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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329726/patient-centered-communication-of-community-treatment-assistants-in-tanzania-predicts-coverage-of-future-mass-drug-administration-for-trachoma
#1
Alexander Jenson, Debra L Roter, Harran Mkocha, Beatriz Munoz, Sheila West
OBJECTIVE: Prevention of Trachoma, the leading cause of infectious blindness, requires community treatment assistants (CTAs) to perform mass drug administration (MDA) of azithromycin. Previous research has shown that female CTAs have higher MDA coverage, but no studies have focused on the content of conversation. We hypothesize that female CTAs had more patient-centered communication and higher MDA coverage. METHODS: In 2011, CTAs from 23 distribution sites undergoing MDA as part of the Partnership for Rapid Elimination of Trachoma were selected...
January 6, 2018: Patient Education and Counseling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306862/risk-factors-for-incidence-of-trachomatous-scarring-in-a-cohort-of-women-in-low-endemic-district
#2
Rabia Karani, Meraf Wolle, Harran Mkocha, Beatriz Muñoz, Sheila K West
BACKGROUND/AIMS: To determine the incidence of scarring in women in a trachoma low endemic district of rural Tanzania and to determine the effects of lifetime cooking fire exposure and markers of lower socioeconomic status on incidence of scarring in these women. METHODS: A prospective cohort study was conducted over a 3.5-year period from 2013 to 2016 in 48 villages in Kongwa, Tanzania where trachoma at baseline was 5.2% in children. A random sample of 2966 women aged 15 and older who were at risk for incident scarring were eligible for follow-up...
January 6, 2018: British Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29285712/enlightenment-of-blinding-trachoma-elimination-in-china
#3
Ailian Hu, Ningli Wang
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 1, 2017: Science China. Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29282126/the-impact-of-a-single-round-of-community-mass-treatment-with-azithromycin-on-disease-severity-and-ocular-chlamydia-trachomatis-load-in-treatment-na%C3%A3-ve-trachoma-endemic-island-communities-in-west-africa
#4
Anna R Last, Sarah E Burr, Emma Harding-Esch, Eunice Cassama, Meno Nabicassa, Chrissy H Roberts, David C W Mabey, Martin J Holland, Robin L Bailey
BACKGROUND: Trachoma, a neglected tropical disease, is caused by ocular infection with Chlamydia trachomatis (Ct). The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends three annual rounds of community mass drug treatment with azithromycin (MDA) if the prevalence of follicular trachoma in 1-9 year olds (TF1-9) exceeds 10% at district level to achieve an elimination target of district-level TF1-9 below 5% after. To evaluate this strategy in treatment-naïve trachoma-endemic island communities in Guinea Bissau, we conducted a cross-sectional population-based trachoma survey on four islands...
December 28, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29260659/comparison-of-mass-azithromycin-coverage-targets-of-children-in-niger-a-cluster-randomized-trachoma-trial
#5
Catherine E Oldenburg, Abdou Amza, Boubacar Kadri, Beido Nassirou, Sun Y Cotter, Nicole E Stoller, Sheila K West, Robin L Bailey, Travis C Porco, Bruce D Gaynor, Jeremy D Keenan, Thomas M Lietman
Repeated oral azithromycin distribution targeted only to children has proven effective in reducing the ocular Chlamydia that causes trachoma. Here, we assess whether an enhanced coverage target of at least 90% of children is superior to the World Health Organization recommendation of at least 80%. Twenty-four trachoma-endemic communities in Matamèye, Niger, were randomized to a single day of azithromycin distribution aiming for at least 80% coverage or up to 4 days of treatment and > 90% coverage of children under age 12...
December 18, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233796/tracking-trachoma-how-the-gambia-is-eliminating-an-ancient-disease
#6
Jori Lewis
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 11, 2017: Environmental Health Perspectives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232708/elimination-of-trachoma-as-a-public-health-problem-in-ghana-providing-evidence-through-a-pre-validation-survey
#7
Oscar Debrah, Ernest O Mensah, Laura Senyonjo, Dziedzom K de Souza, Tei E Hervie, David Agyemang, Didier Bakajika, Benjamin Marfo, Felix Ahorsu, Seth Wanye, Robin Bailey, Joseph B Koroma, Agatha Aboe, Nana-Kwadwo Biritwum
BACKGROUND: In order to achieve elimination of trachoma, a country needs to demonstrate that the elimination prevalence thresholds have been achieved and then sustained for at least a two-year period. Ghana achieved the thresholds in 2008, and since 2011 has been implementing its trachoma surveillance strategy, which includes community and school screening for signs of follicular trachoma and trichiasis, in trachoma-endemic districts. In 2015-2016, the country conducted a district level population-based survey to validate elimination of trachoma as a public health problem...
