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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210884/energy-balance-and-obesity-what-are-the-main-drivers
#1
Isabelle Romieu, Laure Dossus, Simón Barquera, Hervé M Blottière, Paul W Franks, Marc Gunter, Nahla Hwalla, Stephen D Hursting, Michael Leitzmann, Barrie Margetts, Chizuru Nishida, Nancy Potischman, Jacob Seidell, Magdalena Stepien, Youfa Wang, Klaas Westerterp, Pattanee Winichagoon, Martin Wiseman, Walter C Willett
PURPOSE: The aim of this paper is to review the evidence of the association between energy balance and obesity. METHODS: In December 2015, the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), Lyon, France convened a Working Group of international experts to review the evidence regarding energy balance and obesity, with a focus on Low and Middle Income Countries (LMIC). RESULTS: The global epidemic of obesity and the double burden, in LMICs, of malnutrition (coexistence of undernutrition and overnutrition) are both related to poor quality diet and unbalanced energy intake...
February 17, 2017: Cancer Causes & Control: CCC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208965/long-term-outcomes-of-kangaroo-mother-care-in-very-low-birth-weight-infants
#2
Sunil Gavhane, Deepak Eklare, Haseeb Mohammad
INTRODUCTION: Kangaroo Mother Care (KMC) has been gaining acceptance as an effective alternative to incubator based Conventional Medical Care (CMC) in preterm or Low Birth Weight (LBW) infants especially in resource scarce developing countries. AIM: To report and analyse the long-term effects of KMC for relatively stable Very Low Birth Weight (VLBW) infants on nutritional indicators and feeding conditions at 6-12 months of corrected age. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This randomized controlled trial was done at a Level III Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) of a teaching institution in southern India...
December 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207774/association-between-the-infant-and-child-feeding-index-icfi-and-nutritional-status-of-6-to-35-month-old-children-in-rural-western-china
#3
Pengfei Qu, Baibing Mi, Duolao Wang, Ruo Zhang, Jiaomei Yang, Danmeng Liu, Shaonong Dang, Hong Yan
BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to determine the relationship between the quality of feeding practices and children's nutritional status in rural western China. METHODS: A sample of 12,146 pairs of 6- to 35-month-old children and their mothers were recruited using stratified multistage cluster random sampling in rural western China. Quantile regression was used to analyze the relationship between the Infant and Child Feeding Index (ICFI) and children's nutritional status...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207425/evidence-based-interventions-for-improvement-of-maternal-and-child-nutrition-in-low-income-settings-what-s-new
#4
Tyler Vaivada, Michelle F Gaffey, Jai K Das, Zulfiqar A Bhutta
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Maternal and child malnutrition continues to disproportionately affect low and middle-income countries, contributing to high rates of morbidity, mortality, and suboptimal development. This article reviews evidence from recent systematic reviews and studies on the effectiveness of interventions to improve nutritional status in these especially vulnerable populations. RECENT FINDINGS: Macronutrients provided to expectant mothers in the form of balanced protein energy supplements can improve fetal growth and birth outcomes, and new research suggests that lipid nutrient supplements can reduce both stunting and wasting in newborns...
February 15, 2017: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205733/p-17-incidence-of-malnutrition-in-children-with-ea-tef-and-the-role-of-a-multidisciplinary-clinic-in-improving-feeding-and-nutritional-outcomes
#5
J M Menzies, J H Hughes, C C Clarkson, V V Varjavandi, A J Jiwane, S A Adams, C W Wu, M S Soma, Y B Belessis, U K Krishnan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 1, 2016: Diseases of the Esophagus: Official Journal of the International Society for Diseases of the Esophagus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28204965/prognostic-value-of-simple-frailty-and-malnutrition-screening-tools-in-patients-with-acute-heart-failure-due-to-left-ventricular-systolic-dysfunction
#6
S Sze, J Zhang, P Pellicori, D Morgan, A Hoye, A L Clark
BACKGROUND: Frailty and malnutrition are common in patients with heart failure (HF), and are associated with adverse outcomes. We studied the prognostic value of three malnutrition and three frailty indices in patients admitted acutely to hospital with HF. METHODS: 265 consecutive patients [62% males, median age 80 (interquartile range (IQR): 72-86) years, median NTproBNP 3633 (IQR: 2025-6407) ng/l] admitted with HF between 2013 and 2014 were enrolled. Patients were screened for frailty using the Derby frailty index (DFI), acute frailty network (AFN) frailty criteria, and clinical frailty scale (CFS) and for malnutrition using the geriatric nutritional risk index (GNRI), controlling nutritional status (CONUT) score and prognostic nutritional index (PNI)...
