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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301469/global-analysis-of-translation-termination-in-e-coli
#1
Natalie E Baggett, Yan Zhang, Carol A Gross
Terminating protein translation accurately and efficiently is critical for both protein fidelity and ribosome recycling for continued translation. The three bacterial release factors (RFs) play key roles: RF1 and 2 recognize stop codons and terminate translation; and RF3 promotes disassociation of bound release factors. Probing release factors mutations with reporter constructs containing programmed frameshifting sequences or premature stop codons had revealed a propensity for readthrough or frameshifting at these specific sites, but their effects on translation genome-wide have not been examined...
March 16, 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288978/mff-dependent-mitochondrial-fission-contributes-to-the-pathogenesis-of-cardiac-microvasculature-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-via-induction-of-mros-mediated-cardiolipin-oxidation-and-hk2-vdac1-disassociation-involved-mptp-opening
#2
Hao Zhou, Shunying Hu, Qinhua Jin, Chen Shi, Ying Zhang, Pingjun Zhu, Qiang Ma, Feng Tian, Yundai Chen
BACKGROUND: The cardiac microvascular system ischemia/reperfusion injury following percutaneous coronary intervention is a clinical thorny problem. This study explores the mechanisms by which ischemia/reperfusion injury induces cardiac microcirculation collapse. METHODS AND RESULTS: In wild-type mice, mitochondrial fission factor (Mff) expression increased in response to acute microvascular ischemia/reperfusion injury. Compared with wild-type mice, homozygous Mff-deficient (Mff(gt)) mice exhibited a smaller infarcted area, restored cardiac function, improved blood flow, and reduced microcirculation perfusion defects...
March 13, 2017: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286305/yipf1-yipf2-and-yipf6-are-medial-trans-golgi-and-trans-golgi-network-localized-yip-domain-family-proteins-which-play-a-role-in-the-golgi-reassembly-and-glycan-synthesis
#3
Jeerawat Soonthornsit, Noriko Sakai, Yurika Sasaki, Ryota Watanabe, Shiho Osako, Nobuhiro Nakamura
In this study, we attempted to explore the function of three uncharacterized mammalian homologs of yeast Yip domain family proteins-YIPF6, a homolog of Yip1p, and YIPF1 and YIPF2, which are homologs of Yif1p. Immunofluorescence staining revealed that YIPF1, YIPF2, and YIPF6 mainly localize in the medial-/trans-Golgi and also partially in the trans-Golgi network (TGN). On treatment with brefeldin A (BFA), the homologs co-migrated partly with medial-/trans-Golgi markers and also with a TGN marker in earlier time point, but finally redistributed within cytoplasmic punctate structures that were distinct from medial-/trans-Golgi and the TGN markers...
March 9, 2017: Experimental Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283412/silver-nanoparticles-alter-learning-and-memory-formation-in-an-aquatic-organism-lymnaea-stagnalis
#4
Austin Young, Amy Protheroe, Ken Lukowiak
We tested the effect of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) on the ability of the pond snail, Lymnaea stagnalis, to learn and form long-term memory (LTM) following operant conditioning of aerial respiration. We hypothesized that the AgNPs would act as a stressor and prevent learning and LTM formation. We tested snails exposed for either 72 h or only during training and testing for memory (i.e. 0.5 h) and found no difference between those treatments. We found that at a low concentration of AgNPs (5 μg/L) neither learning and nor memory formation were altered...
March 7, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28259822/ddx17-nucleocytoplasmic-shuttling-promotes-acquired-gefitinib-resistance-in-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-cells-via-activation-of-%C3%AE-catenin
#5
Kai Li, Chunfen Mo, Di Gong, Yan Chen, Zhao Huang, Yanyan Li, Jie Zhang, Lugang Huang, Yuan Li, Frances V Fuller-Pace, Ping Lin, Yuquan Wei
Although epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR-TKIs) are effective for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients with EGFR mutations, almost all these patients will eventually develop acquired resistance to EGFR-TKI. However, the molecular mechanisms responsible for gefitinib resistance remain still not fully understood. Here, we report that elevated DDX17 levels are observed in gefitinib-resistant NSCLC cells than gefitinib-sensitive cells. Upregulation of DDX17 enhances the gefitinib resistance, whereas DDX17-silenced cells partially restore gefitinib sensitivity...
