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Silvia Beatriz Gorban de Lapertosa, Gustavo Frechtel, Elise Hardy, Leobardo Sauque-Reyna
AIMS: Socioeconomic changes in Latin American countries have led to an increased prevalence of type 2 diabetes (T2D). We examined the effects of exenatide twice daily (BID) or insulin lispro, each added to insulin glargine, in Latin American patients with T2D. METHODS: This was a subgroup analysis of patients from Argentina and Mexico in the 4B study (N=114). Patients with glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) of 7.0-10.0% (53-86mmol/mol) after 12weeks of intensive basal insulin optimization were randomized to exenatide BID or thrice-daily insulin lispro added to insulin glargine and metformin...
October 8, 2016: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice
Andrea Szentesi, Emese Tóth, Emese Bálint, Júlia Fanczal, Tamara Madácsy, Dorottya Laczkó, Imre Ignáth, Anita Balázs, Petra Pallagi, József Maléth, Zoltán Rakonczay, Balázs Kui, Dóra Illés, Katalin Márta, Ágnes Blaskó, Alexandra Demcsák, Andrea Párniczky, Gabriella Pár, Szilárd Gódi, Dóra Mosztbacher, Ákos Szücs, Adrienn Halász, Ferenc Izbéki, Nelli Farkas, Péter Hegyi
OBJECTIVE: Biomedical investment trends in 2015 show a huge decrease of investment in gastroenterology. Since academic research usually provides the basis for industrial research and development (R&D), our aim was to understand research trends in the field of gastroenterology over the last 50 years and identify the most endangered areas. METHODS: We searched for PubMed hits for gastrointestinal (GI) diseases for the 1965-2015 period. Overall, 1,554,325 articles were analyzed...
2016: PloS One
Konstantinos Triantafyllou, Paraskevas Gkolfakis, Nikos Viazis, Panagiotis Tsibouris, Athanasios Tsigaridas, Periklis Apostolopoulos, John Anastasiou, Eleni Hounda, Ioannis Skianis, Konstantina Katopodi, Xhoela Ndini, George Alexandrakis, Demetrios G Karamanolis
INTRODUCTION: Since its introduction, small bowel video capsule endoscopy (VCE) use has evolved considerably. AIM: Evaluation of the temporal changes of small bowel VCE utilization in three tertiary centers in Greece in Era 1 (2002-2009) and Era 2 (2010-2014) and the development a forecast model for future VCE use during 2015-2017. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data from all small bowel VCE examinations were retrieved and analyzed in terms of the annual number of the performed examinations, their indications and the significance of their findings...
October 21, 2016: European Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
Henrieta Škovierová, Eva Vidomanová, Silvia Mahmood, Janka Sopková, Anna Drgová, Tatiana Červeňová, Erika Halašová, Ján Lehotský
Homocysteine (Hcy) is a sulfur-containing non-proteinogenic amino acid derived in methionine metabolism. The increased level of Hcy in plasma, hyperhomocysteinemia, is considered to be an independent risk factor for cardio and cerebrovascular diseases. However, it is still not clear if Hcy is a marker or a causative agent of diseases. More and more research data suggest that Hcy is an important indicator for overall health status. This review represents the current understanding of molecular mechanism of Hcy metabolism and its link to hyperhomocysteinemia-related pathologies in humans...
October 20, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Joanna Kostka, Tomasz Kostka, Ewa Borowiak
BACKGROUND: The goal of this study was to assess the physical activity (PA) and its determinants of older people living in the three different environments. METHODS: Three equal (n=693 each) groups of individuals aged ≥65 years living in urban, rural and institutional environments took part in this study. PA was measured by the Seven-Day Recall PA Questionnaire (energy expenditure - PA-EE) and the Stanford Usual Activity Questionnaire (health-related behaviors - PA-HRB)...
October 24, 2016: Journal of Physical Activity & Health
M Oviedo Gutiérrez, S Amat Valero, A Gómez Farpón, C Montalvo Ávalos, L Fernández García, D C Lara Cárdenas, S Barnes Marañón, C Granell Suárez, N Vega Mata, A J López López, M González Guerrero, V Álvarez Muñoz
PURPOSE: Gastrointestinal adenomyoma is a rare benign tumor most frequently located in the stomach. The differential diagnosis is wide because of its large clinical spectrum and unspecific radiological findings. Surgical excision is both diagnostic and therapeutic. CASE REPORT: A 49-days old girl presented with nonbilious vomiting of 48 hours of evolution. Infantile hypertrofic pyloric stenosis was suspected. Ultrasound showed a nonobstructive nodular lesion in the anterior pyloric wall...
