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Nilesh Chande, Cassandra M Townsend, Claire E Parker, John K MacDonald
BACKGROUND: The results from controlled clinical trials investigating the efficacy of azathioprine and 6-mercaptopurine for the treatment of active Crohn's disease have been conflicting and controversial. An updated meta-analysis was performed to assess the effectiveness of these drugs for the induction of remission in active Crohn's disease. OBJECTIVES: The primary objective was to determine the efficacy and safety of azathioprine and 6-mercaptopurine for induction of remission in active Crohn's disease...
October 26, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Laura M Tanner, Johanna Kurko, Maaria Tringham, Heikki Aho, Juha Mykkänen, Kirsti Näntö-Salonen, Harri Niinikoski, Heikki Lukkarinen
Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP) is a potentially fatal complication of lysinuric protein intolerance (LPI), an inherited disorder of cationic amino acid transport. The patients often present with mild respiratory symptoms, which may rapidly progress to acute respiratory failure responding poorly to conventional treatment with steroids and bronchoalveolar lavations (BALs). The pathogenesis of PAP in LPI is still largely unclear. In previous studies, we have shown disturbances in the function and activity of alveolar macrophages of these patients, suggesting that increasing the activity and the number of macrophages by recombinant human GM-CSF (rhuGM-CSF) might be beneficial in this patient group...
October 26, 2016: JIMD Reports
Takao Saito, Masayuki Iwano, Koichi Matsumoto, Tetsuya Mitarai, Hitoshi Yokoyama, Noriaki Yorioka, Shinichi Nishi, Ashio Yoshimura, Hiroshi Sato, Satoru Ogahara, Yoshie Sasatomi, Yasufumi Kataoka, Shiro Ueda, Akio Koyama, Shoichi Maruyama, Masaomi Nangaku, Enyu Imai, Seiichi Matsuo, Yasuhiko Tomino
BACKGROUND: We designed a prospective and randomized trial of mizoribine (MZR) therapy combined with prednisolone (PSL) for idiopathic membranous nephropathy (IMN) with steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome (SRNS). METHODS: Patients with IMN were divided into 2 groups, and MZR combined with PSL was administered for 2 years. PSL was initially prescribed at 40 mg/day and tapered. MZR was given once-a-day at 150 mg and 3-times-a-day at 50 mg each to groups 1 and 2...
October 25, 2016: Clinical and Experimental Nephrology
Paola Cipriani, Onorina Berardicurti, Francesco Masedu, Francesca D'Onofrio, Luca Navarini, Piero Ruscitti, Nicola Maruotti, Domenico Paolo Emanuele Margiotta, Vasiliki Liakouli, Paola Di Benedetto, Francesco Carubbi, Marco Valenti, Francesco Paolo Cantatore, Antonella Afeltra, Roberto Giacomelli
Since the introduction of biologics, many concerns about the increased risk of infections have been reported and, to date, the real impact of infections on the daily practice in the rheumatologic centers is still largely unknown. In this work, we evaluated the infection rates associated with the use of biologics in a large cohort of patients. A prospective study, between January 2010 and December 2013, enrolling 731 rheumatic patients, was performed. Demographic and disease characteristics, therapies, comorbidities, and infectious events were recorded and statistically analyzed by multivariate analysis...
October 25, 2016: Clinical Rheumatology
Bartosz Kazimierz Słowikowski, Margarita Lianeri, Paweł Piotr Jagodziński
It is well known that a connection between xenobiotics inhalation, especially tobacco combustion and Lung Cancer development is strongly significant and indisputable. However, recent studies provide evidence indicating that another factors such as, estrogens are also involved in lung carcinoma biology and metabolism. Although the status of estrogen receptors (ER), in both cancerous and healthy lung tissue has been well documented, there is still inconclusive data with respect of which isoform of the receptor is present in the lungs...
October 25, 2016: Molecular Biology Reports
Samriti Dogra, Frederick Kaskel
Steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome remains a challenge to treat, but various efforts are underway to better understand the pathogenesis and improve patient outcomes. This review provides an update on the newer advances in understanding the molecular etiologies for a variety of podocyte abnormalities, potential circulating factors that may initiate and sustain the steroid-resistant state, genetic mutations, and precision medicine treatment modalities in this continuously perplexing disorder.
October 26, 2016: Pediatric Nephrology: Journal of the International Pediatric Nephrology Association
Erika D Sears, Peter R Swiatek, Hechuan Hou, Kevin C Chung
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of insurance type on use of diagnostic testing, treatments, and the efficiency of care for patients with carpal tunnel syndrome. METHODS: The 2009 to 2013 Truven MarketScan Databases were used to identify adult patients with carpal tunnel syndrome. Insurance type was categorized as fee-for-service versus capitated managed care. Multivariable regression models were created to evaluate the relationship between insurance type and costs, number of visits, treatment, and electrodiagnostic study use, and controlling for demographic characteristics and comorbidities...
