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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29683212/outcome-based-ventilation-obv-a-framework-for-assessing-performance-health-and-energy-impacts-to-inform-office-building-ventilation-decisions
#1
Adams Rackes, Tom Ben-David, Michael S Waring
This article presents an outcome-based ventilation (OBV) framework, which combines competing ventilation impacts into a monetized loss function ($/occ/h) used to inform ventilation rate decisions. The OBV framework, developed for U.S. offices, considers six outcomes of increasing ventilation: profitable outcomes realized from improvements in occupant work performance and sick-leave absenteeism; health outcomes from occupant exposure to outdoor fine particles and ozone; and energy outcomes from electricity and natural gas usage...
April 23, 2018: Indoor Air
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29681999/numerical-simulations-of-the-motion-and-deformation-of-three-rbcs-during-poiseuille-flow-through-a-constricted-vessel-using-ib-lbm
#2
Rongyang Wang, Yikun Wei, Chuanyu Wu, Liang Sun, Wenguang Zheng
The immersed boundary-lattice Boltzmann method (IB-LBM) was used to examine the motion and deformation of three elastic red blood cells (RBCs) during Poiseuille flow through constricted microchannels. The objective was to determine the effects of the degree of constriction and the Reynolds (Re) number of the flow on the physical characteristics of the RBCs. It was found that, with decreasing constriction ratio, the RBCs experienced greater forced deformation as they squeezed through the constriction area compared to at other parts of the microchannel...
2018: Computational and Mathematical Methods in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672256/an-analysis-of-vr-technology-used-in-immersive-simulations-with-a-serious-game-perspective
#3
Aline Menin, Rafael Torchelsen, Luciana Nedel
Using virtual environments (VEs) is a safer and cost-effective alternative to executing dangerous tasks, such as training firefighters and industrial operators. Immersive virtual reality (VR) combined with game aspects have the potential to improve the user experience in the VE by increasing realism, engagement, and motivation. This article investigates the impact of VR technology on 46 immersive gamified simulations with serious purposes and classifies it towards a taxonomy. Our findings suggest that immersive VR improves simulation outcomes, such as increasing learning gain and knowledge retention and improving clinical outcomes for rehabilitation...
March 2018: IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664207/how-sleep-problems-contribute-to-simulator-sickness-preliminary-results-from-a-realistic-driving-scenario
#4
Ellemarije Altena, Yannick Daviaux, Ernesto Sanz-Arigita, Emilien Bonhomme, Étienne de Sevin, Jean-Arthur Micoulaud-Franchi, Stéphanie Bioulac, Pierre Philip
Virtual reality and simulation tools enable us to assess daytime functioning in environments that simulate real life as close as possible. Simulator sickness, however, poses a problem in the application of these tools, and has been related to pre-existing health problems. How sleep problems contribute to simulator sickness has not yet been investigated. In the current study, 20 female chronic insomnia patients and 32 female age-matched controls drove in a driving simulator covering realistic city, country and highway scenes...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Sleep Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29590147/influence-of-bone-conducted-vibration-on-simulator-sickness-in-virtual-reality
#5
Séamas Weech, Jae Moon, Nikolaus F Troje
Use of virtual reality (VR) technology is often accompanied by a series of unwanted symptoms, including nausea and headache, which are characterised as 'simulator sickness'. Sensory mismatch has been thought to lie at the heart of the problem and recent studies have shown that reducing cue mismatch in VR can have a therapeutic effect. Specifically, electrical stimulation of vestibular afferent nerves (galvanic vestibular stimulation; GVS) can reduce simulator sickness in VR. However, GVS poses a risk to certain populations and can also result in negative symptoms in normal, healthy individuals...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29571705/optimal-human-and-system-performance-during-neonatal-resuscitation
#6
REVIEW
N K Yamada, C O F Kamlin, L P Halamek
Performance in the delivery of care to sick neonates in need of resuscitation has long been defined primarily in terms of the extent of the knowledge possessed and hands-on skill demonstrated by physicians and other healthcare professionals. This definition of performance in neonatal resuscitation is limited by its focus solely on the human beings delivering care and a perceived set of the requisite skills to do so. This manuscript will expand the definition of performance to include all of the skill sets that humans must use to resuscitate newborns as well as the often complex systems in which those humans operate while delivering that care...
March 7, 2018: Seminars in Fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29562971/the-persistent-issue-of-simulator-sickness-in-naval-aviation-training
#7
Daniel J Geyer, Adam T Biggs
Virtual simulations offer nearly unlimited training potential for naval aviation due to the wide array of scenarios that can be simulated in a safe, reliable, and cost-effective environment. This versatility has created substantial interest in using existing and emerging virtual technology to enhance training scenarios. However, the virtual simulations themselves may hinder training initiatives by inducing simulator sickness among the trainees, which is a series of symptoms similar to motion sickness that can arise from simulator use...
