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Malnutrition

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452191/recent-advances-of-medical-foods-in-china-the-opportunities-and-challenges-under-standardization
#1
Xusheng Li, Xinwei Jiang, Jianxia Sun, Cuijuan Zhu, Weibin Bai
Malnutrition with high incidence in hospitalized patients in China has brought a significant burden of disease. Although many clinical studies have demonstrated the importance of nutritional for patients with malnutrition, the application of medical foods in China is still restricted. For the classification, limits, production and registration of medical foods, the Chinese government newly enacted a series of regulations. In this review, comparing the policy, researches, and product variety of medical foods in China with other countries, although the current status of the development of medical foods in China is still far behind that of developed countries, some of regulations are stricter than those of many other countries or organizations...
February 13, 2018: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451589/active-brazilian-crack-cocaine-users-nutritional-anthropometric-and-drug-use-profiles
#2
Mariana Escobar, Juliana N Scherer, Cassia M Soares, Luciano S P Guimarães, Martine E Hagen, Lisia von Diemen, Flavio Pechansky
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the nutritional status of crack users and to analyze its correlation with drug use profiles. METHODS: Cross-sectional study with 108 crack users. Anthropometric data were assessed through body mass index (BMI) and bioimpedance (BIA) measurements. A blood test to analyze hematocrit, hemoglobin, glucose, and lipid profiles was also performed. Crack use was determined through a standardized interview. RESULTS: Based on BMI and BIA, most individuals were eutrophic (about 70%)...
February 15, 2018: Revista Brasileira de Psiquiatria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450135/development-of-a-specific-index-to-detect-malnutrition-in-athletes-validity-in-weight-class-or-intermittent-fasted-athletes
#3
François D Desgorces, Christophe Moinard, Mounir Chennaoui, Jean-François Toussaint, Cyril Petibois, Philippe Noirez
Fasted or weight-category athletes manage their training under strict diet conditions that could impair the stress-recovery balance and result in acute or chronic fatigue. However, to date, no validated biomarker are available to quantify this phenomena. The aim of this study was to assess the validity of a specific index combining plasma albumin and weight change to detect nutrition-related risks of fatigue increase and under-performance in athletes experiencing particular nutritional conditions. An athlete's nutrition risk index (ANRI) equation, based on data from lightweight and heavyweight rowers, was developed using relationship between plasma albumin concentrations combined to weight changes with sport performance and overtraining scores and was tested by odds ratio for failure...
June 2017: Biochimie Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449950/impact-of-malnutrition-on-survival-and-healthcare-utilization-in-medicare-beneficiaries-with-diabetes-a-retrospective-cohort-analysis
#4
Naseer Ahmed, Yong Choe, Vikkie A Mustad, Sumita Chakraborty, Scott Goates, Menghua Luo, Jeffrey I Mechanick
Objective: The aim of this study was to examine the impact of pre-existing malnutrition on survival and economic implications in elderly patients with diabetes. Research design and methods: A retrospective observational study was conducted to examine the impact of malnutrition with or without other significant health conditions on survival time and healthcare costs using the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) data from 1999 to 2014 for beneficiaries with a confirmed first date of initial diagnosis of diabetes (n=15 121 131)...
2018: BMJ Open Diabetes Research & Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449829/effects-of-vitamin-d-deficiency-on-incidence-risk-of-gestational-diabetes-mellitus-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#5
Mansour Amraei, Safoura Mohamadpour, Kourosh Sayehmiri, Seyedeh Fatemeh Mousavi, Ehsan Shirzadpour, Ardeshir Moayeri
Introduction: Proper nutrition is important for overall health, and it reduces healthcare costs associated with malnutrition. Many studies have investigated vitamin D deficiency and its role in gestational diabetes and controversial data have reported. A comprehensive consideration of articles in this field provides the possibility of a general study of this relationship. This meta-analysis is an evaluation of the relationship between vitamin D deficiency and gestational diabetes. Material and methods: Different databases (such as PubMed, Science Information Institute, EmBase, Scopus, and the Cochrane Library) were searched for studies and eligible English articles published before February 2017 that have reported the risk of gestational diabetes in relation to vitamin D deficiency...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29448936/chitinase-3-like-1-is-a-biomarker-of-acute-kidney-injury-and-mortality-in-paediatric-severe-malaria
#6
Andrea L Conroy, Michael T Hawkes, Robyn Elphinstone, Robert O Opoka, Sophie Namasopo, Christopher Miller, Chandy C John, Kevin C Kain
BACKGROUND: Chitinase-3-like 1 (CHI3L1) is a glycoprotein elevated in paediatric severe malaria, and an emerging urinary biomarker of acute kidney injury (AKI). Based on the hypothesis that elevated CHI3L1 levels in malaria are associated with disease severity, the relationship between plasma CHI3L1 levels, AKI and mortality was investigated in Ugandan children enrolled in a clinical trial evaluating inhaled nitric oxide (iNO) as an adjunctive therapy for severe malaria. METHODS: Plasma CHI3L1 levels were measured daily for 4 days in children admitted to hospital with severe malaria and at day 14 follow up...
