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Xianling Gong, Zhihong Chen, Qinrui Han, Chunhui Chen, Linlin Jing, Yawei Liu, Liang Zhao, Xueqing Yao, Xuegang Sun
BACKGROUND: Previous studies showed sanguinarine induced apoptosis in CRC cells but did not define the underlying mechanisms. The purpose of this work was to determine the in vivo and in vitro effects of sanguinarine on CRC tumors and to elucidate the mechanism in regulating the intrinsic apoptosis. METHODS: Cell viability of CRC cell lines treated with sanguinarine was measured by MTT assay. Apoptotic cells stained with Annexin V and 7-AAD were detected by flow cytometry...
May 21, 2018: BMC Cancer
Tushar Murthy, Theresa Bluemn, Abhishek Gupta, Michael Reimer, Sridhar Rao, Manoj M Pillai, Alex C Minella
Splicing factor 3B1 (SF3B1) is a core splicing protein that stabilizes the interaction between the U2 snRNA and the branch point in the mRNA target during splicing. SF3B1 is heavily phosphorylated at its N terminus and a substrate of cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs). Although SF3B1 phosphorylation coincides with splicing catalysis, the functional significance of SF3B1 phosphorylation is largely undefined. Here, we show that SF3B1 phosphorylation follows a dynamic pattern during cell cycle progression that depends on CDK activity...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Nikita V Solodkov, Mamatha Nagaraj, J Cliff Jones
Tilted smectic liquid crystal phases such as the smectic-C phase seen in calamitic liquid crystals are usually treated using the assumption of biaxial orthorhombic symmetry. However, the smectic-C phase has monoclinic symmetry, thereby allowing disassociation of the principal optic and dielectric axes based on symmetry and invariance principles. This is demonstrated here by comparing optical and dielectric measurements for two materials with highly first-order direct transitions from nematic to smectic-C phases...
April 2018: Physical Review. E
Xiao Wei, Lingqiao Liu, Xing Guo, Yi Wang, Jingya Zhao, Shaobing Zhou
Cancer chemotherapy faces the problem of the multidrug resistance (MDR) of tumor cells, which is a puzzling issue that leads to treatment failure. To address it, an innovative approach is proposed to construct a light-activated reactive oxygen species (ROS)-responsive nanoplatform based on a protoporphyrin (PpIX)-conjugated and dual chemotherapeutics-loaded polymer micelle. This system combines chemotherapy and photodynamic therapy (PDT) to defeat the MDR of tumors. Such an intelligent nanocarrier can prolong the blood circulation due to the negatively charged polysaccharide component of chondroitin sulfate (CS) and subsequently being selectively internalized by DOX-resistant human breast cancer MCF-7 cells (MCF-7/ADR)...
May 8, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Courtney A Ackeifi, Ethan A Swartz, Peng Wang
Diabetes is the result of the insufficiency or dysfunction of pancreatic beta cells alone or in combination with insulin resistance. The replacement or regeneration of beta cells can effectively reverse diabetes in humans and rodents. Therefore, the identification of novel small molecules that promote pancreatic beta-cell proliferation is an attractive approach for diabetic therapy. While numerous hormones, small molecules, and growth factors are able to drive rodent beta cells to replicate, only a few small molecules have demonstrated the ability to stimulate human beta-cell proliferation...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Julie A Mustard, Valerie Alvarez, Sofy Barocio, Jamie Mathews, Alexander Stoker, Kashif Malik
Honey bees will learn to respond to an odor when their antennae are stimulated with sucrose, even if they are not fed during the conditioning phase. However, if they are not fed, the memory of this association is significantly reduced 24 h after conditioning. These results suggest that stimulation of proboscis with sucrose and/or the nutritional quality of the reward plays an important role in establishing a long lasting memory. Three sugars, xylose, sorbitol and mannitol, are used to investigate the relationship among learning, sensory perception and nutritional value...
May 2, 2018: Journal of Insect Physiology
Wei-Wei Sun, Shi Jiao, Li Sun, Zhaocai Zhou, Xia Jin, Jian-Hua Wang
The postintegrational latency of HIV-1 is characterized by reversible silencing of long terminal repeat (LTR)-driven transcription of the HIV genome. It is known that the formation of repressive chromatin at the 5'-LTR of HIV-1 proviral DNA impedes viral transcription by blocking the recruitment of positive transcription factors. How the repressive chromatin is formed and modulated during HIV-1 infection remains elusive. Elucidation of which chromatin reassembly factor mediates the reorganization of chromatin is likely to facilitate the understanding of the host's modulation of HIV-1 transcription and latency...