February 15, 2017: Clinical Research in Cardiology: Official Journal of the German Cardiac Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203252/management-of-chyle-leak-after-head-and-neck-surgery-review-of-current-treatment-strategies
#7
REVIEW
Sean W Delaney, Haoran Shi, Alireza Shokrani, Uttam K Sinha
Chyle leak formation is an uncommon but serious sequela of head and neck surgery when the thoracic duct is inadvertently injured, particularly with the resection of malignancy low in the neck. The thoracic duct is the primary structure that returns lymph and chyle from the entire left and right lower half of the body. Chyle extravasation can result in delayed wound healing, dehydration, malnutrition, electrolyte disturbances, and immunosuppression. Prompt identification and treatment of a chyle leak are essential for optimal surgical outcome...
2017: International Journal of Otolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202635/short-term-subclinical-zinc-deficiency-in-weaned-piglets-affects-cardiac-redox-metabolism-and-zinc-concentration
#8
Daniel Brugger, Wilhelm M Windisch
Background: Subclinical zinc deficiency (SZD) represents the common zinc malnutrition phenotype. However, its association with oxidative stress is not well understood. The heart muscle may be a promising target for studying early changes in redox metabolism.Objective: We investigated the effects of short-term SZD on cardiac redox metabolism in weaned piglets.Methods: Forty-eight weaned German Large White × Landrace × Piétrain piglets (50% castrated males and 50% females; body weight of 8.5 kg) were fed diets with different zinc concentrations for 8 d...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199923/assistance-at-mealtimes-in-hospital-settings-and-rehabilitation-units-for-patients-65years-from-the-perspective-of-patients-families-and-healthcare-professionals-a-mixed-methods-systematic-review
#9
REVIEW
Deborah Edwards, Judith Carrier, Jane Hopkinson
BACKGROUND: Malnutrition is one of the key issues affecting the health of older people (>65years). With an aging population the problem is expected to increase further since the prevalence of malnutrition increases with age. Studies worldwide have identified that some older patients with good appetites do not receive sufficient nourishment because of inadequate feeding assistance. Mealtime assistance can enhance nutritional intake, clinical outcomes and patient experience. OBJECTIVES/AIM: To determine the effectiveness of meal time assistance initiatives for improving nutritional intake and nutritional status for older adult patients (>65years) in hospital settings and rehabilitation units...
January 30, 2017: International Journal of Nursing Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199797/nutritional-risk-screening-2002-short-nutritional-assessment-questionnaire-malnutrition-screening-tool-and-malnutrition-universal-screening-tool-are-good-predictors-of-nutrition-risk-in-an-emergency-service
#10
Estela Iraci Rabito, Aline Marcadenti, Jaqueline da Silva Fink, Luciane Figueira, Flávia Moraes Silva
BACKGROUND: There is an international consensus that nutrition screening be performed at the hospital; however, there is no "best tool" for screening of malnutrition risk in hospitalized patients. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate (1) the accuracy of the MUST (Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool), MST (Malnutrition Screening Tool), and SNAQ (Short Nutritional Assessment Questionnaire) in comparison with the NRS-2002 (Nutritional Risk Screening 2002) to identify patients at risk of malnutrition and (2) the ability of these nutrition screening tools to predict morbidity and mortality...