February 15, 2018: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444561/committed-to-be-fit-the-value-of-preoperative-care-in-the-perioperative-medicine-era
#7
Javier Ripollés-Melchor, Francesco Carli, Miquel Coca-Martínez, Macarena Barbero-Mielgo, José M Ramírez-Rodríguez, José A García-Erce
In the era of perioperative medicine, important advances have been made in the perioperative care of patients, usually within those known as Enhanced Recovery After Surgery (ERAS) protocols. These have led to a decrease in postoperative complications and the duration of hospital stays; however, there is still a lack of preoperative care, which could make perioperative medicine more prominent. Elderly patients, malnourished, anaemic and ones with a low physical function before surgery are likely to have sub-optimal recovery from surgery...
February 14, 2018: Minerva Anestesiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29443395/subcutaneous-infusion-of-fluids-for-hydration-or-nutrition-a-review
#8
REVIEW
Riccardo Caccialanza, Thierry Constans, Paolo Cotogni, Gary P Zaloga, Alessandro Pontes-Arruda
Subcutaneous infusion, or hypodermoclysis, is a technique whereby fluids are infused into the subcutaneous space via small-gauge needles that are typically inserted into the thighs, abdomen, back, or arms. In this review, we provide an overview of the technique, summarize findings from studies that have examined the use of subcutaneous infusion of fluids for hydration or nutrition, and describe the indications, advantages, and disadvantages of subcutaneous infusion. Taken together, the available evidence suggests that, when indicated, subcutaneous infusion can be effective for administering fluids for hydration or nutrition, with minimal complications, and has similar effectiveness and safety to the intravenous route...
February 2018: JPEN. Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29443044/scanning-skeletal-remains-for-bone-mineral-density-in-forensic-contexts
#9
Amanda R Hale, Ann H Ross
The purpose of this paper is to introduce a promising, novel method to aid in the assessment of bone quality in forensically relevant skeletal remains. BMD is an important component of bone's nutritional status and in skeletal remains of both juveniles and adults, and it can provide information about bone quality. For adults remains, it can provide information on pathological conditions or when bone insufficiency may have occurred. In juveniles, it provides a useful metric to elucidate cases of fatal starvation or neglect, which are generally difficult to identify...
January 29, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29442459/the-usefulness-of-routinely-used-malnutrition-screening-tools-in-predicting-anemia-in-lung-cancer-patients
#10
Katarzyna A Zabłocka-Słowińska, Monika Kosacka, Irena Porębska, Konrad Pawełczyk, Marcin Gołecki, Jadwiga Biernat, Halina Grajeta
BACKGROUND: Anemia and malnutrition are frequently observed during lung cancer development, and the associations between them have been researched. However, no study concerning the utility of routinely used nutritional screening tools in predicting anemia in lung cancer has been performed. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to assess the usefulness of routinely used malnutrition screening tools in predicting anemia in lung cancer patients. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Eighty-five male patients were recruited to this study...
