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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298819/reduction-of-motion-sickness-through-targeting-histamine-n-methyltransferase-in-the-dorsal-vagal-complex-of-the-brain
#1
Miao-Miao Chen, Li-Hua Xu, Li Chang, Peng Yin, Zheng-Lin Jiang
To investigate the role of histamine N-methyltransferase (HNMT) activity in the development of motion sickness (MS) in the dorsal vagal complex (DVC) to inform the development of new drugs for MS, Beagle dogs and Sprague-Dawley rats were rotated to simulate MS. HNMT expression in the brain stem and DVC was measured. The effects of systemic application of tacrine, a HNMT inhibitor, on the development of MS were observed. Moreover, we microinjected a histamine receptor H1 inhibitor, promethazine, into the DVC to verify the involvement of histaminergic neurotransmission in MS...
January 3, 2018: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242677/infection-reduces-anti-predator-behaviors-in-house-finches
#2
James S Adelman, Corinne Mayer, Dana M Hawley
Infectious diseases can cause host mortality through direct or indirect mechanisms, including altered behavior. Diminished anti-predator behavior is among the most-studied causes of indirect mortality during infection, particularly for systems in which a parasite's life-cycle requires transmission from prey to predator. Significantly less work has examined whether directly-transmitted parasites and pathogens also reduce anti-predator behaviors. Here we test whether the directly-transmitted bacterial pathogen, Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG), reduces responses to predation-related stimuli in house finches (Haemorhous mexicanus)...
April 2017: Journal of Avian Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212841/hyperbaric-oxygen-pretreatment-benefits-on-decompression-sickness-in-bama-pigs
#3
Long Qing, Hong-Jie Yi, Ye-Wei Wang, Quan Zhou, Dinesh K Ariyadewa, Wei-Gang Xu
Decompression sickness (DCS) occurs when ambient pressure severely reduces during diving and aviation. Hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) pretreatment has been proven to exert beneficial effects on DCS in rats via heat-shock proteins (HSPs). We hypothesize that HBO pretreatment will also reduce DCS via HSPs in swine models. In part 1, six swine were subjected to a session of HBO treatment. HSP 32, 60, 70 and 90 were detected, before and at 6, 12, 18, 24 and 30 h following exposure in lymphocytes. In part 2, another ten swine were randomly assigned into 2 groups, 5 in each...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211504/usefulness-of-the-mobile-virtual-reality-self-training-for-overcoming-a-fear-of-heights
#4
Yeon-Ju Hong, Hesun Erin Kim, Young Hoon Jung, Sunghyon Kyeong, Jae-Jin Kim
A mobile virtual reality system, equipped with built-in variables such as heart rate (HR), gaze-down data, and subjective fear rating, can allow individuals with a fear of heights to overcome it by self-training. This study aimed to verify the efficacy and safety of the training program. Forty-eight volunteers completed the four-session self-training program over 2 weeks. They were allocated into either low- or high-fear group by the Acrophobia Questionnaire (AQ)-anxiety scores, and then the changes of the built-in variables and AQ-anxiety scores were analyzed between the groups...
December 6, 2017: Cyberpsychology, Behavior and Social Networking
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157337/simulated-high-altitude-helium-oxygen-diving
#5
Lu Shi, Yan-Meng Zhang, Katsuura Tetsuo, Zhong-Yuan Shi, Yi-Qun Fang, Petar J Denoble, Yang-Yang Li
BACKGROUND: Experience with commercial heliox diving at high altitude is limited. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of acute high-altitude exposure on fitness to dive and the safety of decompression after heliox diving while using U.S. Navy heliox decompression tables with Cross correction. METHOD: Four professional male divers were consecutively decompressed in a hypo- and hyperbaric chamber to altitudes of 3000 m (9842.5 ft), 4000 m (13,123...
December 1, 2017: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151194/highly-immersive-virtual-reality-laparoscopy-simulation-development-and-future-aspects
#6
Tobias Huber, Tom Wunderling, Markus Paschold, Hauke Lang, Werner Kneist, Christian Hansen
PURPOSE: Virtual reality (VR) applications with head-mounted displays (HMDs) have had an impact on information and multimedia technologies. The current work aimed to describe the process of developing a highly immersive VR simulation for laparoscopic surgery. METHODS: We combined a VR laparoscopy simulator (LapSim) and a VR-HMD to create a user-friendly VR simulation scenario. Continuous clinical feedback was an essential aspect of the development process. We created an artificial VR (AVR) scenario by integrating the simulator video output with VR game components of figures and equipment in an operating room...
