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A Pinsent, I M Blake, M G Basáñez, M Gambhir
The World Health Organization has targeted the elimination of blinding trachoma by the year 2020. To this end, the Global Elimination of Blinding Trachoma (GET, 2020) alliance relies on a four-pronged approach, known as the SAFE strategy (S for trichiasis surgery; A for antibiotic treatment; F for facial cleanliness and E for environmental improvement). Well-constructed and parameterized mathematical models provide useful tools that can be used in policy making and forecasting in order to help to control trachoma and understand the feasibility of this large-scale elimination effort...
2016: Advances in Parasitology
W Ammari, S Harrath, S Mbarek, A Mahmoud, W Chebbi, R Messaoud, M Khairallah
OBJECTIVE: To study socio-demographic characteristics and main causes related to visual impairment (VI) as a function of age bracket and to analyze their trends over time in the district of Mahdia. METHOD: A retrospective review was performed on 1487 cases of visual impairment registered with the social authorities in Mahdia, between 1980 and 2013. The social, demographic, vision exam findings and causes were ascertained and analyzed in an SPSS database. Incidence rates of VI and blindness due to various causes were calculated based on the demographic data from the NSI to estimate the time trends using the general linear regression model and Spearman correlation...
October 13, 2016: Journal Français D'ophtalmologie
Ngy Meng, Do Seiha, Pok Thorn, Rebecca Willis, Rebecca M Flueckiger, Michael Dejene, Susan Lewallen, Paul Courtright, Anthony W Solomon
PURPOSE: To determine whether trachoma is a public health problem requiring intervention in Cambodia. METHODS: Based on historical evidence and reports, 14 evaluation units (EUs) in Cambodia, judged to be most likely to harbor trachoma, were selected. The Global Trachoma Mapping Project methodology was used to carry out rigorous surveys to determine the prevalence of trachomatous inflammation-follicular (TF) and trichiasis in each EU. RESULTS: The EU-level prevalence of TF among 25,801 1-9-year-old children examined ranged from 0% to 0...
October 11, 2016: Ophthalmic Epidemiology
Khumbo Kalua, Alvin Chisambi, David Chinyanya, Zachariah Kamwendo, Michael Masika, Rebecca Willis, Rebecca M Flueckiger, Alexandre L Pavluck, Anthony W Solomon
PURPOSE: Following a first phase of trachoma mapping in Malawi with the Global Trachoma Mapping Project, we identified and mapped trachoma districts previously suspected to be non-endemic, although adjacent to districts with estimated trachoma prevalences indicating a public health problem. METHODS: We conducted population-based surveys in eight evaluation units (EUs) comprising eight districts in Malawi (total population 3,230,272). A 2-stage cluster random sampling design allowed us to select 30 households from each of 30 clusters per EU; all residents aged 1 year and older in selected households were examined for evidence of trachomatous inflammation-follicular (TF) and trachomatous trichiasis (TT)...
October 11, 2016: Ophthalmic Epidemiology
Anne E Heggen, Anthony W Solomon, Paul Courtright
PURPOSE: Neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) affect people living in the poorest regions of the world and their debilitating effects perpetuate the poverty cycle. Understanding the distribution of NTDs is crucial for effective intervention delivery. In 2012, the Global Trachoma Mapping Project (GTMP) was initiated to map >1800 suspected trachoma endemic districts by March 2015. This research was carried out to better understand the implementation experience and identify lessons which might inform the GTMP and similar initiatives...
October 11, 2016: Ophthalmic Epidemiology
Caleb Mpyet, Nasiru Muhammad, Mohammed Dantani Adamu, Habila Muazu, Murtala Muhammad Umar, Joel Alada, Uwazoeke Onyebuchi, Fracisca Olamiju, Sunday Isiyaku, Adamani William, Rebecca Willis, Rebecca Mann Flueckiger, Alexandre Pavluck, Brian K Chu, Danjuma Mohammed, Nicholas Olobio, Anthony W Solomon
PURPOSE: To determine the need or otherwise for establishment of a trachoma elimination program in Gombe State, Nigeria, by estimating the population-based prevalence of trachoma in each Local Government Area (LGA) of Gombe. METHODS: Using a multi-stage, systematic, random, and quasi-random sampling approach and Global Trachoma Mapping Project support, we selected 25 clusters in each LGA. In each cluster, we selected 25 households and all consenting residents aged 1 year and older were examined for trachomatous inflammation-follicular (TF) and trichiasis, using the World Health Organization simplified grading scheme...