May 1, 2018: MBio
Linda S May-Zhang, Valery Yermalitsky, Jiansheng Huang, Tiffany Pleasent, Mark S Borja, Michael N Oda, W Gray Jerome, Patricia G Yancey, MacRae F Linton, Sean S Davies
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk depends on HDL function, not HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C). Isolevuglandins (IsoLGs) are lipid dicarbonyls that react with lysine residues of proteins and phosphatidylethanolamine. IsoLG adducts are elevated in atherosclerosis. The consequences of IsoLG modification of HDL have not been studied. We hypothesized that IsoLG modification of apoA-I deleteriously alters HDL function. We determined the effect of IsoLG on HDL structure-function, and whether pentylpyridoxamine (PPM), a dicarbonyl scavenger, can preserve HDL function...
April 30, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Yu-Kun Jian, Xiao-Xia Le, Yu-Chong Zhang, Wei Lu, Li Wang, Jing Zheng, Jia-Wei Zhang, You-Ju Huang, Tao Chen
Realization of shape memory process in polymeric hydrogels at ambient condition is a significant development to shape memory materials. The sound understanding of the dynamic shape memory process is fundamentally important but limited. Here, a novel shape memory hydrogel with simultaneously switchable fluorescence behavior is developed. The hydrogel is prepared by incorporating a pH-responsive fluorescent molecule, perylene tetracarboxylic acid, into chitosan-based hydrogel, and the assembly and disassembly of chitosan chains into microcrystals upon the trigger of pH are applied as reversible crosslinks to achieve shape memory effect...
April 26, 2018: Macromolecular Rapid Communications
Lihan Wang, John Q Gan, Li Zhang, Haixian Wang
Previous neuroimaging research investigating dissociation between single-digit addition and multiplication has suggested that the former placed more reliance on the visuo-spatial processing whereas the latter on the verbal processing. However, there has been little exploration into the disassociation in spatio-temporal dynamics of the oscillatory brain activity in specific frequency bands during the two arithmetic operations. To address this issue, the electroencephalogram (EEG) data were recorded from 19 participants engaged in a delayed verification arithmetic task...
April 16, 2018: International Journal of Psychophysiology
Andrea Pelletier-Baldelli, Jessica R Andrews-Hanna, Vijay A Mittal
Clarifying dynamic fluctuations in resting-state connectivity in individuals at risk for psychosis (termed clinical high risk [CHR]) may inform understanding of psychotic disorders, such as schizophrenia, which have been associated with dysconnectivity and aberrant salience processing. Dynamic functional connectivity (DFC) investigations provide insight into how neural networks exchange information over time. Currently, there are no published DFC studies involving CHR individuals. This is notable, because understanding how networks may come together and disassociate over time could lend insight into the neural communication that underlies psychosis development and symptomatology...
April 2018: Journal of Abnormal Psychology
Quanyin Hu, Qian Chen, Zhen Gu
These years, transformable drug delivery systems (DDSs), which hold the capability of changing formulation morphology and subsequent functionality at the desired disease site, have shown great promise in control of spatio-temporal drug delivery/release manner and enhanced treatment efficacy. Equipped with controllability and design flexibility, the transformable DDSs are being increasingly pursued for the development of precision drug delivery platforms for biomedical applications. In this review, we describe the recently developed intracelluarly and extracellularly transformable DDSs, especially associated with assembly or disassociation of the original formulation units, for achieving various functionalities, including prolonged retention time, inhibited endocytosis and enhanced cytotoxicity...
April 5, 2018: Biomaterials
Peng Wang, Yatao Wu, Jie Liu, Ping Song, Shan Li, Xinxin Zhou, Guoping Zhu
Monomeric isocitrate dehydrogenases (IDHs) have a single polypeptide sizing around 85 kDa. The IDH2 from the opportunistic bacterium Acinetobacter baumannii (AbIDH2) with a mass of 83 kDa was formerly recognized as a typical monomeric IDH. However, both size exclusion chromatography and analytical ultracentrifugation analysis indicated that AbIDH2 exists as a homodimer in solution. The crystallographic study of the substrate/coenzyme-free AbIDH2 gave a dimeric structure and each subunit contained a domain I and a domain II...
