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Paul R Territo, Jill A Meyer, Jonathan S Peters, Amanda A Riley, Brian P McCarthy, Mingzhang Gao, Min Wang, Mark A Green, Qi-Huang Zheng, Gary D Hutchins
BACKGROUND: The P2X7 receptor represents a novel molecular target for imaging neuroinflammation via PET. GSK1482160, a potent P2X7 receptor antagonist, has high receptor affinity, blood-brain barrier penetration, and has been recently radiolabel ((11)C-GSK1482160). Therefore, we report the initial physical and biological characterization of this novel ligand. METHODS: (11)C-GSK1482160 synthesis was according to published methods. Cell density studies were performed in human embryonic kidney cell lines expressing human P2X7 receptors (HEK293-hP2X7R) and analyzed by western blot analysis, immuno-fluorescence assay (IFA), and radiologic-immunohistochemistry (RIHC) using P2X7R polyclonal antibodies...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Nuclear Medicine: Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
Annie L Shelton, Kim Cornish, Meaghan Clough, Sanuji Gajamange, Scott Kolbe, Joanne Fielding
Executive dysfunction has been demonstrated among premutation (PM) carriers (55-199 CGG repeats) of the Fragile X mental retardation 1 (FMR1) gene. Further, alterations to neural activation patterns have been reported during memory and comparison based functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) tasks in these carriers. For the first time, the relationships between fMRI neural activation during an interleaved ocular motor prosaccade/antisaccade paradigm, and concurrent task performance (saccade measures of latency, accuracy and error rate) in PM females were examined...
October 14, 2016: Human Brain Mapping
Raz Leib, Firas Mawase, Amir Karniel, Opher Donchin, John Rothwell, Ilana Nisky, Marco Davare
: How motion and sensory inputs are combined to assess an object's stiffness is still unknown. Here, we provide evidence for the existence of a stiffness estimator in the human posterior parietal cortex (PPC). We showed previously that delaying force feedback with respect to motion when interacting with an object caused participants to underestimate its stiffness. We found that applying theta-burst transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) over the PPC, but not the dorsal premotor cortex, enhances this effect without affecting movement control...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Jing Yang, Jiajia Yu, Jing Jiang, Chen Liang, Yongjun Feng
D-amino acids have been proved to disassemble biofilms by disassociating the matrix. Pantoea agglomerans is characterized by the formation of another kind of multicellular structure called symplasmata, which also remains the ability to form biofilms. In this study, a rice diazotrophic endophyte P. agglomerans YS19 was selected as a model strain to explore the effects of D-amino acids on these two kinds of cell aggregate structures. It was discovered that D-tyrosine disassociates biofilm, yet promotes symplasmata formation...
September 22, 2016: Journal of Basic Microbiology
P-M Leprêtre, M Ghannem, S Delanaud, T Porcher, A Barnabé, L Gaillard, N Jaunet, T Weissland
: Exercise prescription was generally based on the determination of ventilatory thresholds (VT1, VT2) during cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPX). Changes in surface electromyographic activity (EMGth1, EMGth2) were also related to VT1 and VT2 in healthy subjects. OBJECTIVE: To observe the occurrence of EMGth1 and EMGth2 and whether these events accompany VT1 and VT2 during CPX in cardiac patients (CP). METHOD: Thirty-four CP (62.1±7.3years, 172...
September 30, 2016: Annales de Cardiologie et D'angéiologie
Bjørn Hofmann, Søren Holm
BACKGROUND Increasing attention is being paid to research misconduct in academic journals and in the media, but we know relatively little about its extent or attitudes to research misconduct, or how these are changing. This study therefore aims to investigate PhD candidates' knowledge, own actions and attitudes to specific forms of research misconduct.MATERIAL AND METHOD In autumn 2015, an anonymous questionnaire survey was distributed to all participants in the introductory course for PhD candidates at the Faculty of Medicine at the University of Oslo...
September 2016: Tidsskrift for Den Norske Lægeforening: Tidsskrift for Praktisk Medicin, Ny Række
James P Barger, Patrick F Dillon
The dehydration of ion-water complexes prior to ion channel transit has focused on channel protein-mediated dissociation of water. Ion dehydration by the membrane electric field has not previously been considered. Near membrane electric fields have previously been shown to cause the disassociation of non-covalently bound small molecule-small molecule, small molecule-protein, and protein-protein complexes. It is well known that cosmotropic, structure making ions such as calcium and sodium significantly bind multiple water ions in solution...
