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Renal crystal formation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29653411/autophagy-inhibition-attenuates-hyperoxaluria-induced-renal-tubular-oxidative-injury-and-calcium-oxalate-crystal-depositions-in-the-rat-kidney
#1
Xiaolu Duan, Zhenzhen Kong, Xin Mai, Yu Lan, Yang Liu, Zhou Yang, Zhijian Zhao, Tuo Deng, Tao Zeng, Chao Cai, Shujue Li, Wen Zhong, Wenqi Wu, Guohua Zeng
Hyperoxaluria-induced oxidative injury of renal tubular epithelial cell is a casual and essential factor in kidney calcium oxalate (CaOx) stone formation. Autophagy has been shown to be critical for the regulation of oxidative stress-induced renal tubular injury; however, little is known about its role in kidney CaOx stone formation. In the present study, we found that the autophagy antagonist chloroquine could significantly attenuate oxalate-induced autophagy activation, oxidative injury and mitochondrial damage of renal tubular cells in vitro and in vivo, as well as hyperoxaluria-induced CaOx crystals depositions in rat kidney, whereas the autophagy agonist rapamycin exerted contrasting effects...
April 2, 2018: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651290/anti-transforming-growth-factor-%C3%AE-igg-elicits-a-dual-effect-on-calcium-oxalate-crystallization-and-progressive-nephrocalcinosis-related-chronic-kidney-disease
#2
Stefanie Steiger, Julia Felicitas Grill, Qiuyue Ma, Tobias Bäuerle, Jutta Jordan, Michaela Smolle, Claudia Böhland, Maciej Lech, Hans-Joachim Anders
Crystallopathies are a heterogeneous group of diseases caused by intrinsic or environmental microparticles or crystals, promoting tissue inflammation and scarring. Certain proteins interfere with crystal formation and growth, e.g., with intrarenal calcium oxalate (CaOx) crystal formation, a common cause of kidney stone disease or nephrocalcinosis-related chronic kidney disease (CKD). We hypothesized that immunoglobulins can modulate CaOx microcrystal formation and crystal growth and that therefore, biological IgG-based drugs designed to specifically target disease modifying proteins would elicit a dual effect on the outcome of CaOx-related crystallopathies...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29559506/cross-talk-between-renal-lithogenesis-and-atherosclerosis-an-unveiled-link-between-kidney-stone-formation-and-cardiovascular-diseases
#3
REVIEW
Asokan Devarajan
The prevalence of kidney stones and cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are increasing throughout the world. Both diseases are chronic and characterized by accumulation of oxidized proteins and lipids in the renal tissue and arterial wall, respectively. Emerging studies have revealed a positive association between nephrolithiasis and CVDs. Based on preclinical and clinical evidences, this review discusses: (i) stone forming risk factors, crystal nucleation, aggregation, injury-induced crystal retention, and stone formation, (ii) CVD risk factors such as dyslipidemia, perturbation of gut microbiome, obesity, free radical-induced lipoprotein oxidation, and retention in the arterial wall, subsequent foam cell formation, and atherosclerosis, (iii) mechanism by which stone forming risk factors such as oxalate, calcium, uric acid, and infection contribute toward CVDs, and (iv) how CVD risk factors, such as cholesterol, phospholipids, and uric acid, contribute to kidney stone formation are described...
March 30, 2018: Clinical Science (1979-)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29530009/kidney-stone-formers-have-more-renal-parenchymal-crystals-than-non-stone-formers-particularly-in-the-papilla-region
#4
Atsushi Okada, Shuzo Hamamoto, Kazumi Taguchi, Rei Unno, Teruaki Sugino, Ryosuke Ando, Kentaro Mizuno, Keiichi Tozawa, Kenjiro Kohri, Takahiro Yasui
BACKGROUND: We investigated the renoprotective ability of healthy people against kidney stone formation. To clarify intratubular crystal kinetics and processing in human kidneys, we performed a quantitative and morphological observation of nephrectomized renal parenchyma tissues. METHODS: Clinical data and pathological samples from 60 patients who underwent radical nephrectomy for renal cancer were collected from June 2004 to June 2010. The patients were retrospectively classified as stone formers (SFs; n = 30, kidney stones detected by preoperative computed tomography) and non-stone formers (NSFs; n = 30, no kidney stone history)...