March 1, 2017: Cancer Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28255674/testing-of-viable-human-skin-cell-dilution-cultures-as-an-approach-to-validating-microsampling
#6
Stephen A Ainger, X L Hilary Yong, H Peter Soyer, Richard A Sturm
Skin biopsies are a valuable technique in the diagnosis of cutaneous inflammatory and neoplastic conditions. We were interested to test the minimal size or equivalent volume by dilution of proteolytically disassociated skin tissue required to allow the isolation and propagation of cutaneous cells, for freezing, storage and biochemical analysis. It was possible to propagate with 100% efficiency fibroblast and melanocytic cells from a 0.1 to 0.5 mm(3) equivalent neonatal foreskin sample using a combination of DispaseII and CollagenaseIV...
March 3, 2017: Archives of Dermatological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28249611/intervention-mapping-to-address-social-and-economic-factors-impacting-indigenous-people-s-health-in-suriname-s-interior-region
#7
Daniel Peplow, Sarah Augustine
BACKGROUND: Previous studies found that while internationally financed economic development projects reduced poverty when measured in terms of per capita GDP, they also caused indigenous people to become disassociated, impoverished and alienated minorities whose health status has declined to unacceptable lows when measured in terms of mercury poisoning and the burgeoning rate of suicide. In this study, we developed a needs assessment and a policy-oriented causal diagram to determine whether the impaired health of the people in this region was at least partially due to the role the country has played within the global economy...
March 1, 2017: Globalization and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28248973/a-new-genus-and-species-of-marine-catfishes-siluriformes-ariidae-from-the-upper-eocene-birket-qarun-formation-wadi-el-hitan-egypt
#8
Sanaa E El-Sayed, Mahmoud A Kora, Hesham M Sallam, Kerin M Claeson, Erik R Seiffert, Mohammed S Antar
Wadi El-Hitan, the UNESCO World Heritage Site, of the Fayum Depression in the northeast part of the Western Desert of Egypt, has produced a remarkable collection of Eocene vertebrates, in particular the fossil whales from which it derives its name. Here we describe a new genus and species of marine catfishes (Siluriformes; Ariidae), Qarmoutus hitanensis, from the base of the upper Eocene Birket Qarun Formation, based on a partial neurocranium including the complete left side, partial right dentary, left suspensorium, two opercles, left pectoral girdle and spine, nuchal plates, first and second dorsal spines, Weberian apparatus and a disassociated series of abdominal vertebrae...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218221/gene-expressions-underlying-mishandled-calcium-clearance-and-elevated-generation-of-reactive-oxygen-species-in-the-coronary-artery-smooth-muscle-cells-of-chronic-heart-failure-rats
#9
Liang Ding, Xian-Xiu Su, Wen-Hui Zhang, Yu-Xiang Xu, Xue-Feng Pan
BACKGROUND: The calcium clearance and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generations in the coronary artery smooth muscle cells in chronic heart failure (HF) have not been fully investigated. Therefore, we attempted to understand the gene expressions underlying the mishandling of calcium clearance and the accumulations of ROS. METHODS: We initially established an animal model of chronic HF by making the left anterior descending coronary artery ligation (CAL) in rats, and then isolated the coronary artery vascular smooth muscle cells from the ischemic and the nonischemic parts of the coronary artery vessels in 12 weeks after CAL operation...
2017: Chinese Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212035/ultrafast-time-resolved-x-ray-absorption-spectroscopy-of-ferrioxalate-photolysis-with-a-laser-plasma-x-ray-source-and-microcalorimeter-array
#10
Galen C O'Neil, Luis Miaja-Avila, Young Il Joe, Bradley K Alpert, Mahalingam Balasubramanian, D M Sagar, William Doriese, Joseph W Fowler, Wilfred K Fullagar, Ning Chen, Gene C Hilton, Ralph Jimenez, Bruce Ravel, Carl D Reintsema, Dan R Schmidt, Kevin L Silverman, Daniel S Swetz, Jens Uhlig, Joel N Ullom
The detailed pathways of photoactivity on ultrafast time scales are a topic of contemporary interest. Using a tabletop apparatus based on a laser plasma X-ray source and an array of cryogenic microcalorimeter X-ray detectors, we measured a transient X-ray absorption spectrum during the ferrioxalate photoreduction reaction. With these high-efficiency detectors, we observe the Fe K edge move to lower energies and the amplitude of the extended X-ray absorption fine structure reduce, consistent with a photoreduction mechanism in which electron transfer precedes disassociation...