October 11, 2016: Ophthalmic Epidemiology
Robert M R Butcher, Oliver Sokana, Kelvin Jack, Colin K Macleod, Michael Marks, Eric Kalae, Leslie Sui, Charles Russell, Helena J Tutill, Rachel J Williams, Judith Breuer, Rebecca Willis, Richard T Le Mesurier, David C W Mabey, Anthony W Solomon, Chrissy H Roberts
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0004863.].
October 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
A Furdová, V Krčméry, K Horkovičová, Ad Furdová, T Sláviková
: Documentation of the anterior segment and the eye fundus with instruments that enable quality precision diagnostics is a common and important part of screening in humanitarian ophthalmology projects. It is the essential element in diagnosis, monitoring and management of eye diseases. In sub saharan countries within the screening for ophthalmologist are not available the modern technologies such as biomicroscope (slit lamp) or fundus camera. We describe our experience with photographs of anterior segment of the eye by using digital camera and Smartphone...
2016: Ceská a Slovenská Oftalmologie
Sarah E Burr, Ansumana Sillah, Anselme S Sanou, Anita C Wadagni, John Hart, Emma M Harding-Esch, Sarjo Kanyi, Robin L Bailey
BACKGROUND: The Gambia's National Eye Health Programme has made a concerted effort to reduce the prevalence of trachoma. The present study had two objectives. The first was to conduct surveillance following mass drug administrations to determine whether The Gambia has reached the World Health Organization's (WHO) criteria for trachoma elimination, namely a prevalence of trachomatous inflammation-follicular (TF) of less than 5% in children aged 1 to 9 years. The second was to determine the prevalence of trichiasis (TT) cases unknown to the programme and evaluate whether these meet the WHO criteria of less than 0...
September 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Essey Kebede Muluneh, Temesgen Zewotir, Zerihun Bekele
INTRODUCTION: Trachoma is a serious public health problem in rural Ethiopia. The aim of this investigation was to provide in-depth statistical analysis of the risk factors associated with active trachoma among children of age 1-9 years of Kedida Gamela district, in Ethiopia. METHODS: A community based cross-sectional survey of trachoma was conducted in six selected rural kebeles of Kedida Gamela district, in Ethiopia from June 10-25, 2014. A total of 377 children (ages 1-9 years) were included in the study using two stage cluster sampling...
2016: Pan African Medical Journal
Aleksandra Inic-Kanada, Marijana Stojanovic, Emilija Marinkovic, Elisabeth Becker, Elisabeth Stein, Ivana Lukic, Radmila Djokic, Nadine Schuerer, Johannes H Hegemann, Talin Barisani-Asenbauer
Recent advances in the development of chlamydia vaccines, using live-attenuated or ultraviolet light-inactivated chlamydia, are paving the way for new possibilities to oppose the societal challenges posed by chlamydia-related diseases, such as blinding trachoma. An effective subunit vaccine would mitigate the risks associated with the use of a whole-cell vaccine. Our rationale for the design of an efficient subunit vaccine against Chlamydia trachomatis (Ct) is based on the membrane proteins involved in the initial Ct-host cell contact and on the route of immunization that mimics the natural infection process (i...
2016: PloS One
Roberta Lilian Fernandes de Sousa Meneghim, Magda Massae Hata Viveiros, Alicia Galindo-Ferreiro, Carlos Roberto Padovani, Silvana Artioli Schellini
PURPOSE: To evaluate the sequelae due to epidemic viral conjunctivitis (VC) for a possible association with inflammatory trachoma in schoolchildren. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was performed of 2,093 schoolchildren in public schools in Sao Paulo State, Brazil. The exams were conducted according to the WHO definitions to detect trachoma. We evaluated the prevalence and the association between inflammatory trachoma and sequelae due to VC. RESULTS: The prevalence of inflammatory trachoma in schoolchildren in Botucatu City was 2...
