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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426814/progress-and-projections-in-the-program-to-eliminate-trachoma
#1
Paul M Emerson, Pamela J Hooper, Virginia Sarah
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396349/biochemical-and-genetic-analysis-of-the-chlamydia-groel-chaperonins
#2
Melissa Illingworth, Anna J Hooppaw, Lu Ruan, Derek J Fisher, Lingling Chen
Chaperonins are essential for cellular growth under normal and stressful conditions and consequently represent one of the most conserved and ancient protein classes. The paradigm Escherichia coli chaperonin, EcGroEL, and its cochaperonin, EcGroES, assist folding of proteins via an ATP-dependent mechanism. In addition to the presence of groEL and groES homologs, groEL paralogs are found in many bacteria, including pathogens, and have evolved poorly understood species-specific functions. Chlamydia spp., which are obligate intracellular bacteria, have reduced genomes that nonetheless encode three groEL genes, ChgroEL, ChgroEL2 and ChgroEL3 We hypothesized that ChGroEL is the bona-fide chaperonin, while the paralogs perform novel, Chlamydia-specific functions...
April 10, 2017: Journal of Bacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28379764/school-hygiene-as-a-tool-of-modernization-european-culture-and-jewish-colonies-in-galilee-1882-1939
#3
Yair Seltenreich
During the efforts to modernize the farmers of Jewish colonies in Galilee, both teachers and doctors came to view hygiene less as an agent of health and cleanliness and more as a symbol of physical and mental regeneration. Schools thus emerged as a natural arena for hygieno-pedagogic activities. Doctors' attempts to eradicate malaria or trachoma by associating the concept of hygiene with modern sanitation and outdoor activities were soon followed by pedagogical efforts to endow hygiene with moral values.
2017: Canadian Bulletin of Medical History, Bulletin Canadien D'histoire de la Médecine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28368993/penetrating-keratoplasty-at-a-tertiary-referral-center-in-ethiopia-indications-and-outcomes
#4
Menen Ayalew, Yonas Tilahun, Doug Holsclaw, Maanasa Indaram, Nicole E Stoller, Jeremy D Keenan, Jennifer Rose-Nussbaumer
PURPOSE: To describe the indications, visual acuity outcomes, and graft survival after penetrating keratoplasty (PKP) in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. METHODS: The medical records of patients who underwent PKP at Menelik II Hospital between September 2000 and September 2013 were retrospectively reviewed. The prespecified outcomes were graft survival, visual acuity, and complication rates. RESULTS: A total of 321 patients underwent PKP during the study period and were included in the analysis...
March 31, 2017: Cornea
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28357377/chlamydia-trachomatis-genital-infections
#5
REVIEW
Catherine M O'Connell, Morgan E Ferone
Etiology, transmission and protection: Chlamydia trachomatis is the leading cause of bacterial sexually transmitted infection (STI) globally. However, C. trachomatis also causes trachoma in endemic areas, mostly Africa and the Middle East, and is a leading cause of preventable blindness worldwide. Epidemiology, incidence and prevalence: The World Health Organization estimates 131 million new cases of C. trachomatis genital infection occur annually. Globally, infection is most prevalent in young women and men (14-25 years), likely driven by asymptomatic infection, inadequate partner treatment and delayed development of protective immunity...