February 22, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28158270/developmental-time-course-and-effects-of-immunostressors-that-alter-hormone-responsive-behavior-on-microglia-in-the-peripubertal-and-adult-female-mouse-brain
#11
Mary K Holder, Jeffrey D Blaustein
In female mice, the experience of being shipped from the breeder facility or a single injection of the bacterial endotoxin, lipopolysaccharide (LPS), during pubertal development alters the behavioral response to estradiol in adulthood as demonstrated by perturbations of estradiol's effects on sexual behavior, cognitive function, as well as its anxiolytic and anti-depressive properties. Microglia, the primary type of immunocompetent cell within the brain, contribute to brain development and respond to stressors with marked and long-lasting morphological and functional changes...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28148647/hops-catalyzes-the-interdependent-assembly-of-each-vacuolar-snare-into-a-snare-complex
#12
Amy Orr, Hongki Song, Scott F Rusin, Arminja N Kettenbach, William Wickner
Rab GTPases, their effectors, SNAREs of the R, Qa, Qb, and Qc families, and SM SNARE-binding proteins catalyze intracellular membrane fusion. At the vacuole/lysosome, they are integrated by the HOPS (homotypic fusion and vacuole protein sorting) complex. Two HOPS subunits bind vacuolar Rabs for tethering, another binds the Qc SNARE, and a fourth HOPS subunit, an SM protein, has conserved grooves which bind R- and Qa-SNARE domains. Spontaneous quaternary SNARE complex assembly is very slow. We now report an assay of SNARE complex assembly which does not rely on fusion and where tethering doesn't co-enrich the 4 SNAREs...
February 1, 2017: Molecular Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28133414/caring-an-undiscovered-super-ility-of-smart-healthcare
#13
Nancy Laplante, Phil Laplante, Jeff Voas
As new and exciting applications emerge using smart technologies, the Internet of Things, data analytics, and others for healthcare, a critical problem is emerging: the potential loss of caring. While these exciting technologies have improved patient care by allowing for better assessment, surveillance, and treatment, the use of technology can disassociate the caregiver from the patient, essentially removing the "care" from healthcare. Here we introduce the notion of caring as an undiscovered ility that ranks at least as important as other well-known ilities in healthcare systems...
November 2016: IEEE Softw
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28129486/-it-s-not-me-it-s-not-really-me-insights-from-patients-on-living-with-systemic-sclerosis-an-interview-study
#14
Daniel Sumpton, Vivek Thakkar, Sean O'Neill, Davinder Singh-Grewal, Jonathan C Craig, Allison Tong
OBJECTIVES: Patients with systemic sclerosis suffer severe physical limitations and psychological morbidity but their lived experience remains underrepresented and is reflected in the scarcity of evidence based patient-centered interventions. We aimed to describe patients' perspectives of systemic sclerosis to inform strategies to improve their care. METHODS: Face-to-face semi-structured interviews were conducted with 30 adult patients with limited or diffuse systemic sclerosis in Australia...
January 27, 2017: Arthritis Care & Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079384/hypoxia-and-h2o2-dual-sensitive-vesicles-for-enhanced-glucose-responsive-insulin-delivery
#15
Jicheng Yu, Chenggen Qian, Yuqi Zhang, Zheng Cui, Yong Zhu, Qundong Shen, Frances S Ligler, John B Buse, Zhen Gu
A glucose-responsive closed-loop insulin delivery system mimicking pancreas activity without long-term side effect has the potential to improve diabetic patients' health and quality of life. Here, we developed a novel glucose-responsive insulin delivery device using a painless microneedle-array patch containing insulin-loaded vesicles. Formed by self-assembly of hypoxia and H2O2 dual-sensitive diblock copolymer, the glucose-responsive polymersome-based vesicles (d-GRPs) can disassociate and subsequently release insulin triggered by H2O2 and hypoxia generated during glucose oxidation catalyzed by glucose specific enzyme...