February 1, 2017: Nutrition in Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198916/relationship-between-nutritional-status-and-the-clinical-outcomes-of-patients-with-and-without-neoplasms-according-to-multiple-correspondence-analysis
#11
Vânia Aparecida Leandro-Merhi, José Luiz Braga de Aquino
BACKGROUND: For many years, many studies have reported undesirable outcomes that may occur during the hospital stay of patients diagnosed with malnutrition or even at some nutritional risk. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relationship between nutritional status and clinical outcomes during hospital stay using the multiple correspondence analysis technique. METHODS: This cross-sectional study included 600 patients with and without neoplasms. The following data were collected: subjective global assessment, nutritional indicators, nutritional risk screening, anthropometric data (body mass index (BMI), mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC), mid-upper arm muscle circumference (MUAMC), triceps skinfold thickness (TST), recent weight loss (RWL)), and habitual energy intake (HEI/ER <75%)...
February 13, 2017: Arquivos de Gastroenterologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198308/how-to-carry-out-growth-assessment-in-infants-and-children-under-two-years-old
#12
David Hopkins, Alison Kyle, Siba Prosad Paul
Rationale and key points Measuring and monitoring growth in infants and young children under two years old is an important part of their clinical assessment in hospital and the community. This article outlines the procedure for measuring growth in infants and children under two years old, and discusses the main factors to consider when undertaking this assessment. » The procedures and some of the data used to monitor the growth of infants and children under two years old differs from those used in older children...
February 15, 2017: Nursing Standard
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196328/adherence-to-a-nurse-driven-feeding-protocol-in-a-pediatric-intensive-care-unit
#13
Carmen A Cunningham, Lindsay B Gervais, Vera C Mazurak, Vijay Anand, Daniel Garros, Katelynn Crick, Bodil M K Larsen
BACKGROUND: Patients admitted to pediatric intensive care units (PICUs) often experience prolonged periods without nutrition support, which may result in hospital-induced malnutrition and longer length of stay. Nurse-driven feeding protocols have been developed to prevent unnecessary interruptions or delays to nutrition support. The primary objective of this study was to identify compliance and reasons for noncompliance to a feeding protocol at a tertiary care hospital PICU in Canada...
February 1, 2017: JPEN. Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196115/nutritional-assessment-of-community-dwelling-older-adults-in-rural-nepal
#14
Saruna Ghimire, Binaya Kumar Baral, Karen Callahan
BACKGROUND: Demographic transition in Nepal, like in many developing countries, has resulted in a burgeoning elderly population whose health status is not currently monitored. One pillar of health is adequate nutrition. Yet, little is known about the nutritional health status of the elderly in Nepal. The financial, material, and personnel limitations in Nepal's health delivery services necessitate health screening instruments that require minimal clinical staff and resources. To our knowledge, no such nutritional assessment tool has been validated in Nepal...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195528/sustainable-diets-within-sustainable-food-systems
#15
Alexandre Meybeck, Vincent Gitz
Sustainable diets and sustainable food systems are increasingly explored by diverse scientific disciplines. They are also recognised by the international community and called upon to orient action towards the eradication of hunger and malnutrition and the fulfilment of sustainable development goals. The aim of the present paper is to briefly consider some of the links between these two notions in order to facilitate the operationalisation of the concept of sustainable diet. The concept of sustainable diet was defined in 2010 combining two totally different perspectives: a nutrition perspective, focused on individuals, and a global sustainability perspective, in all its dimensions: environmental, economic and social...
