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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910562/the-epidemiology-of-trachoma-in-mozambique-results-of-96-population-based-prevalence-surveys
#1
Mariamo Abdala, Carlos C Singano, Rebecca Willis, Colin K Macleod, Sharone Backers, Rebecca M Flueckiger, Anselmo Vilanculos, Dantew Terefe, Moises Houane, Fitsum Bikele, Amir Bedri Kello, Philip Downs, Zulquifla Bay, Laura Senyonjo, Anthony W Solomon
PURPOSE: Surveys are needed to guide trachoma control efforts in Mozambique, with WHO guidelines for intervention based on the prevalence of trachomatous inflammation-follicular (TF) in children aged 1-9 years and the prevalence of trichiasis in adults aged 15 years and above. We conducted surveys to complete the map of trachoma prevalence in Mozambique. METHODS: Between July 2012 and May 2015, we carried out cross-sectional surveys in 96 evaluation units (EUs) covering 137 districts...
September 14, 2017: Ophthalmic Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898240/prevalence-of-signs-of-trachoma-ocular-chlamydia-trachomatis-infection-and-antibodies-to-pgp3-in-residents-of-kiritimati-island-kiribati
#2
Anaseini Cama, Andreas Müller, Raebwebwe Taoaba, Robert M R Butcher, Iakoba Itibita, Stephanie J Migchelsen, Tokoriri Kiauea, Harry Pickering, Rebecca Willis, Chrissy H Roberts, Ana Bakhtiari, Richard T Le Mesurier, Neal D E Alexander, Diana L Martin, Rabebe Tekeraoi, Anthony W Solomon
OBJECTIVE: In some Pacific Island countries, such as Solomon Islands and Fiji, active trachoma is common, but ocular Chlamydia trachomatis (Ct) infection and trachomatous trichiasis (TT) are rare. On Tarawa, the most populous Kiribati island, both the active trachoma sign "trachomatous inflammation-follicular" (TF) and TT are present at prevalences warranting intervention. We sought to estimate prevalences of TF, TT, ocular Ct infection, and anti-Ct antibodies on Kiritimati Island, Kiribati, to assess local relationships between these parameters, and to help determine the need for interventions against trachoma on Kiribati islands other than Tarawa...
September 12, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893761/effectiveness-of-expanding-annual-mass-azithromycin-distribution-treatment-coverage-for-trachoma-in-niger-a-cluster-randomised-trial
#3
Abdou Amza, Boubacar Kadri, Beido Nassirou, Sun Y Cotter, Nicole E Stoller, Sheila K West, Robin L Bailey, Travis C Porco, Bruce D Gaynor, Jeremy D Keenan, Thomas M Lietman, Catherine E Oldenburg
BACKGROUND/AIMS: The WHO recommends 3-5 years of annual mass azithromycin distribution with at least 80% treatment coverage to districts with active trachoma prevalence over 10% among children. Here, we assess the efficacy of expanding the coverage target to at least 90% for trachoma control in a mesoendemic region of Niger. METHODS: Twenty-four communities were randomised to a single day of azithromycin distribution with a coverage target of 80% of the community or up to 4 days of treatment, aiming for greater than 90% coverage...
September 11, 2017: British Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878427/mortality-and-disability-adjusted-life-years-dalys-for-common-neglected-tropical-diseases-in-ethiopia-1990-2015-evidence-from-the-global-burden-of-disease-study-2015
#4
A Deribew, B Kebede, G A Tessema, Y A Adama, A Misganaw, T Gebre, A Hailu, S Biadgilign, A Amberbir, B Desalegn, A A Abajobir, O Shafi, S F Abera, N Negussu, B Mengistu, A T Amare, A Mulugeta, Z Kebede, B Mengistu, Z Tadesse, M Sileshi, M Tamiru, E A Chromwel, S D Glenn, J D Stanaway, K Deribe
INTRODUCTION: Neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) are important public health problems in Ethiopia. In 2013, the Federal Ministry of Health (FMOH) has launched a national NTD master plan to eliminate major NTDs of public health importance by 2020. Benchmarking the current status of NTDs in the country is important to monitor and evaluate the progress in the implementation of interventions and their impacts. Therefore, this study aims to assess the trends of mortality and Disability-adjusted Life-Years (DALY) for the priority NTDs over the last 25 years...