April 1, 2018: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29545754/angiotensin-converting-enzyme-inhibitor-has-a-protective-effect-on-decompression-sickness-in-rats
#8
Aleksandra Mazur, Anthony Guernec, Jacky Lautridou, Julie Dupas, Emmanuel Dugrenot, Marc Belhomme, Michael Theron, François Guerrero
Introduction: Commercial divers, high altitude pilots, and astronauts are exposed to some inherent risk of decompression sickness (DCS), though the mechanisms that trigger are still unclear. It has been previously showed that diving may induce increased levels of serum angiotensin converting enzyme. The renin angiotensin aldosterone system (RAAS) is one of the most important regulators of blood pressure and fluid volume. The purpose of the present study was to control the influence of angiotensin II on the appearance of DCS...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29531502/using-smartphone-technology-to-deliver-a-virtual-pedestrian-environment-usability-and-validation
#9
David C Schwebel, Joan Severson, Yefei He
Various programs effectively teach children to cross streets more safely, but all are labor- and cost-intensive. Recent developments in mobile phone technology offer opportunity to deliver virtual reality pedestrian environments to mobile smartphone platforms. Such an environment may offer a cost- and labor-effective strategy to teach children to cross streets safely. This study evaluated usability, feasibility, and validity of a smartphone-based virtual pedestrian environment. A total of 68 adults completed 12 virtual crossings within each of two virtual pedestrian environments, one delivered by smartphone and the other a semi-immersive kiosk virtual environment...
September 2017: Virtual Reality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29506760/an-ocular-biomechanic-model-for-dynamic-simulation-of-different-eye-movements
#10
J Iskander, M Hossny, S Nahavandi, L Del Porto
Simulating and analysing eye movement is useful for assessing visual system contribution to discomfort with respect to body movements, especially in virtual environments where simulation sickness might occur. It can also be used in the design of eye prosthesis or humanoid robot eye. In this paper, we present two biomechanic ocular models that are easily integrated into the available musculoskeletal models. The model was previously used to simulate eye-head coordination. The models are used to simulate and analyse eye movements...
April 11, 2018: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29505848/psychophysiological-assessment-and-correction-of-spatial-disorientation-during-simulated-orion-spacecraft-re-entry
#11
Patricia S Cowings, William B Toscano, Millard F Reschke, Addis Tsehay
The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has identified a potential risk of spatial disorientation, motion sickness, and degraded performance to astronauts during re-entry and landing of the proposed Orion crew vehicle. The purpose of this study was to determine if a physiological training procedure, Autogenic-Feedback Training Exercise (AFTE), can mitigate these adverse effects. Fourteen men and six women were assigned to two groups (AFTE, no-treatment Control) matched for motion sickness susceptibility and gender...
March 2, 2018: International Journal of Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29504117/why-and-how-to-use-virtual-reality-to-study-human-social-interaction-the-challenges-of-exploring-a-new-research-landscape
#12
Xueni Pan, Antonia F de C Hamilton
As virtual reality (VR) technology and systems become more commercially available and accessible, more and more psychologists are starting to integrate VR as part of their methods. This approach offers major advantages in experimental control, reproducibility, and ecological validity, but also has limitations and hidden pitfalls which may distract the novice user. This study aimed to guide the psychologist into the novel world of VR, reviewing available instrumentation and mapping the landscape of possible systems...
March 5, 2018: British Journal of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29490570/visual-occlusion-decreases-motion-sickness-in-a-flight-simulator
#13
Shaziela Ishak, Andrea Bubka, Frederick Bonato
Sensory conflict theories of motion sickness (MS) assert that symptoms may result when incoming sensory inputs (e.g., visual and vestibular) contradict each other. Logic suggests that attenuating input from one sense may reduce conflict and hence lessen MS symptoms. In the current study, it was hypothesized that attenuating visual input by blocking light entering the eye would reduce MS symptoms in a motion provocative environment. Participants sat inside an aircraft cockpit mounted onto a motion platform that simultaneously pitched, rolled, and heaved in two conditions...
May 2018: Perception
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29478577/should-helicopters-transport-patients-who-become-sick-after-a-chemical-biological-radiological-nuclear-and-explosive-attack
#14
Youichi Yanagawa, Kouhei Ishikawa, Ikuto Takeuchi, Hiroki Nagasawa, Kei Jitsuiki, Hiromichi Ohsaka, Kazuhiko Omori
The local fire department executed a training simulation for chemical and explosive incidents at a large sports facility. In this training simulation, a physician-staffed helicopter arrived at the request of the fire department and landed just outside the cold zone in the parking area. The doctor and nurse of the helicopter were escorted to a red area in the cold zone, which was selected based on the results of postdecontamination triage. After the patients had been treated, they were air medically evacuated to the base hospital...