April 10, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Colin M Wright, James L L Lichtenstein, Graham A Montgomery, Lauren P Luscuskie, Noa Pinter-Wollman, Jonathan N Pruitt
Predation is a ubiquitous threat that often plays a central role in determining community dynamics. Predators can impact prey species by directly consuming them, or indirectly causing prey to modify their behavior. Direct consumption has classically been the focus of research on predator-prey interactions, but substantial evidence now demonstrates that the indirect effects of predators on prey populations are at least as strong as, if not stronger than, direct consumption. Social animals, particularly those that live in confined colonies, rely on coordinated actions that may be vulnerable to the presence of a predator, thus impacting the society's productivity and survival...
August 2017: Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology
Robert J Asaro, Qiang Zhu, Pedro Cabrales, Anthony Carruthers
We explore, herein, the hypothesis that transport of molecules or ions into erythrocytes may be affected and directly stimulated by the dynamics of the spectrin/actin skeleton. Skeleton/actin motions are driven by thermal fluctuations that may be influenced by ATP hydrolysis as well as by structural alterations of the junctional complexes that connect the skeleton to the cell's lipid membrane. Specifically, we focus on the uptake of glucose into erythrocytes via glucose transporter 1 and on the kinetics of glucose disassociation at the endofacial side of glucose transporter 1...
March 27, 2018: Biophysical Journal
Mary Jo Weiss-Errico, Jaroslava Miksovska, Kevin E O'Shea
Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), a persistent organic pollutant known to cause adverse health effects, strongly binds to human serum albumin (HSA). β-Cyclodextrin (β-CD), a non-toxic cyclic sugar, strongly complexes PFOA in a host-guest complex, and has been proposed for environmental remediation of PFOA. The interactions between HSA, PFOA, and β-CD were investigated in order to determine if β-CD can reverse the binding of PFOA to HSA, with potential therapeutic applications towards exposure to PFOA.19 F Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), circular dichroism, and fluorescence spectroscopies were used to study these interactions...
March 28, 2018: Chemical Research in Toxicology
Navin Mukundu Nagesh, Nimesh Patel, Jonathan Howell
Total hip replacement is a successful operation for the management of hip pain but there are potential complications, of which dislocation is one of the most common. The management of recurrent dislocation is a challenging problem that requires a multimodal approach and the use of dual-mobility implants is one option. We present a patient who was previously revised with a dual-mobility implant for recurrent dislocation, who had a complication after closed reduction of a subsequent intraprosthetic dislocation...
March 22, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
Daniel A Keir, Donald H Paterson, John M Kowalchuk, Juan M Murias
Despite compelling evidence to the contrary, the view that oxygen uptake (V̇O2) increases linearly with exercise intensity (e.g. power output, speed) until reaching its maximum (V̇O2max) persists within the exercise physiology literature. This viewpoint implies that the V̇O2 response at any constant-intensity is predictable from a ramp-incremental exercise test. However, the V̇O2 versus task-specific exercise intensity relationship constructed from ramp-incremental versus constant-intensity exercise are not equivalent preventing the use of V̇O2 responses from one domain to predict those of the other...
March 23, 2018: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
Qiuyan Yu, Jinglei Hu, Yi Hu, Rong Wang
Assembly of nanoparticles (NPs) coated with complementary DNA strands leads to novel crystals with nanosized basic units rather than classic atoms, ions or molecules. The assembly process is mediated by hybridization of DNA via specific base pairing interaction, and is kinetically linked to the disassociation of DNA duplexes. DNA-level physiochemical quantities, both thermodynamic and kinetic, are key to understanding this process and essential for the design of DNA-NP crystals. The melting transition properties are helpful to judge the thermostability and sensitivity of relative DNA probes or other applications...
March 21, 2018: Soft Matter
Ahmed Siddiqi, Carl T Talmo, James V Bono
Dislodgment of trial femoral heads and migration into the pelvis during total hip arthroplasty is a rarely reported complication with limited published cases. There are three primary mechanisms of femoral head separation: dislodgement during reduction attempt, disassociation from anterior dislocation while assessing anterior stability, and during dislocation after implant trialing. If the trial femoral migrates beyond the pelvic brim, it is safer to finish the total hip arthroplasty and address the retained object after repositioning or in a planned second procedure with a general surgeon...
March 2018: Arthroplasty Today
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