December 2017: Advances in Clinical and Experimental Medicine: Official Organ Wroclaw Medical University
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29436734/risk-of-malnutrition-evaluated-by-mini-nutritional-assessment-and-sarcopenia-in-noninstitutionalized-elderly-people
#11
Ilaria Liguori, Francesco Curcio, Gennaro Russo, Michele Cellurale, Luisa Aran, Giulia Bulli, David Della-Morte, Gaetano Gargiulo, Gianluca Testa, Francesco Cacciatore, Domenico Bonaduce, Pasquale Abete
BACKGROUND: Malnutrition indices and muscle mass and strength in the elderly are poorly investigated. Moreover, malnutrition seems to be 1 of the more important factors in the cause of sarcopenia. The presence of sarcopenia and its relationship with malnutrition indices were studied in noninstitutionalized elderly people who underwent Comprehensive Geriatric Assessment (CGA). METHODS: A total of 473 elderly subjects (mean age, 80.9 ± 6.6 years) admitted to CGA were studied...
February 13, 2018: Nutrition in Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29436287/which-assessment-method-of-malnutrition-in-head-and-neck-cancer
#12
Nicolas Saroul, Rémy Pastourel, Aurélien Mulliez, Nicolas Farigon, Vincent Dupuch, Thierry Mom, Yves Boirie, Laurent Gilain
Objective To assess the value of several diagnostic methods of nutritional status during the initial management of a head and neck cancer. Study Design Single-center prospective study. Setting Tertiary referral center. Subjects and Methods Ninety patients with head and neck cancer participated in the study. Assessment of their nutritional status was made with anthropometric, biological, body, and muscle measurements (the last by computed tomography: L3 muscle mass index [L3MMI]). Assessment of muscle performance (functional reflection of nutritional status) was made via the Short Physical Performance Battery test...
February 1, 2018: Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29436107/rationale-and-developmental-methodology-for-the-simple-approach-a-systematised-interdisciplinary-malnutrition-pathway-for-implementation-and-evaluation-in-hospitals
#13
Jack J Bell, Adrienne Young, Jan Hill, Merrilyn Banks, Tracy Comans, Rhiannon Barnes, Heather H Keller
AIM: Changing population demographics, service demands, and healthcare provider expectations suggest that a shift is required regarding how malnutrition care is managed in hospitals. The present study aims to build the reason for required change, and to describe the process used to develop a model for managing malnutrition for implementation across six Queensland hospitals. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey of approaches to managing malnutrition in Queensland public hospitals, and development of a new model of care (guided by Knowledge-to-Action Framework and qualitative interviews) for testing within a broader implementation program...
February 13, 2018: Nutrition & Dietetics: the Journal of the Dietitians Association of Australia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29435843/nutrition-management-for-the-head-and-neck-cancer-patient
#14
Denise Ackerman, Meghan Laszlo, Arlene Provisor, Adern Yu
Head and neck cancer (HNC) patients often face multiple nutritional challenges before, during, and after treatment due to the close proximity of the cancer to organs that are vital for normal eating function. Common treatment-related side effects, such as dysphagia, odynophagia, dysgeusia, xerostomia, thick saliva, mucositis, nausea, and vomiting, all further impair the patient's ability to maintain adequate oral intake. Malnutrition and unintentional weight loss in HNC patients during and after treatment are associated with poorer treatment outcomes, increased morbidity and mortality, and poor quality of life, even in overweight and obese patients whose Body Mass Index (BMI) is not suggestive of malnutrition...
2018: Cancer Treatment and Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29434387/antimicrobial-utilization-pattern-in-pediatric-patients-in-tertiary-care-hospital-eastern-ethiopia-the-need-for-antimicrobial-stewardship
#15
Samuel Girma, Mekonnen Sisay, Getnet Mengistu, Firehiwot Amare, Dumessa Edessa
Background: Antimicrobials are among the most frequently prescribed medications for pediatric patients. However, inappropriate use of them can increase morbidity, mortality, healthcare costs, and largely antimicrobial resistance. This study aims to assess the antimicrobial utilization pattern in the pediatric ward of Hiwot Fana Specialized University Hospital. Methods: Retrospective cross-sectional study was conducted to assess the antimicrobial utilization. In this study, 403 pediatric medical records selected by systematic random sampling were reviewed...