November 18, 2017: International Journal of Computer Assisted Radiology and Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139207/patient-reported-outcomes-of-slow-single-arc-rotation-do-we-need-rotating-gantries
#7
Brendan Whelan, Miriam Welgampola, Leigh McGarvie, Kuldeep Makhija, Robin M Turner, Lois Holloway, Ilana Feain, Michael Jackson, Michael Barton, Paul Keall
INTRODUCTION: Patient rotation could greatly simplify radiation therapy delivery, with particularly important ramifications for fixed beam treatment with protons, heavy ions, MRI-Linacs, and low cost Linacs. Patient tolerance is often cited as a barrier to widespread implementation to patient rotation; however, no quantitative data addressing this issue exists. In this study, patient reported experiences of slow, single arc rotation in upright (sitting) and lying orientations are reported...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Medical Imaging and Radiation Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127071/sickness-induced-changes-in-physiology-do-not-affect-fecundity-or-same-sex-behavior
#8
Kristyn E Sylvia, Patricia Báez Ramos, Gregory E Demas
Previous work in our lab has shown that early-life infection affects female reproductive physiology and function (i.e., smaller ovaries, abnormal estrous cycles) and alters investigation and aggression towards male conspecifics in a reproductive context. Although many studies have investigated the effects of postnatal immune challenge on physiological and behavioral development, fewer studies have examined whether these changes have ultimate effects on reproduction. In the current study, we paired Siberian hamsters (Phodopus sungorus) and simulated a bacterial infection in early life by administering lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to male and female pups on pnd3 and pnd5...
November 7, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29060817/virtual-reality-body-motion-induced-navigational-controllers-and-their-effects-on-simulator-sickness-and-pathfinding
#9
Cassandra N Aldaba, Paul J White, Ahmad Byagowi, Zahra Moussavi
Virtual reality (VR) navigation is usually constrained by plausible simulator sickness (SS) and intuitive user interaction. The paper reports on the use of four different degrees of body motion induced navigational VR controllers, a TiltChair, omni-directional treadmill, a manual wheelchair joystick (VRNChair), and a joystick in relation to a participant's SS occurrence and a controller's intuitive utilization. Twenty young adult participants utilized all controllers to navigate through the same VR task environment in separate sessions...
July 2017: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29047478/colored-thunderstorms
#10
Stanley David Gedzelman
Three scenarios that produce colored thunderstorms are simulated. In Scenario #1, the thunderstorm's sunlit face exhibits a color gradient from white or yellow at top to red at base when the sun is near the horizon. It is simulated with a second-order scattering model as a combination of sunlight and skylight reflected from the cloud face that is attenuated and reddened by Rayleigh and Mie scattering over the long optical path near sunset that increases from cloud top to base. In Scenario #2, the base of the precipitation shaft appears luminous green-blue when surrounded by a much darker arcus cloud...
July 1, 2017: Applied Optics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046173/effects-of-physical-driving-experience-on-body-movement-and-motion-sickness-during-virtual-driving
#11
Chih-Hui Chang, Fu-Chen Chen, Wei-Ching Kung, Thomas A Stoffregen
BACKGROUND: In previous research on motion sickness in simulated and virtual vehicles, subjects' experience controlling the corresponding physical vehicles has been confounded with their age. During driving of virtual automobiles in a video game, we separated chronological age from experience driving physical automobiles. METHODS: Subjects drove a virtual automobile in a driving video game. Drivers were young adults with several years of experience driving physical automobiles, while nondrivers were individuals in the same age group who did not have a driver's license and had never driven an automobile...
November 1, 2017: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28964153/mechanism-underlying-impaired-cardiac-pacemaking-rhythm-during-ischemia-a-simulation-study
#12
Xiangyun Bai, Kuanquan Wang, Yongfeng Yuan, Qince Li, Halina Dobrzynski, Mark R Boyett, Jules C Hancox, Henggui Zhang
Ischemia in the heart impairs function of the cardiac pacemaker, the sinoatrial node (SAN). However, the ionic mechanisms underlying the ischemia-induced dysfunction of the SAN remain elusive. In order to investigate the ionic mechanisms by which ischemia causes SAN dysfunction, action potential models of rabbit SAN and atrial cells were modified to incorporate extant experimental data of ischemia-induced changes to membrane ion channels and intracellular ion homeostasis. The cell models were incorporated into an anatomically detailed 2D model of the intact SAN-atrium...
September 2017: Chaos
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28950583/nonperturbative-renormalization-group-for-the-diffusive-epidemic-process
#13
Malo Tarpin, Federico Benitez, Léonie Canet, Nicolás Wschebor
We consider the Diffusive Epidemic Process (DEP), a two-species reaction-diffusion process originally proposed to model disease spread within a population. This model exhibits a phase transition from an active epidemic to an absorbing state without sick individuals. Field-theoretic analyses suggest that this transition belongs to the universality class of Directed Percolation with a Conserved quantity (DP-C, not to be confused with conserved-directed percolation C-DP, appearing in the study of stochastic sandpiles)...