September 14, 2016: Seminars in Ophthalmology
Kassahun Mengistu, Mulugeta Shegaze, Kifle Woldemichael, Hailay Gesesew, Yohannes Markos
BACKGROUND: Trachoma is the leading cause of preventable blindness worldwide. It is common in areas where people are socioeconomically deprived. Globally, approximately 1.2 billion people live in trachoma-endemic areas, in which, 40.6 million individuals have active trachoma and 8.2 million have trichiasis. According to the World Health Organization's 2007 report, globally close to 1.3 million people are blind due to trachoma, while approximately 84 million suffer from active trachoma...
2016: Clinical Ophthalmology
Wenwen Xue, Lina Lu, Jianfeng Zhu, Xiangui He, Jiangnan He, Rong Zhao, Haidong Zou
We investigated the prevalence of clinical trachoma in 154,265 children aged 6 to 16 years in 206 Shanghai migrant schools. Clean water availability in school, each child's facial cleanliness, eyelids, corneas, and the presenting distance visual acuities were examined. Trachoma was clinically diagnosed in accordance with the World Health Organization simplified classification. Eyes diagnosed with trachoma were swabbed to test for ocular Chlamydia trachomatis infections (OCTI) with a rapid latex immunochromatographic test...
2016: BioMed Research International
Barbara S Sixt, Raphael H Valdivia
Species of Chlamydia are the etiologic agent of endemic blinding trachoma, the leading cause of bacterial sexually transmitted diseases, significant respiratory pathogens, and a zoonotic threat. Their dependence on an intracellular growth niche and their peculiar developmental cycle are major challenges to elucidating their biology and virulence traits. The last decade has seen tremendous advances in our ability to perform a molecular genetic analysis of Chlamydia species. Major achievements include the generation of large collections of mutant strains, now available for forward- and reverse-genetic applications, and the introduction of a system for plasmid-based transformation enabling complementation of mutations; expression of foreign, modified, or reporter genes; and even targeted gene disruptions...
September 8, 2016: Annual Review of Microbiology
Robert M R Butcher, Oliver Sokana, Kelvin Jack, Colin K Macleod, Michael E Marks, Eric Kalae, Leslie Sui, Charles Russell, Helena J Tutill, Rachel J Williams, Judith Breuer, Rebecca Willis, Richard T Le Mesurier, David C W Mabey, Anthony W Solomon, Chrissy H Roberts
BACKGROUND: Trachoma is endemic in several Pacific Island states. Recent surveys across the Solomon Islands indicated that whilst trachomatous inflammation-follicular (TF) was present at levels warranting intervention, the prevalence of trachomatous trichiasis (TT) was low. We set out to determine the relationship between chlamydial infection and trachoma in this population. METHODS: We conducted a population-based trachoma prevalence survey of 3674 individuals from two Solomon Islands provinces...
September 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Community Eye Health
Talha Burki
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2016: Lancet Infectious Diseases
Sarah D Ahadome, Rose Mathew, Nancy J Reyes, Priyatham S Mettu, Scott W Cousins, Virginia L Calder, Daniel R Saban
Fibrosis is a shared end-stage pathway to lung, liver, and heart failure. In the ocular mucosa (conjunctiva), fibrosis leads to blindness in trachoma, pemphigoid, and allergy. The indirect fibrogenic role of DCs via T cell activation and inflammatory cell recruitment is well documented. However, here we demonstrate that DCs can directly induce fibrosis. In the mouse model of allergic eye disease (AED), classical CD11b(+) DCs in the ocular mucosa showed increased activity of aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH), the enzyme required for retinoic acid synthesis...
August 4, 2016: JCI Insight
Muneer Abbas, Noureddine Berka, Mozna Khraiwesh, Ali Ramadan, Victor Apprey, Paulette Furbert-Harris, Thomas Quinn, Hassan Brim, Georgia Dunston
AIM: To examine the association of TLR4 Asp299Gly and MICA exon 5 microsatellites polymorphisms with severity of trachoma in a sub-Saharan East Africa population of Tanzanian villagers. METHODS: The samples were genotyped for MICA exon 5 microsatellites and the TLR4 299 A/G polymorphism by Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP), and GeneScan(®), respectively. The association of TLR4 Asp299Gly and MICA exon 5 microsatellites with inflammatory trachoma (TI) and trichiasis (TI) were examined...
June 2016: Autoimmune Infect Dis
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