2017: Ethiopian Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28832733/blinding-trachoma-among-maku-indians-of-the-upper-rio-negro-a-neglected-public-health-problem
#5
Antonio Augusto Velasco Cruz
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2017: Arquivos Brasileiros de Oftalmologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819505/use-of-validated-community-based-trachoma-trichiasis-tt-case-finders-to-measure-the-total-backlog-and-detect-when-elimination-threshold-is-achieved-a-tt-methodology-paper
#6
Jefitha Karimurio, Hillary Rono, Doris Njomo, John Sironka, Catherine Kareko, Michael Gichangi, Ernest Barasa, Alice Mwangi, Kefa Ronald, Francis Kiio
INTRODUCTION: The World Health Organization recommends TT surveys to be conducted in adults aged 15+ years (TT 15 survey) and certifies elimination of TT as a public health problem when there is less than 1 unknown case per 1,000 people of all ages. There is no standard survey method to accurately confirm this elimination prevalence threshold of 0.1% because rare conditions require large and expensive prevalence survey samples. The aim of this study was to develop an accurate operational research method to measure the total backlog of TT in people of all ages and detect when the elimination threshold is achieved...
2017: Pan African Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818547/contracting-infectious-diseases-in-sub-saharan-african-wetlands-a-question-of-use-a-review
#7
REVIEW
Carmen Anthonj, Andrea Rechenburg, Christoph Höser, Thomas Kistemann
Worldwide the pressure on water is increasing. In parts of Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), natural wetlands constitute the only accessible water resources, providing water free of charge, agricultural potential and livelihoods in otherwise uninhabitable landscapes, which is why they are being used extensively. The degradation and contamination of water which result from the use of wetlands has the potential to spread disease-causing microorganisms and provide increased breeding habitats for disease vectors, Despite this importance, case studies are lacking and knowledge gaps remain about whether and how different kinds of wetland use influence the exposure to health risks and transmission of infectious diseases...
October 2017: International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795162/global-survey-of-mrna-levels-and-decay-rates-of-chlamydia-trachomatis-trachoma-and-lymphogranuloma-venereum-biovars
#8
Rita Ferreira, Vítor Borges, Maria José Borrego, João Paulo Gomes
Interpreting the intricate bacterial transcriptomics implies understanding the dynamic relationship established between de novo transcription and the degradation of transcripts. Here, we performed a comparative overview of gene expression levels and mRNA decay rates for different-biovar (trachoma and lymphogranuloma venereum) strains of the obligate intracellular bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis. By using RNA-sequencing to measure gene expression levels at mid developmental stage and mRNA decay rates upon rifampicin-based transcription blockage, we observed that: i) 60-70% of the top-50 expressed genes encode proteins with unknown function and proteins involved in "Translation, ribosomal structure and biogenesis" for all strains; ii) the expression ranking by genes' functional categories was in general concordant among different-biovar strains; iii) the median of the half-life time (t1/2) values of transcripts were 15-17 min, indicating that the degree of transcripts' stability seems to correlate with the bacterial intracellular life-style, as these values are considerably higher than the ones observed in other studies for facultative intracellular and free-living bacteria; iv) transcript decay rates were highly heterogeneous within each C...
July 2017: Heliyon
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791059/risk-factors-for-pterygium-in-ilam-province-iran
#9
Parviz Malekifar, Hamed Esfandiari, Nazanin Behnaz, Fatemeh Javadi, Sima Azish, Mohammad Ali Javadi, Masumeh Kalantarion
PURPOSE: To evaluate the risk factors for pterygium in the dry, high altitude province of Ilam, Iran. METHODS: The study included patients who presented to ophthalmology clinic. The patients were divided into two groups: 210 diagnosed with pterygium or pinguecula (unilateral or bilateral), and 210 healthy controls. Demographic variables, living environment, disease type, disease laterality, family history of pterygium as well as history of smoking, working outdoors, baking, welding, ocular conditions (trachoma keratopathy, glaucoma, refractive error, and dry eye), use of glasses, ultraviolet light exposure, and systemic conditions were collected from both groups and compared for risk assessment...