December 12, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232692/trachomatous-scarring-among-children-in-a-formerly-hyper-endemic-district-of-tanzania
#8
Jacob T Cox, Harran Mkocha, Beatriz Munoz, Sheila K West
BACKGROUND: Associations between repeated ocular infections with Chlamydia trachomatis in childhood and conjunctival scarring in adulthood are well established. Trachomatous scarring (TS) in children has also been observed in hyper-endemic areas, but data are scant regarding childhood scarring in areas where trachoma has been reduced to hypo-endemic levels. METHODS/PRINCIPLE FINDINGS: In this cross-sectional study, a random sample of children, ages 1-9 years, were selected from 38 communities in the formerly hyper-endemic district of Kongwa, Tanzania...
December 12, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211746/review-of-the-factors-influencing-the-motivation-of-community-drug-distributors-towards-the-control-and-elimination-of-neglected-tropical-diseases-ntds
#9
Alison Krentel, Margaret Gyapong, Shruti Mallya, Nana Yaa Boadu, Mary Amuyunzu-Nyamongo, Mariana Stephens, Deborah A McFarland
BACKGROUND: Community drug distributors or neglected tropical disease (NTD) volunteers have played a crucial role in ensuring the success of mass drug administration (MDA) programs using preventive chemotherapy (PC) for lymphatic filariasis, onchocerciasis, schistosomiasis, trachoma and soil transmitted helminths. In recent years however, a noticeable decline in motivation of some of these volunteers has been perceived, potentially negatively impacting the success of these programs. Potential hypotheses for this change in motivation include the long duration of many MDA programs, the change in sociocultural environments as well as the changes to the programs over time...
December 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29190298/the-f-in-safe-reliability-of-assessing-clean-faces-for-trachoma-control-in-the-field
#10
Sheila K West, Derick Ansah, Beatriz Munoz, Nicodemus Funga, Harran Mkocha
BACKGROUND: Although facial cleanliness is part of the SAFE strategy for trachoma there is controversy over the reliability of measuring a clean face. A child's face with no ocular and nasal discharge is clean and the endpoint of interest, regardless of the number of times it must be washed to achieve that endpoint. The issue of reliability rests on the reproducibility of graders to assess a clean face. We report the reproducibility of assessing a clean face in a field trial in Kongwa, Tanzania...
November 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29180986/chlamydia-trachomatis-strain-types-have-diversified-regionally-and-globally-with-evidence-for-recombination-across-geographic-divides
#11
Vitaly Smelov, Alison Vrbanac, Eleanne F van Ess, Marlies P Noz, Raymond Wan, Carina Eklund, Tyler Morgan, Lydia A Shrier, Blake Sanders, Joakim Dillner, Henry J C de Vries, Servaas A Morre, Deborah Dean
Chlamydia trachomatis (Ct) is the leading cause of bacterial sexually transmitted diseases worldwide. The Ct Multi Locus Sequence Typing (MLST) scheme is effective in differentiating strain types (ST), deciphering transmission patterns and treatment failure, and identifying recombinant strains. Here, we analyzed 323 reference and clinical samples, including 58 samples from Russia, an area that has not previously been represented in Ct typing schemes, to expand our knowledge of the global diversification of Ct STs...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164260/two-southeast-asian-countries-eliminate-trachoma
#12
M J Friedrich
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 21, 2017: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158904/follow-up-and-report-on-active-trachoma-in-zabol-iran-prompted-by-sharifi-rad-and-fallah-s-observations-published-in-may-2016
#13
S-F Mohammadi, A Bazi-Shad, J Akbarizadeh, E Ashrafi, Z Moinfar, E Shirdel, M Nabavi, S Samiei, S Salehi-Rad, A W Solomon
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2017: New Microbes and New Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141720/prevalence-of-chlamydia-trachomatis-specific-antibodies-before-and-after-mass-drug-administration-for-trachoma-in-community-wide-surveys-of-four-communities-in-nepal
#14
Sarah E Gwyn, Lingwei Xiang, Ram Prasad Kandel, Deborah Dean, Manoj Gambhir, Diana L Martin
The target end date for the global elimination of trachoma as a public health problem is 2020. As countries begin the process for submitting their dossier for the validation of elimination of trachoma as a public health problem, strategies for post-validation surveillance must be considered. Seroprevalence of antibodies against antigens from the causative bacteria Chlamydia trachomatis (Ct) in young children has been shown to reflect trachomatous inflammation-follicular (TF) rates in both endemic and previously endemic settings...