February 2017: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192456/the-flavanone-homoeriodictyol-increases-sglt-1-mediated-glucose-uptake-but-decreases-serotonin-release-in-differentiated-caco-2-cells
#16
Barbara Lieder, Julia Katharina Hoi, Ann-Katrin Holik, Katrin Geissler, Joachim Hans, Barbara Friedl, Kathrin Liszt, Gerhard E Krammer, Jakob P Ley, Veronika Somoza
Flavanoids and related polyphenols, among them hesperitin, have been shown to modulate cellular glucose transport by targeting SGLT-1 and GLUT-2 transport proteins. We aimed to investigate whether homoeriodictyol, which is structurally related to hesperitin, affects glucose uptake in differentiated Caco-2 cells as a model for the intestinal barrier. The results revealed that, in contrast to other polyphenols, the flavanon homoeriodictyol promotes glucose uptake by 29.0 ± 3.83% at a concentration of 100 μM...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192452/increased-risk-of-dementia-in-patients-hospitalized-with-acute-kidney-injury-a-nationwide-population-based-cohort-study
#17
Hsin-Hsi Tsai, Ruoh-Fang Yen, Cheng-Li Lin, Chia-Hung Kao
PURPOSE: To determine whether acute kidney injury (AKI) is a risk factor for dementia. METHODS: This nationwide population-based cohort study was based on data from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database for 2000-2011. The incidence and relative risk of dementia were assessed in 207788 patients hospitalized for AKI. The comparison control was selected using the propensity score based on age, sex, index year and comorbidities. RESULTS: During the 12-year follow-up, patients with AKI had a significantly higher incidence for developing dementia than did the controls (8...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188968/relationship-between-functional-independence-measure-and-geriatric-nutritional-risk-index-in-pneumonia-patients-in-long-term-nursing-care-facilities
#18
Yuji Mitani, Yutaro Oki, Yukari Fujimoto, Takumi Yamaguchi, Kentaro Iwata, Yu Watanabe, Kazuki Takahashi, Kanji Yamada, Akira Ishikawa
AIM: The prevention of pneumonia is an urgent issue among Japanese older adults. However, little has been reported on the relationship between a Functional Independence Measure (FIM) and the Geriatric Nutrition Risk Index (GNRI) for the prevention of pneumonia in patients in long-term care facilities in Japan. We aimed to clarify the relevance of FIM and GNRI for inpatients with and without pneumonia. METHODS: We identified 233 patients who were hospitalized in our long-term nursing hospital from April 2012 to September 2013...
February 11, 2017: Geriatrics & Gerontology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188240/lixisenatide-therapy-in-older-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-inadequately-controlled-on-their-current-antidiabetic-treatment-the-getgoal-o-randomized-trial
#19
Graydon S Meneilly, Christine Roy-Duval, Hasan Alawi, George Dailey, Diego Bellido, Carlos Trescoli, Helard Manrique Hurtado, Hailing Guo, Valerie Pilorget, Riccardo Perfetti, Hamish Simpson
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of lixisenatide versus placebo on glycemic control in older patients with type 2 diabetes uncontrolled on their current antidiabetic treatment. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: In this phase III, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, two-arm, parallel-group, multicenter trial, patients aged ≥70 years were randomized to receive once-daily lixisenatide 20 μg or placebo before breakfast concomitantly with their existing antidiabetic therapy (including insulin) for 24 weeks...
February 10, 2017: Diabetes Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188047/pretreatment-serum-prealbumin-as-an-independent-prognostic-indicator-in-patients-with-metastatic-renal-cell-carcinoma-using-tyrosine-kinase-inhibitors-as-first-line-target-therapy
#20
Wen Cai, Wen Kong, Baijun Dong, Jin Zhang, Yonghui Chen, Wei Xue, Yiran Huang, Lixin Zhou, Jiwei Huang
BACKGROUND: Although serum prealbumin is a sensitive marker to assess malnutrition, its prognostic impact in patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) remains elusive. METHODS: Patients' data were retrospectively retrieved from the medical records of Renji Hospital affiliated to Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine from March 2006 to July 2015 to access overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS). The survival outcomes of patients with low pretreatment prealbumin (< 200 mg/L) and high pretreatment prealbumin (≥ 200 mg/L) were compared using a log-rank test and Cox proportional hazard regression model...
January 18, 2017: Clinical Genitourinary Cancer
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