July 2017: Journal of Ophthalmic & Vision Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747198/population-based-prevalence-survey-of-follicular-trachoma-and-trachomatous-trichiasis-in-the-casamance-region-of-senegal
#10
Emma M Harding-Esch, Julbert Kadimpeul, Boubacar Sarr, Awa Sane, Souleymane Badji, Mass Laye, Ansumana Sillah, Sarah E Burr, David MacLeod, Anna R Last, Martin J Holland, David C Mabey, Robin L Bailey
BACKGROUND: Trachoma, caused by ocular infection with Chlamydia trachomatis, is the leading infectious cause of blindness worldwide. We conducted the first population-based trachoma prevalence survey in the Casamance region of Senegal to enable the Senegalese National Eye Care Programme (NECP) to plan its trachoma control activities. The World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines state that any individual with trachomatous trichiasis (TT) should be offered surgery, but that surgery should be prioritised where the prevalence is >0...
July 26, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722638/antibiotic-resistance-in-young-children-in-kilosa-district-tanzania-4-years-after-mass-distribution-of-azithromycin-for-trachoma-control
#11
Evan M Bloch, Sheila K West, Kasubi Mabula, Jerusha Weaver, Zakayo Mrango, Beatriz Munoz, Thomas Lietman, Christian Coles
Mass administration of azithromycin (MDA) is integral to trachoma control. Recent studies suggest that MDA may increase drug-resistant pathogens, yet findings from prior studies suggest little long-term impact on resistance. This disparity may be linked to differences in pre-MDA community-level resistance patterns. We describe carriage prevalence and antibiotic resistance patterns for Streptococcus pneumoniae (Spn) (nasopharyngeal swab collection), Staphylococcus aureus (SA) (nasopharyngeal swabs), and Escherichia coli (EC) (rectal swabs) in 1,047 children ages 1-59 months in a district with MDA cessation 4 years ago...
July 3, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722569/mass-azithromycin-and-malaria-parasitemia-in-niger-results-from-a-community-randomized-trial
#12
Kieran S O'Brien, Sun Y Cotter, Abdou Amza, Boubacar Kadri, Baido Nassirou, Nicole E Stoller, Zhaoxia Zhou, Chris Cotter, Sheila K West, Robin L Bailey, Philip J Rosenthal, Bruce D Gaynor, Travis C Porco, Thomas M Lietman
Studies designed to determine the effects of mass administration of azithromycin on trachoma have suggested that mass azithromycin distributions may also reduce the prevalence of malaria. These studies have typically examined the impact of a small number of treatments over short durations. In this prespecified substudy of a cluster-randomized trial for trachoma, we compared malaria parasitemia prevalence in 24 communities in Niger randomized to receive either annual or biannual mass azithromycin distributions over 3 years...
June 19, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719271/trachomatous-scar-ranking-a-novel-outcome-for-trachoma-studies
#13
Angela Baldwin, Alexander M Ryner, Zerihun Tadesse, Ayalew Shiferaw, Kelly Callahan, Dionna M Fry, Zhaoxia Zhou, Thomas M Lietman, Jeremy D Keenan
AbstractWe evaluated a new trachoma scarring ranking system with potential use in clinical research. The upper right tarsal conjunctivas of 427 individuals from Ethiopian villages with hyperendemic trachoma were photographed. An expert grader first assigned a scar grade to each photograph using the 1981 World Health Organization (WHO) grading system. Then, all photographs were ranked from least (rank = 1) to most scarring (rank = 427). Photographic grading found 79 (18.5%) conjunctivae without scarring (C0), 191 (44...
June 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28664685/who-alliance-for-the-global-elimination-of-trachoma-by-2020-progress-report-on-elimination-of-trachoma-2014%C3%A2-2016
#14
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 30, 2017: Relevé épidémiologique Hebdomadaire
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28662043/treating-village-newcomers-and-travelers-for-trachoma-results-from-asante-cluster-randomized-trial
#15
Sheila K West, Beatriz Munoz, Harran Mkocha, Laura Dize, Charlotte A Gaydos, Bonnie Swenor, Ann-Margret Ervin, Thomas C Quinn
TRIAL DESIGN: Trachoma is targeted for global elimination. Infection rates with Chlamydia trachomatis are higher in new arrivals to a community and in travelers who leave for extended periods, suggesting they are sources of re-infection. This community-randomized, clinical trial was designed to determine if a surveillance program that targeted newcomers and travelers, identified weekly, would result in more communities achieving levels of infection of ≤1%. METHODS: 52 communities were randomly allocated 1:1 to the control (annual MDA alone if warranted) or intervention arm (annual MDA if warranted, plus a surveillance program to identify and treat newcomers and travelers)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28660278/trachomatous-scarring-and-infection-with-non-chlamydia-trachomatis-bacteria-in-women-in-kongwa-tanzania
#16
Jacob T Cox, Mabula J Kasubi, Beatriz E Muñoz, Andrea I Zambrano, Gregory S Greene, Harran Mkocha, Meraf A Wolle, Sheila K West
Purpose: To assess for an association between conjunctival infection with nonchlamydial bacterial species and the presence of trachomatous scarring (TS) in women in central Tanzania. Methods: Cross-sectional data were collected from a random sample of women ages 18 and older in 47 trachoma-endemic communities in Kongwa, Tanzania. Each participant completed a survey, provided a conjunctival swab sample, and received an ocular exam to assess for TS. Biologic samples were cultured for bacterial growth and speciation...