March 12, 2018: BMC Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29515627/kidney-stone-disease-an-update-on-current-concepts
#5
REVIEW
Tilahun Alelign, Beyene Petros
Kidney stone disease is a crystal concretion formed usually within the kidneys. It is an increasing urological disorder of human health, affecting about 12% of the world population. It has been associated with an increased risk of end-stage renal failure. The etiology of kidney stone is multifactorial. The most common type of kidney stone is calcium oxalate formed at Randall's plaque on the renal papillary surfaces. The mechanism of stone formation is a complex process which results from several physicochemical events including supersaturation, nucleation, growth, aggregation, and retention of urinary stone constituents within tubular cells...
2018: Advances in Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29490299/inhibition-of-autophagy-attenuated-ethylene-glycol-induced-crystals-deposition-and-renal-injury-in-a-rat-model-of-nephrolithiasis
#6
Yunlong Liu, Quan Liu, Xiang Wang, Ziqi He, Derong Li, Xiaofeng Guan, Zhiwei Tao, Yaoliang Deng
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Nephrolithiasis is a common and frequently occurring disease, its exact pathogenesis is remains unclear. Emerging data suggest that autophagy plays a vital role in the pathophysiological processes of kidney diseases. Therefore, this study was designed to investigate the potential role of autophagy in the formation of calcium oxalate (CaOx) kidney stones in rat model. METHODS: Thirty-two rats were randomly divided into four groups (eight rats/group): untreated control group, stone model group, rapamycin-treated group, chloroquine-treated group...
February 22, 2018: Kidney & Blood Pressure Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29435125/inhibition-of-autophagy-attenuated-calcium-oxalate-crystal-induced-renal-tubular-epithelial-cell-injury-in-vivo-and-in-vitro
#7
Yunlong Liu, Derong Li, Ziqi He, Quan Liu, Jihua Wu, Xiaofeng Guan, Zhiwei Tao, Yaoliang Deng
Accumulating evidence suggests that autophagy is involved in the pathophysiological processes of kidney diseases. However, the role of autophagy in the formation of calcium oxalate (CaOx) nephrolithiasis remains unclear. In this study, we investigated the effects of autophagy on renal tubular epithelial cell injury induced by CaOx crystals in vivo and in vitro . We first observed that the expression levels of LC3-II and BECN1 and number of autophagic vacuoles were markedly increased in the renal tissue of CaOx stone patients...
January 12, 2018: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29393127/uric-acid-renal-lithiasis-new-concepts
#8
Fabiola Pazos Pérez
BACKGROUND: Uric acid (UA) stones are responsible for 5-10% of the formation of all kidney stones. Recently, an association between UA stones and insulin resistance, diabetes mellitus, and obesity has been demonstrated and so the incidence has increased. The development of UA stones is dependent on several risk factors, including genetic predisposition, geographical location, dietary indiscretion, and various metabolic characteristics. SUMMARY: UA nephrolithiasis can arise from diverse etiologies, all with distinct underlying defects converging to one or more of 3 defects of hyperuricosuria, acidic urine pH, and low urinary volume...
2018: Contributions to Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29362828/genetic-differences-in-c57bl-6-mouse-substrains-affect-kidney-crystal-deposition
#9
Masayuki Usami, Atsushi Okada, Kazumi Taguchi, Shuzo Hamamoto, Kenjiro Kohri, Takahiro Yasui
We previously established an experimental model of calcium oxalate crystal deposition in the mouse kidney using C57BL/6 mice. C57BL/6J (B6J) and C57BL/6N (B6N) are two core substrains of C57BL/6 mice. B6J and B6N substrains have approximately the same genomic sequence. However, in whole-genome analyses, substrains have slight genetic differences in some genes. In this study, we used these substrains as kidney crystal formation models and compared their genetic backgrounds to elucidate the pathogenic mechanisms of kidney stone formation...