January 12, 2017: Nano Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057699/glucagon-like-peptide-1-and-its-analogues-act-in-the-dorsal-raphe-and-modulate-central-serotonin-to-reduce-appetite-and-body-weight
#16
Rozita H Anderberg, Jennifer E Richard, Kim Eerola, Lorena Lopez Ferreras, Elin Banke Nordbeck, Caroline Hansson, Hans Nissbrandt, Filip Berqquist, Fiona M Gribble, Frank Reimann, Ingrid Wernstedt-Asterholm, Christophe Lamy, Karolina P Skibicka
Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and serotonin play critical roles in energy balance regulation. Both systems are exploited clinically as anti-obesity strategies. Surprisingly whether they interact in order to regulate energy balance is poorly understood. Here we investigated mechanisms by which GLP-1 and serotonin interact at the level of the CNS. Serotonin depletion impaired the ability of exendin-4, a clinically utilized GLP-1 analogue, to reduce body weight in rats, suggesting serotonin is a critical mediator of the energy balance impact of GLP-1R activation...
January 5, 2017: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28009968/the-dielectrophoretic-disassociation-of-chloride-ions-and-the-influence-on-diamagnetic-anisotropy-in-cell-membranes
#17
Marcy C Purnell, Terence J Skrinjar
Chloride channels represent ubiquitously expressed proteins that regulate fundamental cellular processes including membrane potential, maintenance of intracellular pH, and regulation of cell volume. However, mechanisms to modulate this large family of ion channels have remained elusive to date. This large chloride channel family does not appear to operate with selectivity similar to the sodium and potassium channels. These unique channels appear to be bi-directional cotransporters of two or more different molecules or ions across a bilayer phospholipid membrane...
November 2016: Discovery Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27967292/the-role-of-p53-in-myelodysplastic-syndromes-and-acute-myeloid-leukemia-molecular-aspects-and-clinical-implications
#18
Ling Zhang, Kathy L McGraw, David A Sallman, Alan F List
TP53 gene mutations occurring in patients with myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) and acute myeloid leukemia (AML) are associated with high-risk karyotypes including 17p abnormalities, monosomal and complex cytogenetics. TP53 mutations in these disorders portend rapid disease progression and resistance to conventional therapeutics. Notably, the size of the TP53 mutant clone as measured by mutation allele burden is directly linked to overall survival (OS) confirming the importance of p53 as a negative prognostic variable...
August 2017: Leukemia & Lymphoma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27965026/disentangling-stimulus-plausibility-and-contextual-congruency-electro-physiological-evidence-for-differential-cognitive-dynamics
#19
Moreno I Coco, Susana Araujo, Karl Magnus Petersson
Expectancy mechanisms are routinely used by the cognitive system in stimulus processing and in anticipation of appropriate responses. Electrophysiology research has documented negative shifts of brain activity when expectancies are violated within a local stimulus context (e.g., reading an implausible word in a sentence) or more globally between consecutive stimuli (e.g., a narrative of images with an incongruent end). In this EEG study, we examine the interaction between expectancies operating at the level of stimulus plausibility and at more global level of contextual congruency to provide evidence for, or against, a disassociation of the underlying processing mechanisms...
February 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27957567/rapid-capillary-mixing-experiments-for-the-analysis-of-hydrophobic-membrane-complexes-directly-from-aqueous-lipid-bilayer-solutions
#20
John W Patrick, Breanna Zerfas, Jianmin Gao, David H Russell
In this study the gas-phase conformer preferences of Gramicidin A (GA), a linear antimicrobial pentadecapeptide, were investigated directly from aqueous solutions of lipid vesicle bilayers using a mixing tee-electrospray ionization (MT-ESI) setup coupled with ion mobility mass spectrometry (IM-MS). The required time for GA sample preparation was decreased by approximately 50% using MT-ESI when compared to previously reported methods which required freeze-drying of samples. Using an MT-ESI approach to analyze samples of GA associated with POPC (16:0, 18:1 PC) and DEPC (22:1 PC) lipid bilayers yielded dimer conformer preferences comparable to results obtained using more lengthy protocols...
December 13, 2016: Analyst
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