September 5, 2016: Microbial Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28352612/a-co-infection-model-system-and-the-use-of-chimeric-proteins-to-study-chlamydia-inclusion-proteins-interaction
#6
Ying Han, Isabelle Derré
Chlamydia trachomatis is an obligate intracellular bacterium associated with trachoma and sexually transmitted diseases. During its intracellular developmental cycle, Chlamydia resides in a membrane bound compartment called the inclusion. A subset of Type III secreted effectors, the inclusion membrane proteins (Inc), are inserted into the inclusion membrane. Inc proteins are strategically positioned to promote inclusion interaction with host factors and organelles, a process required for bacterial replication, but little is known about Inc proteins function or host interacting partners...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28351345/short-term-increase-in-prevalence-of-nasopharyngeal-carriage-of-macrolide-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-following-mass-drug-administration-with-azithromycin-for-trachoma-control
#7
Ebrima Bojang, James Jafali, Vincent Perreten, John Hart, Emma M Harding-Esch, Ansumana Sillah, David C W Mabey, Martin J Holland, Robin L Bailey, Anna Roca, Sarah E Burr
BACKGROUND: Mass drug administration (MDA) with azithromycin is a corner-stone of trachoma control however it may drive the emergence of antimicrobial resistance. In a cluster-randomized trial (Clinical trial gov NCT00792922), we compared the reduction in the prevalence of active trachoma in communities that received three annual rounds of MDA to that in communities that received a single treatment round. We used the framework of this trial to carry out an opportunistic study to investigate if the increased rounds of treatment resulted in increased prevalence of nasopharyngeal carriage of macrolide-resistant Staphylococcus aureus...
March 28, 2017: BMC Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345563/chlamydial-eye-infections-current-perspectives
#8
Gita Satpathy, Himanshu Sekhar Behera, Nishat Hussain Ahmed
Chlamydia trachomatis, an obligate intraocular bacteria causing trachoma, adult and neonatal inclusion conjunctivitis, was the leading cause of blindness in the last century worldwide. Improvement in socioeconomic and living conditions, availability of antibiotics, and introduction of National Trachoma Control Programmes reduced the prevalence in developed countries, but it persisted in resource-poor settings of Africa and Asia, including India. In 2016, as per the WHO report, trachoma is restricted to 42 countries, causing blindness/visual impairment in ~1...
February 2017: Indian Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341010/history-and-development-of-ophthalmology-in-taiwan
#9
REVIEW
Yu-Chih Hou, Gale A Oren, Muh-Shy Chen, Fung-Rong Hu
Western medicine was first introduced to Taiwan by medical missionaries in the mid-19(th) century. Modernization of medicine was systematically transplanted to Taiwan in the Japanese colonial period, and ophthalmology was established third among hospital departments, following internal medicine and surgery. Dr Hidetaka Yamaguchi, an ophthalmologist, was the first head of the Taihoku Hospital, later known as National Taiwan University Hospital (NTUH; Taipei, Taiwan). Ophthalmologists during the colonial period conducted studies on tropical and infectious eye diseases...
December 2016: Journal of the Formosan Medical Association, Taiwan Yi Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288672/profiling-and-validation-of-individual-and-patterns-of-chlamydia-trachomatis-specific-antibody-responses-in-trachomatous-trichiasis
#10
Harry Pickering, Sarah E Burr, Tamsyn Derrick, Pateh Makalo, Hassan Joof, Richard D Hayward, Martin J Holland
BACKGROUND: Ocular Chlamydia trachomatis (Ct) infection causes trachoma, the leading infectious cause of blindness. A Ct D/UW3 proteome microarray and sera from Gambian adults with trachomatous trichiasis (TT) or healthy matched controls previously identified several novel antigens, which suggested differential recognition in adults with TT. METHODS: We re-analysed this serological microarray data using more robust microarray analysis techniques accounting for typical problems associated with highly dimensional data...
March 13, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28279456/probabilistic-forecasts-of-trachoma-transmission-at-the-district-level-a-statistical-model-comparison
#11
Amy Pinsent, Fengchen Liu, Michael Deiner, Paul Emerson, Ana Bhaktiari, Travis C Porco, Thomas Lietman, Manoj Gambhir
The World Health Organization and its partners are aiming to eliminate trachoma as a public health problem by 2020. In this study, we compare forecasts of TF prevalence in 2011 for 7 different statistical and mechanistic models across 9 de-identified trachoma endemic districts, representing 4 unique trachoma endemic countries. We forecast TF prevalence between 1-6 years ahead in time and compare the 7 different models to the observed 2011 data using a log-likelihood score. An SIS model, including a district-specific random effect for the district-specific transmission coefficient, had the highest log-likelihood score across all 9 districts and was therefore the best performing model...