June 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28660176/chlamydia-trachomatis-infection-is-associated-with-e-cadherin-promoter-methylation-downregulation-of-e-cadherin-expression-and-increased-expression-of-fibronectin-and-%C3%AE-sma-implications-for-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition
#17
Jovana Rajić, Aleksandra Inic-Kanada, Elisabeth Stein, Svetlana Dinić, Nadine Schuerer, Aleksandra Uskoković, Ehsan Ghasemian, Mirjana Mihailović, Melita Vidaković, Nevena Grdović, Talin Barisani-Asenbauer
Chlamydia trachomatis (Ct) can induce scarring disease of the ocular mucosa, known as trachoma, the most common infectious cause of blindness worldwide. We hypothesized that epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) contributes to the fibrotic process in trachomatous scarring. Infection of human conjunctival epithelial cells (HCjE) with Ct activated signaling pathways involved in EMT induction, which was correlated with decreased expression of E-cadherin, guardian of the epithelial phenotype. In addition, Ct infection was associated with increased expression of two mesenchymal cell markers: fibronectin and α-SMA...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641033/evaluation-of-planned-bicanalicular-nasolacrimal-tube-retention-in-treating-punctal-stenosis-or-occlusion-secondary-to-trachoma
#18
Rania A Ahmed, Ahmed M Kamal, Mohamed A Zayed
This article evaluates retaining bicanalicular silicone nasolacrimal tube in patients susceptible to restenosis after punctoplasty. Sixty-nine eyes (38 patients) suffering from epiphora due to stenosis or occlusion of both punctae were included in this prospective study. All had 3 snip punctoplasty and bicanalicular silicone nasolacrimal duct insertion. Cases associated with proximal canalicular stenosis or obstructions were excluded. Tolerance to tube presence until the time of loss or removal was evaluated using a score (0 to 2)...
August 2017: Orbit
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621840/association-of-disease-specific-causes-of-visual-impairment-and-10-year-mortality-among-indigenous-australians-the-central-australian-ocular-health-study
#19
José Estevez, Georgia Kaidonis, Tim Henderson, Jamie E Craig, John Landers
IMPORTANCE: Visual impairment significantly impairs the length and quality of life but little is known of its impact in Indigenous Australians. BACKGROUND: To investigate the association of disease-specific causes of visual impairment with all-cause mortality. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort analysis. PARTICIPANTS: 1,347 Indigenous Australians aged over 40 years. METHODS: Participants visiting remote medical clinics underwent clinical examinations including visual acuity, subjective refraction and slit-lamp examination of the anterior and posterior segments...
June 16, 2017: Clinical & Experimental Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614375/burden-of-trachoma-in-five-counties-of-eastern-equatoria-state-south-sudan-results-from-population-based-surveys
#20
Angelia M Sanders, Aisha E P Stewart, Samuel Makoy, Joy J Chebet, Peter Magok, Aja Kuol, Carla Blauvelt, Richard Lako, John Rumunu, E Kelly Callahan, Scott D Nash
BACKGROUND: In order to decrease the prevalence of trachoma within the country, the Republic of South Sudan has implemented components of the SAFE strategy in various counties since 2001. Five counties in Eastern Equatoria state were surveyed in order to monitor progress of programmatic interventions and determine if additional rounds of Mass Drug Administration with azithromycin were needed. METHODOLOGY/ PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Five counties (Budi, Lafon, Kapoeta East, Kapoeta South and Kapoeta North) were surveyed from April to October 2015...
June 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
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