January 23, 2018: Urolithiasis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241624/the-macrophage-phenotype-and-inflammasome-component-nlrp3-contributes-to-nephrocalcinosis-related-chronic-kidney-disease-independent-from-il-1-mediated-tissue-injury
#10
Hans-Joachim Anders, Beatriz Suarez-Alvarez, Melissa Grigorescu, Orestes Foresto-Neto, Stefanie Steiger, Jyaysi Desai, Julian A Marschner, Mohsen Honarpisheh, Chongxu Shi, Jutta Jordan, Lisa Müller, Nicolai Burzlaff, Tobias Bäuerle, Shrikant R Mulay
Primary/secondary hyperoxalurias involve nephrocalcinosis-related chronic kidney disease (CKD) leading to end-stage kidney disease. Mechanistically, intrarenal calcium oxalate crystal deposition is thought to elicit inflammation, tubular injury and atrophy, involving the NLRP3 inflammasome. Here, we found that mice deficient in NLRP3 and ASC adaptor protein failed to develop nephrocalcinosis, compromising conclusions on nephrocalcinosis-related CKD. In contrast, hyperoxaluric wild-type mice developed profound nephrocalcinosis...
March 2018: Kidney International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236240/effects-of-small-molecules-water-that-may-retard-kidney-stone-formation
#11
Yang Li, Jichuan Pan, Yue Zhang, Yangtao Chang, Xiaoxiong Yang, Baoyu Yang, Xu Mao, Zhonghui Wang, Bing Gao, Xiuli Lu
PURPOSE: Water intake is important for preventing kidney stones. Small molecules water is a more active restructured water under magnetic field. Here, we studied the relation between small molecules water and crystal formation in the rat kidney. MATERIALS: The small molecules water was prepared by a water machine providing a 0.8-T magnetic field. Calcium oxalate crystals were induced by 0.75% EG (ethylene glycol) in male Sprague-Dawley rats by drinking small molecules water and plain water for up to 6 weeks, respectively...
February 2018: International Urology and Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208768/caspase-independent-programmed-cell-death-triggers-ca-2-po-4-deposition-in-an-in-vitro-model-of-nephrocalcinosis
#12
Giovanna Priante, Federica Quaggio, Lisa Gianesello, Monica Ceol, Rosalba Cristofaro, Liliana Terrin, Claudio Furlan, Dorella Del Prete, Franca Anglani
Nephrocalcinosis involves the deposition of microscopic crystals in the tubular lumen or interstitium. While the clinical, biochemical, and genetic aspects of the diseases causing nephrocalcinosis have been elucidated, little is known about the cellular events in this calcification process. We previously reported a phenomenon involving the spontaneous formation of Ca2 PO4 nodules in primary papillary renal cells from a patient with medullary nephrocalcinosis harboring a rare glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor ( GDNF ) gene variant...
February 28, 2018: Bioscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29183349/a-drosophila-genetic-model-of-nephrolithiasis-transcriptional-changes-in-response-to-diet-induced-stone-formation
#13
Vera Y Chung, Benjamin W Turney
BACKGROUND: Urolithiasis is a significant healthcare issue but the pathophysiology of stone disease remains poorly understood. Drosophila Malpighian tubules were known to share similar physiological function to human renal tubules. We have used Drosophila as a genetic model to study the transcriptional response to stone formation secondary to dietary manipulation. METHODS: Wild-type male flies were raised on standard medium supplemented with lithogenic agents: control, sodium oxalate (NaOx) and ethylene glycol (EG)...
November 28, 2017: BMC Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29105635/clinical-efficacy-of-unani-medicine-renax-for-treatment-of-urolithiasis
#14
Mushtaq Ahmad, Ghazala Shaheen, Saeed Ahmad, Muhammad Akram, Syed Muhammad Ali Shah, Shahbaz Ahmad Zakki
Stone formation occurs most commonly in acute and chronic renal failure. A kidney stone is a solid lump made up of crystals that separate from the urine and build up on the inner surfaces of the kidney. The current study was conducted to investigate the clinical efficacy of Unani medicine Renax in comparison with allopathic medicine (Spironolactone + Furosemide) to treat urolithiasis. The study was conducted in District Dera Ghazi Khan, South Punjab region. This was case control, randomized, double blind clinical study...