March 2018: Air Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29478576/safe-interfacility-transport-of-pediatric-patients-medical-control-training-an-interdisciplinary-approach
#15
Samantha W Gee, Philip L Holt, Michael J Stoner
INTRODUCTION: Critically ill children who require transfer to tertiary care centers often require transport by specialized transport teams (TT). These interfacility transports require a medical control physician (MCP). Traditionally this role is assigned to fellows who are taught "on-the-job", but achieving competency in communication for those trained this way may not be optimal. We sought to close this curriculum gap by developing a MCP training program immersing emergency medicine (EM) and critical care (CC) fellows together with TT members to manage a simulated patient...
March 2018: Air Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29477332/virtual-reality-sickness-questionnaire-vrsq-motion-sickness-measurement-index-in-a-virtual-reality-environment
#16
Hyun K Kim, Jaehyun Park, Yeongcheol Choi, Mungyeong Choe
This study aims to develop a motion sickness measurement index in a virtual reality (VR) environment. The VR market is in an early stage of market formation and technological development, and thus, research on the side effects of VR devices such as simulator motion sickness is lacking. In this study, we used the simulator sickness questionnaire (SSQ), which has been traditionally used for simulator motion sickness measurement. To measure the motion sickness in a VR environment, 24 users performed target selection tasks using a VR device...
May 2018: Applied Ergonomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29425200/an-agent-based-model-of-tsetse-fly-response-to-seasonal-climatic-drivers-assessing-the-impact-on-sleeping-sickness-transmission-rates
#17
Simon Alderton, Ewan T Macleod, Neil E Anderson, Gwen Palmer, Noreen Machila, Martin Simuunza, Susan C Welburn, Peter M Atkinson
BACKGROUND: This paper presents the development of an agent-based model (ABM) to incorporate climatic drivers which affect tsetse fly (G. m. morsitans) population dynamics, and ultimately disease transmission. The model was used to gain a greater understanding of how tsetse populations fluctuate seasonally, and investigate any response observed in Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense human African trypanosomiasis (rHAT) disease transmission, with a view to gaining a greater understanding of disease dynamics...
February 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29364733/feasibility-and-reliability-of-a-virtual-reality-oculus-platform-to-measure-sensory-integration-for-postural-control-in-young-adults
#18
Anat V Lubetzky, Erinn E Kary, Daphna Harel, Bryan Hujsak, Ken Perlin
BACKGROUND: Using Unity for the Oculus Development-Kit 2, we have developed an affordable, portable virtual reality platform that targets the visuomotor domain, a missing link in current clinical assessments of postural control. Here, we describe the design and technical development as well as report its feasibility with regards to cybersickness and test-retest reliability in healthy young adults. METHOD: Our virtual reality paradigm includes two functional scenes ('City' and 'Park') and four moving dots scenes...
January 24, 2018: Physiotherapy Theory and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298819/reduction-of-motion-sickness-through-targeting-histamine-n-methyltransferase-in-the-dorsal-vagal-complex-of-the-brain
#19
Miao-Miao Chen, Li-Hua Xu, Li Chang, Peng Yin, Zheng-Lin Jiang
To investigate the role of histamine N -methyltransferase (HNMT) activity in the development of motion sickness (MS) in the dorsal vagal complex (DVC) to inform the development of new drugs for MS, Beagle dogs and Sprague-Dawley rats were rotated to simulate MS. HNMT expression in the brain stem and DVC was measured. The effects of systemic application of tacrine, an HNMT inhibitor, on the development of MS were observed. Moreover, we microinjected a histamine receptor H1 inhibitor, promethazine, into the DVC to verify the involvement of histaminergic neurotransmission in MS...
March 2018: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242677/infection-reduces-anti-predator-behaviors-in-house-finches
#20
James S Adelman, Corinne Mayer, Dana M Hawley
Infectious diseases can cause host mortality through direct or indirect mechanisms, including altered behavior. Diminished anti-predator behavior is among the most-studied causes of indirect mortality during infection, particularly for systems in which a parasite's life-cycle requires transmission from prey to predator. Significantly less work has examined whether directly-transmitted parasites and pathogens also reduce anti-predator behaviors. Here we test whether the directly-transmitted bacterial pathogen, Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG), reduces responses to predation-related stimuli in house finches ( Haemorhous mexicanus )...
April 2017: Journal of Avian Biology
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