November 6, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140407/targeted-treatment-of-yaws-with-household-contact-tracing-how-much-do-we-miss
#15
Louise Dyson, Michael Marks, Oliver M Crook, Oliver Sokana, Anthony W Solomon, Alex Bishop, David C W Mabey, T Déirdre Hollingsworth
Yaws is a disabling bacterial infection primarily found in warm and humid tropical areas. The World Health Organisation strategy mandates an initial round of total community treatment (TCT) with single-dose azithromycin followed either by further TCT or active case finding and treatment of cases and their contacts (the Morges strategy). We wish to investigate the effectiveness of the Morges strategy. We employ a stochastic household model to study the transmission of infection using data collected from a pre-TCT survey conducted in the Solomon Islands...
November 13, 2017: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137663/patent-landscape-of-neglected-tropical-diseases-an-analysis-of-worldwide-patent-families
#16
Folahanmi Tomiwa Akinsolu, Vitor Nobre de Paiva, Samuel Santos Souza, Orsolya Varga
BACKGROUND: "Neglected Tropical Diseases" (NTDs) affect millions of people in Africa, Asia and South America. The two primary ways of strategic interventions are "preventive chemotherapy and transmission control" (PCT), and "innovative and intensified disease management" (IDM). In the last 5 years, phenomenal progress has been achieved. However, it is crucial to intensify research effort into NTDs, because of the emerging drug resistance. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), the term NTDs covers 17 diseases, namely buruli ulcer, Chagas disease, dengue, dracunculiasis, echinococcosis, trematodiasis, human African trypanosomiasis, leishmaniasis, leprosy, lymphatic filariasis, onchocerciasis, rabies, schistosomiasis, soil-transmitted helminthes, taeniasis, trachoma, and yaws...
November 14, 2017: Globalization and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125849/effect-of-water-sanitation-and-hygiene-interventions-on-active-trachoma-in-north-and-south-wollo-zones-of-amhara-region-ethiopia-a-quasi-experimental-study
#17
Beselam Tadesse, Alemayehu Worku, Abera Kumie, Solomon Abebe Yimer
BACKGROUND: Trachoma is chronic kerato conjunctivitis, which is caused by repeated infection with Chlamydia trachomatis bacterium. It is hyper endemic in many rural areas of Ethiopia. The objective of this study was to measure the effect of water, sanitation and hygiene interventions on active trachoma in selected woredas of North and South Wollo zones of Amhara Region, Ethiopia. METHODOLOGY: A community based quasi-experimental study was conducted from October 2014 to December 2015 among children aged 1-8 years at baseline and among one year older same children after intervention...
November 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118442/serology-reflects-a-decline-in-the-prevalence-of-trachoma-in-two-regions-of-the-gambia
#18
Stephanie J Migchelsen, Nuno Sepúlveda, Diana L Martin, Gretchen Cooley, Sarah Gwyn, Harry Pickering, Hassan Joof, Pateh Makalo, Robin Bailey, Sarah E Burr, David C W Mabey, Anthony W Solomon, Chrissy H Roberts
Trachoma is caused by Chlamydia trachomatis (Ct). It is targeted for global elimination as a public health problem. In 2014, a population-based cross-sectional study was performed in two previously trachoma-endemic areas of The Gambia. Participants of all ages from Lower River Region (LRR) (N = 1028) and Upper River Region (URR) (N = 840) underwent examination for trachoma and had blood collected for detection of antibodies against the Ct antigen Pgp3, by ELISA. Overall, 30 (1.6%) individuals had active trachoma; the prevalence in children aged 1-9 years was 3...
November 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29070928/how-schools-can-help-to-build-healthy-productive-lives-free-of-trachoma
#19
Jaouad Hammou, Gardachew Tiruneh, Abebaw Kebede
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Community Eye Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29056503/charles-dickens-trachoma-and-blindness-in-pre-victorian-england
#20
REVIEW
Curtis E Margo, Lynn E Harman
In the early 1820s a Yorkshire boarding school was devastated by an outbreak of blinding ophthalmia. The cause of the epidemic was - in all likelihood - trachoma, then known as Egyptian ophthalmia. The headmaster of the Yorkshire school, William Shaw, was sued for gross negligence by two families whose sons went blind during the outbreak. The epidemic and trial would play a role in creating one of literatures most notorious fictional characters. Eighteen years after the trial, Charles Dickens modeled the vile schoolmaster Wackford Squeers in Nicholas Nickleby after Shaw, whose reputation and career would later be ruined by his thinly disguised portrayal in the novel...
October 19, 2017: Survey of Ophthalmology
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