September 22, 2016: Cell Calcium
Kenta Yamada, Koji Yamaguchi, Tomomi Shirakawa, Hirofumi Nakagami, Akira Mine, Kazuya Ishikawa, Masayuki Fujiwara, Mari Narusaka, Yoshihiro Narusaka, Kazuya Ichimura, Yuka Kobayashi, Hidenori Matsui, Yuko Nomura, Mika Nomoto, Yasuomi Tada, Yoichiro Fukao, Tamo Fukamizo, Kenichi Tsuda, Ken Shirasu, Naoto Shibuya, Tsutomu Kawasaki
Perception of microbe-associated molecular patterns by host cell surface pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) triggers the intracellular activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades. However, it is not known how PRRs transmit immune signals to MAPK cascades in plants. Here, we identify a complete phospho-signaling transduction pathway from PRR-mediated pathogen recognition to MAPK activation in plants. We found that the receptor-like cytoplasmic kinase PBL27 connects the chitin receptor complex CERK1-LYK5 and a MAPK cascade...
September 27, 2016: EMBO Journal
Michael A Rupp, Marc D Gentzler, Janan A Smither
Driving while distracted is a critical and unwavering problem in the United States leading to numerous injuries and fatalities each year. While increasing legislation and developing technological interventions strive to ensure we only focus on driving, individuals still drive distracted. We surveyed college-aged adults to examine the factors that influence both their risk perception of driving while distracted and how often they engage in distracting activities and situations while driving. We found a disassociation between individuals' perception of driving distraction risk and their engagement with the distraction...
September 20, 2016: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
Tao Gao, Liudi Li, Bei Wang, Jun Zhi, Yang Xiang, Genxi Li
Artificial control of cell adhesion on smart surface is an on-demand technique in areas ranging from tissue engineering, stem cell differentiation, to the design of cell-based diagnostic system. In this paper, we report an electrochemical system for dynamic control of cell catch-and-release, which is based on the redox-controlled host-guest interaction. Experimental results reveal that the interaction between guest molecule (ferrocene, Fc) and host molecule (β-cyclodextrin, β-CD) is highly sensitive to electrochemical stimulus...
October 18, 2016: Analytical Chemistry
S D Rundle, J I Spicer
There is a current surge of research interest in the potential role of developmental plasticity in adaptation and evolution. Here we make a case that some of this research effort should explore the adaptive significance of heterokairy, a specific type of plasticity that describes environmentally driven, altered timing of development within a species. This emphasis seems warranted given the pervasive occurrence of heterochrony, altered developmental timing between species, in evolution. We briefly review studies investigating heterochrony within an adaptive context across animal taxa, including examples that explore links between heterokairy and heterochrony...
September 2016: Biology Letters
Mengying Zhang, Hejun Liu, Yongxiang Gao, Zhongliang Zhu, Zijun Chen, Peiyi Zheng, Lu Xue, Jixi Li, Maikun Teng, Liwen Niu
Histone chaperones are critical for guiding specific post-transcriptional modifications of histones, safeguarding the histone deposition (or disassociation) of nucleosome (dis)assembly, and regulating chromatin structures to change gene activities. HAT1-interacting factor 1 (Hif1) has been reported to be an H3-H4 chaperone and to be involved in telomeric silencing and nucleosome (dis)assembly. However, the structural basis for the interaction of Hif1 with histones remains unknown. Here, we report the complex structure of Hif1 binding to H2A-H2B for uncovering the chaperone specificities of Hif1 on binding to both the H2A-H2B dimer and the H3-H4 tetramer...
October 4, 2016: Structure
Julius Rentergent, Max D Driscoll, Sam Hay
Extracting kinetic parameters from DNA polymerase-catalyzed processive polymerization data using traditional initial-rate analysis has proven to be problematic for multiple reasons. The first substrate, DNA template, is a heterogeneous polymer and binds tightly to DNA polymerase. Further, the affinity and speed of incorporation of the second substrate, deoxynucleoside triphosphate (dNTP), vary greatly depending on the nature of the templating base and surrounding sequence. Here, we present a mathematical model consisting of the DNA template-binding step and a Michaelis-Menten-type nucleotide incorporation step acting on a DNA template with a finite length...