August 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917947/effect-of-meal-glycemic-load-and-caffeine-consumption-on-prolonged-monotonous-driving-performance
#14
Christopher Bragg, Ben Desbrow, Susan Hall, Christopher Irwin
OBJECTIVE: Monotonous driving involves low levels of stimulation and high levels of repetition and is essentially an exercise in sustained attention and vigilance. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of consuming a high or low glycemic load meal on prolonged monotonous driving performance. The effect of consuming caffeine with a high glycemic load meal was also examined. METHOD: Ten healthy, non-diabetic participants (7 males, age 51±7yrs, mean±SD) completed a repeated measures investigation involving 3 experimental trials...
November 1, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910470/a-comparison-of-ventilation-rates-between-a-standard-bag-valve-mask-and-a-new-design-in-a-prehospital-setting-during-training-simulations
#15
Joseph T Costello, Paul B Allen, Robert Levesque
BACKGROUND: Excessive ventilation of sick and injured patients is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Combat Medical Systems® (CMS) is developing a new bag-valve-mask (BVM) designed to limit ventilation rates. The purpose of this study was to compare ventilation rates between a standard BVM device and the CMS device. METHODS: This was a prospective, observational, semirandomized, crossover study using Army Medics. Data were collected during Brigade Combat Team Trauma Training classes at Camp Bullis, Texas...
2017: Journal of Special Operations Medicine: a Peer Reviewed Journal for SOF Medical Professionals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28889981/visual-vestibular-conflict-detection-depends-on-fixation
#16
Isabelle T Garzorz, Paul R MacNeilage
Visual and vestibular signals are the primary sources of sensory information for self-motion. Conflict among these signals can be seriously debilitating, resulting in vertigo [1], inappropriate postural responses [2], and motion, simulator, or cyber sickness [3-8]. Despite this significance, the mechanisms mediating conflict detection are poorly understood. Here we model conflict detection simply as crossmodal discrimination with benchmark performance limited by variabilities of the signals being compared. In a series of psychophysical experiments conducted in a virtual reality motion simulator, we measure these variabilities and assess conflict detection relative to this benchmark...
September 25, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28883717/assessing-balance-through-the-use-of-a-low-cost-head-mounted-display-in-older-adults-a-pilot-study
#17
Santiago J Saldana, Anthony P Marsh, W Jack Rejeski, Jack K Haberl, Peggy Wu, Scott Rosenthal, Edward H Ip
INTRODUCTION: As the population ages, the prevention of falls is an increasingly important public health problem. Balance assessment forms an important component of fall-prevention programs for older adults. The recent development of cost-effective and highly responsive virtual reality (VR) systems means new methods of balance assessment are feasible in a clinical setting. This proof-of-concept study made use of the submillimeter tracking built into modern VR head-mounted displays (VRHMDs) to assess balance through the use of visual-vestibular conflict...
2017: Clinical Interventions in Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28857147/safety-and-ergogenic-properties-of-combined-aminophylline-and-ambrisentan-in-hypoxia
#18
Thies Schroeder, Claude A Piantadosi, Michael J Natoli, Julie Autmizguine, Michael Cohen-Wolkowieczs, Karyn L Hamilton, Christopher Bell, Jelena Klawitter, Uwe Christians, David C Irwin, Robert J Noveck
We hypothesized that concomitant pharmacological inhibition of the endothelin and adenosine pathway is safe and improves exercise performance in hypoxic humans, via a mechanism that does not involve augmentation of blood oxygenation. To test this hypothesis, we established safety and drug interactions for aminophylline (500 mg) plus ambrisentan (5 mg) in normoxic volunteers. Subsequently, a placebo-controlled study was employed to test the combination in healthy resting and exercising volunteers at simulated altitude (4,267 m)...
August 31, 2017: Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810963/treating-decompression-sickness-military-flight-simulation-site-community-hospital-partnership
#19
Whitney C Rhodes, George Hertner, Robert Price, Lani Finck, Claudia Temmer, Tracy Cushing, Kathleen Flarity
BACKGROUND: High-altitude flight simulation familiarizes military trainees with the symptoms of hypoxia to prepare them for emergency situations. Decompression sickness (DCS) can occur as a result of these simulations. In cases when ground-level supplemental oxygen does not resolve symptoms, hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) therapy is indicated. Many military hyperbaric chambers have been closed because of cost reductions, necessitating partnerships with community hospitals to ensure access to treatment...
July 2017: Military Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802464/mirage-events-driver-haptic-steering-alerts-in-a-motion-base-driving-simulator-a-method-for-selecting-an-optimal-hmi
#20
Walter Talamonti, Louis Tijerina, Mike Blommer, Radhakrishnan Swaminathan, Reates Curry, R Darin Ellis
This paper describes a new method, a 'mirage scenario,' to support formative evaluation of driver alerting or warning displays for manual and automated driving. This method provides driving contexts (e.g., various Times-To-Collision (TTCs) to a lead vehicle) briefly presented and then removed. In the present study, during each mirage event, a haptic steering display was evaluated. This haptic display indicated a steering response may be initiated to drive around an obstacle ahead. A motion-base simulator was used in a 32-participant study to present vehicle motion cues similar to the actual application...
November 2017: Applied Ergonomics
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