September 2017: Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29091707/transcriptional-study-of-hyperoxaluria-and-calcium-oxalate-nephrolithiasis-in-male-rats-inflammatory-changes-are-mainly-associated-with-crystal-deposition
#15
Sunil Joshi, Wei Wang, Saeed R Khan
Hyperoxaluria associated with renal deposition of calcium oxalate (CaOx) crystals causes renal injury and inflammation leading to number of diseases including chronic kidney disease (CKD). It is however, not been possible to separate the renal consequences of hyperoxaluria from that of CaOx crystal deposition. We decided to utilize ethylene glycol (EG) model where hyperoxaluria and CaOx crystal deposition can be separated in time. To test our hypothesis, male rats were made hyperoxaluric by administering EG, rats were euthanized and kidneys were extracted on day 14, when occasional crystal is seen in the kidneys and day 28, when all animals have developed renal CaOx crystal deposits...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054721/characterizing-the-association-between-toll-like-receptor-subtypes-and-nephrolithiasis-with-renal-inflammation-in-an-animal-model
#16
Mahmut Taha Olcucu, Kerem Teke, Serdar Yalcin, Erkan Olcucuoglu, Vildan Caner, Nilay Sen Turk, Omer Levent Tuncay
OBJECTIVE: To show experimentally induced renal stone disease and to evaluate secondary inflammatory responses in vivo, and to characterize changes in the expression of Toll-like receptor (TLR) subtypes in this model. METHODS: Twenty 5- to 6-week-old male Wistar rats were divided into control and hyperoxaluria groups (n = 10 per group) and were supplied with normal water or 1% ethylene glycol, respectively, for 16 weeks. The animals were then placed in metabolic cages, and urine was collected for a 24-hour urine oxalate level evaluation...
January 2018: Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045935/emodinol-ameliorates-urate-nephropathy-by-regulating-renal-organic-ion-transporters-and-inhibiting-immune-inflammatory-responses-in-rats
#17
Hui Wu, Mengze Zhou, Guo Lu, Zhonglin Yang, Hui Ji, Qinghua Hu
Emodinol, 1β, 3β, 23-trihydroxyolean-12-en-28-acid, as the main active ingredient firstly extracted from the rhizomes of Elaeagus pungens by our Research Group, was identified with apparent uricosuric and nephroprotective effects in hyperuricemia mice in our previous study. This study aimed to investigate the renal protective effect of emodinol in urate nephropathy rats. Rats were orally administrated by combined adenine and ethambutol to induce urate nephropathy. Emodinol at various doses were administered intragastrically to urate nephropathy rats daily...
December 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035194/clinicopathologic-characteristics-of-light-chain-proximal-tubulopathy-with-light-chain-inclusions-involving-multiple-renal-cell-types
#18
Xiaomei Li, Feng Xu, Dandan Liang, Shaoshan Liang, Xiaodong Zhu, Mingchao Zhang, Xianghua Huang, Zhihong Liu, Caihong Zeng
Light chain proximal tubulopathy (LCPT) associated with plasma cell dyscrasias is a rare abnormality, especially cases involving multiple cell types. The aim of this study is to explore the characteristics and outcomes of these diseases. We comprehensively evaluated the clinical-pathological data, treatment, and outcomes of 6 LCPT patients with involvement of multiple cell types. In 3 cases, we found that the inclusions largely existed in tubular cells, while in 2 cases they coexisted in podocytes and tubular cells, and in 1 case they coexisted in histiocytes and tubular cells...
February 2018: Clinical Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918954/contemporary-management-of-vesicoureteral-reflux
#19
REVIEW
Perviz Hajiyev, Berk Burgu
CONTEXT: Vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) remains the most interesting topic of pediatric urology due to the dynamic nature of recent controversial publications. Starting from the need for a diagnosis to the necessity and effectiveness of treatment in preventing scars, VUR remains in the mist. Although recent strong evidence helped as fog lights in this blurriness, more data are required for achieving crystal clearance. This article aims to summarize and discuss the current state of the evidence regarding VUR management...
April 2017: European Urology Focus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776078/sarna-mediated-activation-of-trpv5-reduces-renal-calcium-oxalate-deposition-in-rat-via-decreasing-urinary-calcium-excretion
#20
Tao Zeng, Xiaolu Duan, Wei Zhu, Yang Liu, Wenqi Wu, Guohua Zeng
Hypercalciuria is a main risk factor for kidney stone  formation. TRPV5 is the gatekeeper protein for mediating calcium transport and reabsorption in the kidney. In the present study, we tested the effect of TRPV5 activation with small activating RNA (saRNA), which could induce gene expression by targeting the promoter of the gene, on ethylene glycol (EG)-induced calcium oxalate (CaOx) crystals formation in rat kidney. Five pairs of RNA activation sequences targeting the promoter of rat TRPV5 were designed and synthesized...
August 3, 2017: Urolithiasis
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