March 2017: Epidemics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276755/prevalence-of-trachoma-in-kano-state-nigeria-results-of-44-local-government-area-level-surveys
#12
Caleb Mpyet, Nasiru Muhammad, Mohammed Dantani Adamu, Habila Muazu, Murtala Muhammad Umar, Musa Goyol, Hadi Bala Yahaya, Uwazoeke Onyebuchi, Chris Ogoshi, Tijjani Hussaini, Sunday Isiyaku, Adamani William, Rebecca M Flueckiger, Brian K Chu, Rebecca Willis, Alexandre L Pavluck, Nicholas Olobio, Sophie Phelan, Colin Macleod, Anthony W Solomon
PURPOSE: We sought to determine the prevalence of trachoma in 44 Local Government Areas (LGAs) of Kano State, Nigeria. METHODS: A population-based prevalence survey was conducted in each Kano LGA. We used a two-stage systematic and quasi-random sampling strategy to select 25 households from each of 25 clusters in each LGA. All consenting household residents aged 1 year and above were examined for trachomatous inflammation-follicular (TF), trachomatous inflammation-intense (TI) and trichiasis...
February 28, 2017: Ophthalmic Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228394/update-on-chlamydia-trachomatis-vaccinology
#13
REVIEW
Luis M de la Maza, Guangming Zhong, Robert C Brunham
Attempts to produce a vaccine to protect against Chlamydia trachomatis-induced trachoma were initiated more than 100 years ago and continued for several decades. Using whole organisms, protective responses were obtained. However, upon exposure to C. trachomatis, disease exacerbation developed in some immunized individuals, precluding the implementation of the vaccine. Evidence of the role of C. trachomatis as a sexually transmitted pathogen started to emerge in the 1960s, and it soon became evident that it can cause acute infections and long-term sequelae in women, men, and newborns...
April 2017: Clinical and Vaccine Immunology: CVI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214223/evaluation-of-a-field-test-for-antibodies-against-chlamydia-trachomatis-during-trachoma-surveillance-in-nepal
#14
Michelle J Sun, Andrea I Zambrano, Laura Dize, Beatriz Munoz, Sarah Gwyn, Sailesh Mishra, Diana L Martin, Shekhar Sharma, Sheila K West
PURPOSE: Testing for antibodies to Chlamydia trachomatis has potential as a surveillance tool. Our evaluation compares lateral flow assays (LFAs) during surveillance surveys in Nepal with Multiplex bead array (MBA). Fifty children were randomly sampled from each of 15 random clusters in two districts of Nepal. Finger prick blood samples were collected from 1509 children and tested onsite for anti-Pgp3 antibodies by LFA. The LFA was read at 30min as negative, positive, or invalid. Tests results were also rated as difficult to read ("equivocal")...
May 2017: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187129/podoconiosis-trachomatous-trichiasis-and-cataract-in-northern-ethiopia-a-comparative-cross-sectional-study
#15
Helen Burn, Sintayehu Aweke, Tariku Wondie, Esmael Habtamu, Kebede Deribe, Saul Rajak, Stephen Bremner, Gail Davey
BACKGROUND: Rural populations in low-income countries commonly suffer from the co-morbidity of neglected tropical diseases (NTDs). Podoconiosis, trachomatous trichiasis (both NTDs) and cataract are common causes of morbidity among subsistence farmers in the highlands of northern Ethiopia. We explored whether podoconiosis was associated with cataract or trachomatous trichiasis (TT) among this population. METHODS: A comparative cross-sectional study was conducted in East Gojam region, Amhara, Ethiopia in May 2016...