April 20, 2016: Cirugía Pediátrica: Organo Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Cirugía Pediátrica
G Alonso Ciodaro, J I Santamaría Ossorio, S Sanjuán Rodríguez
INTRODUCTION: Cecal duplications are rare, representing 0.4% of all gastrointestinal duplications, with few cases reported in the literature. CLINICAL CASE: A 48 hours-old newborn presented with bilious vomiting and abdominal distension; the ultrasound revealed a cystic mass in the right abdomen; ileocolic resection was performed with end to end anastomosis. Microscopy confirmed cecal duplication cyst. COMMENTS: In patients with intestinal obstruction, contrast enema allows differential diagnosis with other colonic pathologies in the newborn; when the cecal duplication cyst is connected to the lumen of the colon, enema reveals a filling defect, and cecal duplication can be suspected...
October 10, 2016: Cirugía Pediátrica: Organo Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Cirugía Pediátrica
P Rodríguez Iglesias, V Ibáñez Pradas, A Alamar Velázquez, I Ibáñez Alcañiz, M Couselo Jerez
INTRODUCTION: The cricopharyngeal achalasia is an esophageal motor disorder that entails a lack of relaxation of the upper esophageal sphincter. It is rare in children and its etiology is related to multiple factors. The symptoms are nonspecific and may be masked by other diseases. CLINICAL CASE: Report two infants with dysphagia and choking episodes. Upper gastrointestinal series confirmed cricopharyngeal achalasia. The first patient was treated with endoscopic dilatation, and did not require further therapies...
January 15, 2016: Cirugía Pediátrica: Organo Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Cirugía Pediátrica
A Gentilini, A Caligiuri, A Provenzano, F Marra
Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is a progressive form of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, characterized by inflammation, hepatocyte injury and fibrogenesis. Overall mortality, and liver-related mortality, are both increased in NASH patients. Considering that nonalcoholic fatty liver disease is the most prevalent hepatic abnormality in the Western world, understanding the mechanisms leading to NASH and its progression to cirrhosis is critical for a better management of these patients. Moreover, a more detailed knowledge of this condition may be helpful to identify those subjects which are more susceptible to develop progressive liver disease...
October 21, 2016: Current Molecular Medicine
Carles Pericay, Fernando Rivera, Carlos Gomez-Martin, Inmaculada Nuñez, Alejo Cassinello, Esteban Rodrigo Imedio
Tumors of the upper gastrointestinal tract are increasing in incidence; yet, approaches to the treatment of advanced gastric and/or gastroesophageal junction cancer vary widely, with no internationally agreed first-line regimens. Recent clinical trials have shown that second-line treatment is now possible for selected patients with advanced disease, and current data suggest that the combination of ramucirumab plus paclitaxel may become a standard of care in the second-line setting for metastatic gastric cancer...
October 24, 2016: Cancer Medicine
Toru Otori, Sumio Matzno, Atushi Kawase, Masahiro Iwaki, Tetsutaro Kimachi, Keiji Nishiwaki, William C Figoni, Ryuta Tominaga, Mai Asahide, Mayumi Nishikata, Yoshikazu Ishii, Kenji Matsuyama
OBJECTIVES: To avoid the chelate formation between levofloxacin (LVFX) and aluminium hydroxide in gastrointestinal tract, an ethoxycarbonyl 1-ethyl hemiacetal ester of levofloxacin (LVFX-EHE) was synthesised as a prodrug. METHODS: The effects of aluminium hydroxide on the bioavailability of LVFX following oral administration of LVFX-EHE were investigated in rats. Furthermore, the effects of aluminium hydroxide on small intestinal absorption of LVFX and LVFX-EHE when subjected to a hydrolysis experiment using in situ everted gut sac were investigated, and the minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of LVFX and LVFX-EHE for various intestinal bacteria were measured...
October 24, 2016: Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology
Bo Wang, Shannon J Walsh, Muhammad W Saif
5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) is one of the most commonly used chemotherapeutic agents in solid tumors, including colon, gastric and breast cancers. The pharmacogenetic syndrome of dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPD) deficiency leading to severe toxicity after administration of 5-flourouracil (5-FU) and capecitabine has been well-recognized. However, the data about the association of the target enzyme, thymidylate synthase (TYMS) with the toxicity of these agents is limited. A 50-year-old Caucasian woman with T2N2M0 Stage IIIB squamous cell rectal cancer after local surgical excision initiated 5-FU therapy with mitomycin-C and radiation therapy in the adjuvant setting...
