasia (PeIN) III/carcinoma in situ...
March 10, 2017: Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology: JEADV
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295526/pharmacological-treatments-in-asthma-affected-horses-a-pair-wise-and-network-meta-analysis
#13
L Calzetta, P Roncada, D di Cave, L Bonizzi, A Urbani, E Pistocchini, P Rogliani, M G Matera
BACKGROUND: Equine asthma is a disease characterised by reversible airflow obstruction, bronchial hyperresponsiveness and airway inflammation following exposure of susceptible horses to specific airborne agents. Although clinical remission can be achieved in a low-airborne dust environment, repeated exacerbations may lead to irreversible airway remodelling. The available data on the pharmacotherapy of equine asthma results from several small studies, and no head-to-head clinical trials have been conducted among the available medications...
March 10, 2017: Equine Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294577/the-enigma-of-inhaled-salbutamol-and-sport-unresolved-after-45-years
#14
K D Fitch
During the past 45 years, there have been more changes on the World Anti-Doping Agency's (WADA) Prohibited List (the List) to the status of inhaled salbutamol than any other substance. With 658 athletes, 6.1% of all participating athletes approved to inhale salbutamol at the 2008 Beijing Games, it is one of the medications used most frequently by Olympic athletes. Nevertheless, since the 2008 Games, WADA has made numerous changes to inhaled salbutamol on the List including prohibiting its use, then a year later permitting it without prior notification and recommending a pharmacokinetic study if an athlete exceeds the urinary threshold of 1000 ng/mL...
March 11, 2017: Drug Testing and Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293106/inhaled-treatment-of-copd-a-delphi-consensus-statement
#15
Vincent Ninane, Jean-Louis Corhay, Paul Germonpré, Wim Janssens, Guy F Joos, Giuseppe Liistro, Walter Vincken, Sandra Gurdain, Evelyne Vanvlasselaer, An Lehouck
BACKGROUND: Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) global strategy (2015) provides guidance for the treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) with different first-choice options per GOLD category without specification. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the level of medical experts' consensus on their preferred first-choice treatment within different COPD categories. METHODS: A two-round Delphi Panel consisting of 15 questions was completed by Belgian pulmonologists (n=31) and European (n=10) COPD experts...
2017: International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290972/malignant-hyperthermia-susceptibility-and-fitness-for-duty
#16
Michael A Lee, Erin B McGlinch, Maria C McGlinch, John F Capacchione
INTRODUCTION: Malignant hyperthermia (MH) is an inherited hypermetabolic condition characterized by uncontrolled calcium release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum of skeletal muscle, usually from exposure to inhaled general anesthetics and/or the depolarizing neuromuscular blocking agent succinylcholine. Multiple case reports now reveal that crises may be precipitated by environmental factors such as exercise or high ambient temperatures. Common signs of an MH crisis include life-threatening hyperthermia, metabolic acidosis, muscle rigidity, and tachycardia...
March 2017: Military Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290930/medical-effects-of-a-transuranic-dirty-bomb
#17
Asaf Durakovic
The modern military battlefields are characterized by the use of nonconventional weapons such as encountered in the conflicts of the Gulf War I and Gulf War II. Recent warfare in Iraq, Afghanistan, and the Balkans has introduced radioactive weapons to the modern war zone scenarios. This presents the military medicine with a new area of radioactive warfare with the potential large scale contamination of military and civilian targets with the variety of radioactive isotopes further enhanced by the clandestine use of radioactive materials in the terrorist radioactive warfare...
March 2017: Military Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286263/acute-eosinophilic-pneumonia-correlation-of-clinical-characteristics-with-underlying-cause
#18
Federica De Giacomi, Paul A Decker, Robert Vassallo, Jay H Ryu
BACKGROUND: Acute eosinophilic pneumonia (AEP) is an uncommon disease, often indistinguishable from acute respiratory distress syndrome or community-acquired pneumonia at initial presentation. AEP can be idiopathic but identifiable causes include medications and inhalational exposures including cigarette smoke. METHODS: Using a computer-assisted search, we retrospectively identified and reviewed the medical records of all patients diagnosed with AEP between January 1, 1998 and June 30, 2016 at our institution...
March 9, 2017: Chest
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284731/changes-in-asthma-maintenance-therapy-prescribing-patterns-following-the-2006-long-acting-%C3%AE-agonist-fda-drug-warning
#19
Jonathan D Winter, Matthew R Reetz, J William Kerns, Katherine M Winter, Roy T Sabo, Scott D Krugman
PURPOSE: The US Food and Drug Administration issued a boxed warning on all products containing a long-acting β-agonist (LABA) in March 2006, after the findings from a trial suggested an increased risk for death in patients treated with salmeterol monotherapy. Almost nothing is known about the impact of this warning on LABA prescribing patterns or on clinicians' approaches to asthma maintenance therapy. METHODS: A cohort of asthmatic adults on LABA therapy was retrospectively identified from a Baltimore-area Medicaid data warehouse...
March 8, 2017: Clinical Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284323/optimizing-drug-delivery-in-copd-the-role-of-inhaler-devices
#20
REVIEW
Paola Rogliani, Luigino Calzetta, Angelo Coppola, Francesco Cavalli, Josuel Ora, Ermanno Puxeddu, Maria Gabriella Matera, Mario Cazzola
Inhaled medication is the cornerstone of the pharmacological treatment for patients with asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Several inhaler devices exist, and each device has specific characteristics to achieve the optimal inhalation of drugs. The correct use of inhaler devices is not granted and patients may incur in mistakes when using pressurized metered-dose inhalers (pMDIs) or dry-powder inhaler (DPIs). The incorrect use of inhaler devices can lead to a poorly controlled disease status...
March 2017: Respiratory Medicine
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