February 2018: Hospital Pharmacy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29434076/differences-in-gut-microbiota-profiles-between-autoimmune-pancreatitis-and-chronic-pancreatitis
#16
Shin Hamada, Atsushi Masamune, Tatsuhide Nabeshima, Tooru Shimosegawa
Host-derived factors alter gut microenvironment, and changes in gut microbiota also affect biological functions of host. Alterations of gut microbiota have been reported in a wide variety of diseases, but the whole picture of alterations in pancreatic diseases remains to be clarified. In particular, the gut microbiota may be affected by malnutrition or impaired exocrine pancreas function that is associated with pancreatic diseases. We here conducted comprehensive analysis of gut microbiota in patients with type 1 autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP), a pancreatic manifestation of the systemic IgG4-related disease, and chronic pancreatitis (CP)...
2018: Tohoku Journal of Experimental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29433861/metabolic-profile-of-children-with-extrahepatic-portal-vein-obstruction-undergoing-meso-rex-bypass
#17
Timothy B Lautz, Simon Eaton, Lisa Keys, Joy Ito, Mario Polo, Jonathan C K Wells, Agostino Pierro, Riccardo A Superina
BACKGROUND: Extrahepatic portal vein obstruction (EHPVO) in children is often associated with growth restriction, which improves after the restoration of portal venous flow with a meso-Rex bypass, but the physiologic mechanism is unknown. The purpose of this study was to investigate the mechanism of growth delay in children with EHPVO by detailing the metabolic and nutritional profile before and after meso-Rex bypass. METHODS: Twenty consecutive children with EHPVO were prospectively studied before and 1 year after meso-Rex bypass...
March 2018: Journal of Surgical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29433783/targeting-the-pains-of-food-insecurity-and-malnutrition-among-internally-displaced-persons-with-nutrient-synergy-and-analgesics-in-organ-meat
#18
REVIEW
Peter O Fayemi, Voster Muchenje, Hasan Yetim, Abdulatef Ahhmed
Living with pain is one of the distressing effects of food insecurity and malnutrition among millions of internally displaced persons (IDPs) worldwide. Vulnerability to emotional pain, metabolic imbalance, chronic illnesses and non-communicable diseases by IDPs are associated with stressed livelihood and restricted access to balanced diets in their camps. Tackling the complexity of issues related to internal displacement is challenging as 45% are globally trapped in protracted conditions. In this review, a diet-based intervention is proposed considering the potential benefits of nutrient synergy and analgesic constituents in organ meat...
February 2018: Food Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29433665/global-disability-adjusted-life-year-estimates-of-long-term-health-burden-and-undernutrition-attributable-to-diarrhoeal-diseases-in-children-younger-than-5-years
#19
Christopher Troeger, Danny V Colombara, Puja C Rao, Ibrahim A Khalil, Alexandria Brown, Thomas G Brewer, Richard L Guerrant, Eric R Houpt, Karen L Kotloff, Kavita Misra, William A Petri, James Platts-Mills, Mark S Riddle, Scott J Swartz, Mohammad H Forouzanfar, Robert C Reiner, Simon I Hay, Ali H Mokdad
BACKGROUND: Diarrhoea is a leading cause of death and illness globally among children younger than 5 years. Mortality and short-term morbidity cause substantial burden of disease but probably underestimate the true effect of diarrhoea on population health. This underestimation is because diarrhoeal diseases can negatively affect early childhood growth, probably through enteric dysfunction and impaired uptake of macronutrients and micronutrients. We attempt to quantify the long-term sequelae associated with childhood growth impairment due to diarrhoea...
March 2018: Lancet Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29433211/effects-of-cooking-and-food-matrix-on-estimated-mineral-bioavailability-in-mloukhiya-a-mediterranean-dish-based-on-jute-leaves-and-meat
#20
Sondos Njoumi, Sihem Bellagha, Christèle Icard-Vernière, Christian Picq, Marie Josèphe Amiot, Claire Mouquet-Rivier
Traditional Mediterranean plant-based dishes could allow tackling malnutrition while preserving the cultural heritage. To determine the effect of the cooking method on mineral bioavailability, the content in minerals and chelators of Mloukhiya, a Mediterranean dish based on jute leaves (Corchorus olitorius) that contains also meat, was monitored during the whole cooking process. Mineral bioaccessibility was assessed by measuring in vitro dialyzability. Model equation was also used to estimate mineral bioavailability...
March 2018: Food Research International
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