September 21, 2016: Curēus
Shoab Saadat
OBJECTIVE:  The study was conducted to analyze the predictors of prolonged hospitalization in patients with fever. PATIENTS AND METHODS:  This was a prospective cohort study conducted from July - December 2015 at Ayub Teaching Hospital, Pakistan. Convenience sampling was used to enroll the patients who visited the hospital during the study duration. A sample size of 115 patients was calculated. It included patients who presented with a new onset fever which started in the last month, and the cause of fever was undiagnosed at the time of admission...
September 18, 2016: Curēus
John Slattery, Derrick F MacFabe, Richard E Frye
Recent studies have highlighted the fact that the enteric microbiome, the trillions of microbes that inhabit the human digestive tract, has a significant effect on health and disease. Methods for manipulating the enteric microbiome, particularly through probiotics and microbial ecosystem transplantation, have undergone some study in clinical trials. We review some of the evidence for microbiome alteration in relation to childhood disease and discuss the clinical trials that have examined the manipulation of the microbiome in an effort to prevent or treat childhood disease with a primary focus on probiotics, prebiotics, and/or synbiotics (ie, probiotics + prebiotics)...
2016: Clinical Medicine Insights. Pediatrics
Saganuwan Alhaji Saganuwan, Orinya Agbaji Orinya
Piroxicam is a benzothiazine compound with anti-inflammatory, antipyretic, and analgesic properties. Because of the very high efficacy of piroxicam and its increasing use in the treatment of carcinomas in dogs and cats, there is a need for acute toxicity study of piroxicam in monogastric animals and its potential for causing secondary poisoning in puppies. Piroxicam manufactured by Shanxi Federal Pharmaceutical Co, Ltd. was used for this study. Revised up-and-down procedure was used for the estimation of median lethal dose in mouse (259...
2016: Journal of Experimental Neuroscience
Yusuke Tanaka, Ayaka Kawakami, Ami Nanimatsu, Misaki Horio, Jumpei Matsuoka, Takami Wada, Satoshi Kasaoka, Hiroshi Yoshikawa
The aim of this study is to evaluate how supersaturation, precipitation, and re-dissolution processes influence the intestinal absorption of cinnarizine (CNZ), a lipophilic weak base, by monitoring its plasma and luminal concentration-time profile, after oral administration as a HCl solution containing fluorescein isothiocyanate dextran (FD-4), a non-absorbable marker. In the in vitro pH shift experiment, the supersaturation stability was significantly lower when the higher-concentration solution of CNZ (pH1...
October 20, 2016: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Jonas F Ludvigsson, Benjamin Lebwohl, Anders Ekbom, Ravi Kiran, Peter Hr Green, Jonas Höijer, Olof Stephansson
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Endoscopy is an integral part of the investigation and management of gastrointestinal disease. We aimed to examine outcomes of pregnancies for women who underwent endoscopy during their pregnancy. METHODS: We performed a nationwide population-based cohort study, linking data from the Swedish Medical Birth Registry (for births from 1992 through 2011) with those from the Swedish Patient Registry. We identified 3052 pregnancies exposed to endoscopy (2025 upper endoscopies, 1109 lower endoscopies, 58 endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatographies)...
October 20, 2016: Gastroenterology
Benjamin Wooden, Nicolas Goossens, Yujin Hoshida, Scott L Friedman
Technologies such as genome sequencing, gene expression profiling, proteomic and metabolomic analyses, electronic medical records, and patient-reported health information have produced large amounts of data, from various populations, cell types, and disorders (big data). However, these data must be integrated and analyzed if they are to produce models or concepts about physiologic function or mechanisms of pathogenesis. Many of these data are available to the public, allowing researchers anywhere to search for markers of specific biologic processes or therapeutic targets for specific diseases or patient types...
October 20, 2016: Gastroenterology
Helen E Vuong, Elaine Y Hsiao
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a serious neurodevelopmental disorder that affects one in 45 children in the United States, with a similarly striking prevalence in countries around the world. However, mechanisms underlying its etiology and manifestations remain poorly understood. Although ASD is diagnosed based on the presence and severity of impaired social communication and repetitive behavior, immune dysregulation and gastrointestinal issues are common comorbidities. The microbiome is an integral part of human physiology; recent studies show that changes in the gut microbiota can modulate gastrointestinal physiology, immune function, and even behavior...
August 26, 2016: Biological Psychiatry
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