February 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182664/improving-our-forecasts-for-trachoma-elimination-what-else-do-we-need-to-know
#16
Amy Pinsent, Manoj Gambhir
The World Health Organization (WHO) has targeted trachoma for elimination as a public health concern by 2020. Mathematical modelling is used for a range of infectious diseases to assess the impact of different intervention strategies on the prevalence of infection or disease. Here we evaluate the performance of four different mechanistic mathematical models that could all realistically represent trachoma transmission. We fit the four different mechanistic models of trachoma transmission to cross-sectional age-specific Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) and Trachomatous inflammation, follicular (TF) prevalence data...
February 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161923/preventing-long-term-ocular-complications-of-trachoma-with-topical-azithromycin-a-3-year-follow-up-study
#17
Tayyab Afghani, Hassan Mansoor, Mohammad Nadeem
PURPOSE: To determine the role of a single cycle of topical azithromycin in preventing long-term trachoma complications in children from an area with endemic trachoma. DESIGN: A longitudinal cohort study. METHODS: Two hundred thirty-eight (n = 238) children with active trachoma were enrolled in the current study. They were aged 1 to 10 years, with trachomatous inflammation based on the simplified World Health Organization grading system. These children were identified out of a survey of 8600 children from 7 villages in Punjab, Pakistan, where trachoma was endemic...
January 2017: Asia-Pacific Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28118354/integrated-mapping-of-yaws-and-trachoma-in-the-five-northern-most-provinces-of-vanuatu
#18
Fasihah Taleo, Colin K Macleod, Michael Marks, Oliver Sokana, Anna Last, Rebecca Willis, Mackline Garae, Annie Bong, Brian K Chu, Paul Courtright, Jacob Kool, George Taleo, Jean Jacque Rory, Anthony W Solomon
Yaws and trachoma are targeted for eradication and elimination as public health problems. In trachoma-endemic populations mass administration of azithromycin can simultaneously treat yaws. We conducted a population-based prevalence survey in the five northernmost provinces of Vanuatu, where trachoma and yaws are suspected to be co-endemic. Clinical signs of trachoma were evaluated using the WHO simplified grading system, and skin examination with a serological rapid diagnostic test used to identify yaws. We enrolled 1004 households in 59 villages over 16 islands, and examined 3650 individuals of all ages for trachoma...
January 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28114364/eyelash-epilation-in-the-absence-of-trichiasis-results-of-a-population-based-prevalence-survey-in-the-western-division-of-fiji
#19
Colin Macleod, Chelsea Yalen, Robert Butcher, Umesh Mudaliar, Kinisimere Natutusau, Mere Rainima-Qaniuci, Chris Haffenden, Conall Watson, Naomi Cocks, Luisa Cikamatana, Chrissy H Roberts, Michael Marks, Eric Rafai, David C W Mabey, Mike Kama, Anthony W Solomon
BACKGROUND: The WHO definition of trachomatous trichiasis (TT) is "at least one eyelash touching the globe, or evidence of recent epilation of in-turned eyelashes", reflecting the fact that epilation is used as a self-management tool for TT. In Fiji's Western Division, a high TT prevalence (8.7% in those aged ≥15 years) was reported in a 2012 survey, yet a 2013 survey found no TT and Fijian ophthalmologists rarely see TT cases. Local anecdote suggests that eyelash epilation is a common behaviour, even in the absence of trichiasis...
January 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28111145/status-of-vaccine-research-and-development-of-vaccines-for-chlamydia-trachomatis-infection
#20
Taylor B Poston, Sami L Gottlieb, Toni Darville
Genital infection with Chlamydia trachomatis, a gram-negative obligate intracellular bacterium, is the most common bacterial sexually transmitted infection globally. Ascension of chlamydial infection to the female upper genital tract can cause acute pelvic inflammatory disease, tubal factor infertility, ectopic pregnancy, and chronic pelvic pain. Shortcomings of current chlamydia control strategies, especially for low- and middle-income countries, highlight the need for an effective vaccine. Evidence from animal models, human epidemiological studies, and early trachoma vaccine trials suggest that a C...
January 19, 2017: Vaccine
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