October 4, 2016: Biochemistry
Haibo Wang, Xiaokun Han, Colin A Bretz, Silke Becker, Deeksha Gambhir, George W Smith, R Jude Samulski, Erika S Wittchen, Lawrence A Quilliam, Magdalena Chrzanowska-Wodnicka, M Elizabeth Hartnett
To test the hypothesis that increased Rap1a activity specifically in retinal pigment epithelial cells resists choroidal neovascularization (CNV), self-complementary adeno-associated virus 2 (scAAV2) with RPE65-promoter-driven GFP vectors were generated and introduced subretinally into Rap1b-deficient mice. Six-week-old mice that received subretinal control (scAAV2-Con) or constitutively active Rap1a (scAAV2-CARap1a) showed strong GFP at the 5 × 10(8) viral particle/µl dose 5 weeks later without altering retinal morphology or function...
2016: Molecular Therapy. Methods & Clinical Development
Ying Chen, Ying Zhang
This study describes a case of myxoid chondrosarcoma of the mandible in a 22-year-old male patient. A tumour in the buccal gingiva of the lower left premolar region had been identified 2 years earlier. Whole-jaw panoramic radiographs showed a hypodense shadow in the mesiodistal area near the roots of teeth 34 and 35. A maxillofacial computed tomography scan revealed a mass in the lower left premolar soft tissue, with a shadow indicating bone destruction, a clear boundary and uniform density. The preliminary diagnosis at the outpatient department was 34-35 epulis...
September 2016: Molecular and Clinical Oncology
Mihindra Dunuwille, Minseob Kim, Choong-Shik Yoo
We present the pressure-induced phase/chemical changes of lithium peroxide (Li2O2) to 63 GPa using diamond anvil cells, confocal micro-Raman spectroscopy, and synchrotron x-ray diffraction. The Raman data show the emergence of the major vibrational peaks associated with O2 above 30 GPa, indicating the subsequent pressure-induced reversible chemical decomposition (disassociation) in dense Li2O2. The x-ray diffraction data of Li2O2, on the other hand, show no dramatic structural change but remain well within a P63/mmc structure to 63 GPa...
August 28, 2016: Journal of Chemical Physics
Tong Lu, Bin Jiang, Xiao-Li Wang, Hon-Chi Lee
The large conductance Ca(2+)-activated K(+) (BK) channels, abundantly expressed in coronary artery smooth muscle cells (SMCs), play a pivotal role in regulating coronary circulation. A large body of evidence indicates that coronary arterial BK channel function is diminished in both type 1 and type 2 diabetes. However, the consequence of coronary BK channel dysfunction in diabetes is not clear. We hypothesized that impaired coronary BK channel function exacerbates myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice...
September 2016: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
Basavaraju G Sanganahalli, Peter Herman, Douglas L Rothman, Hal Blumenfeld, Fahmeed Hyder
Interpretation of regional blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) responses in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is contingent on whether local field potential (LFP) and multi-unit activity (MUA) is either dissociated or associated. To examine whether neural-hemodynamic associated and dissociated areas have different metabolic demands, we recorded sensory-evoked responses of BOLD signal, blood flow (CBF), and blood volume (CBV), which with calibrated fMRI provided oxidative metabolism (CMRO2) from rat's ventral posterolateral thalamic nucleus (VPL) and somatosensory forelimb cortex (S1FL) and compared these neuroimaging signals to neurophysiological recordings...
October 2016: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
Xiaofen Ma, Junzhang Tian, Zhanhong Wu, Xiaopeng Zong, Jianwei Dong, Wenfeng Zhan, Yikai Xu, Zibo Li, Guihua Jiang
PURPOSE: To investigate the aberrant functional connectivity of the default mode network (DMN) in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and their clinical relevance. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Resting-state functional MRI data were collected from 31 patients with ESRD (24 men, 24-61 years) and 31 age- and gender-matched healthy controls (HCs, 21 men, 26-61years). A whole-brain seed-based functional connectivity analysis of these collected R-fMRI data was performed by locating the seeds in the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) and ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) to investigate the functional connectivity of the posterior and anterior DMN over the whole brain, respectively...
2016: PloS One
MingDong Wang, GuangCai Gong, Jing Feng, Ting Wang, ChenDi Ding, BaoJing Zhou, Wei Jiang, JiaJun Fu
We demonstrate for the first time how to assemble mechanized hollow zirconia nanospheres (MHzNs), consisting of hollow mesoporous zirconia nanospheres (HMZNs) as nanoscaffolds and supramolecular switches anchored on the exterior surface of HMZNs. The remarkable advantage of substitution of HMZNs for conventional mesoporous silica nanoscaffolds is that HMZNs can suffer the hot alkaline reaction environment, which provides a novel strategy for functionalization and thus achieve dual pH-mediated controlled release functions by simple and practicable assembly procedure...
September 7, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
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