November 2016: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
Alfonse T Masi, Azeem A Rehman, Laura C Jorgenson, Jean C Aldag
OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to critically investigate all-cause and major-cause mortality of incident rheumatoid arthritis (RA) cases versus matched non-RA comparison (CN) subjects in a long-term prospective cohort. METHODS: Baseline 1974 cohort entry demographic and serum biomarker data on 54 incident RA patients and 216 matched CN subjects were related to their mortality from 1995 through 2015. Mortality of RA patients was also analysed by 3 categories of course responses to therapy assigned by the sole community rheumatologist in 1995 (19 good, 23 fair, and 12 limited)...
October 26, 2016: Clinical and Experimental Rheumatology
Thierry Jardé, Bethan Lloyd-Lewis, Mairian Thomas, Howard Kendrick, Lorenzo Melchor, Lauriane Bougaret, Peter D Watson, Kenneth Ewan, Matthew J Smalley, Trevor C Dale
The development of in vitro culture systems quantitatively and qualitatively recapitulating normal breast biology is key to the understanding of mammary gland biology. Current three-dimensional mammary culture systems have not demonstrated concurrent proliferation and functional differentiation ex vivo in any system for longer than 2 weeks. Here, we identify conditions including Neuregulin1 and R-spondin 1, allowing maintenance and expansion of mammary organoids for 2.5 months in culture. The organoids comprise distinct basal and luminal compartments complete with functional steroid receptors and stem/progenitor cells able to reconstitute a complete mammary gland in vivo...
October 26, 2016: Nature Communications
Xiao-Huang Xu, Ting Li, Chi Man Vivienne Fong, Xiuping Chen, Xiao-Jia Chen, Yi-Tao Wang, Ming-Qing Huang, Jin-Jian Lu
Saponins are glycosides with triterpenoid or spirostane aglycones that demonstrate various pharmacological effects against mammalian diseases. To promote the research and development of anticancer agents from saponins, this review focuses on the anticancer properties of several typical naturally derived triterpenoid saponins (ginsenosides and saikosaponins) and steroid saponins (dioscin, polyphyllin, and timosaponin) isolated from Chinese medicines. These saponins exhibit in vitro and in vivo anticancer effects, such as anti-proliferation, anti-metastasis, anti-angiogenesis, anti-multidrug resistance, and autophagy regulation actions...
October 5, 2016: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Fang-Ping Xu, Yan-Hui Liu, Xin-Lan Luo, Fen Zhang, Hai-Yu Zhou, Yan Ge, Chao Liu, Jie Chen, Dong-Lan Luo, Li-Xu Yan, Ping Mei, Jie Xu, Heng-Guo Zhuang
Steroid receptor coactivator-3 (SRC-3), a transcriptional coactivator for nuclear receptors and other transcription factors, plays an important role in the genesis and progression of several cancers. However, studies investigated the role of SRC-3 in esophageal squamous cell carcinomas (ESCCs) are limited, and the role of SRC-3 in tumor progression remains unclear. We examined the expression of SRC-3 in 8 ESCC cell lines and 302 human ESCC tissues by qPCR, Western blot, and immunohistochemistry. In addition, ESCC cell lines were subjected to proliferation and invasion assays, tumorigenicity assay, flow cytometry assay, qPCR, Western blot, and Chromatin Immunoprecipitation assay to investigate the role of SRC-3 in cancer progression...
October 26, 2016: Cancer Medicine
B Sukka-Ganesh, J Larkin
Although the specific events dictating systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) pathology remain unclear, abundant evidence indicates a critical role for dysregulated cytokine signalling in disease progression. Notably, the suppressor of cytokine signalling (SOCS) family of intracellular proteins, in particular the kinase inhibitory region (KIR) bearing SOCS1 and SOCS3, plays a critical role in regulating cytokine signalling. To assess a relationship between SOCS1/SOCS3 expression and SLE, the goals of this study were to (1) evaluate the time kinetics of SOCS1/SOCS3 message and protein expression based on SLE-associated stimulations, (2) compare levels of SOCS1 and SOCS3 present in SLE patients and healthy controls by message and protein, (3) relate SOCS1/SOCS3 expression to inflammatory markers in SLE patients and (4) correlate SOCS1/SOCS3 levels to current treatments...
November 2016: Scandinavian Journal of Immunology
N Wu, U Gaur, Q Zhu, B Chen, Z Xu, X Zhao, M Yang, D Li
MicroRNA (miRNA) is a highly conserved class of small noncoding RNA about 19-24 nucleotides in length that function in a specific manner to post-transcriptionally regulate gene expression in organisms. Tissue miRNA expression studies have discovered a myriad of functions for miRNAs in various aspects, but a role for miRNAs in chicken ovarian tissue at 300 days of age has not hitherto been reported. In this study, we performed the first miRNA analysis of ovarian tissues in chickens with low and high rates of egg production using high-throughput sequencing...
October 26, 2016: Animal Genetics
Ryan Kunjal, Rabie Adam-Eldien, Raafat Makary, Francois Jo-Hoy, Charles W Heilig
We report the case of a 22-year-old African American female who presented to another facility for routine follow-up in the 34th week of pregnancy with lower extremity swelling and nephrotic-range proteinuria. Although she was normotensive, it was initially thought that she had preeclampsia. She was monitored carefully and delivery was induced at 37 weeks of gestation. She was transferred to our hospital, where she was diagnosed with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) based on clinical and laboratory criteria...
September 2016: Case Reports in Nephrology and Dialysis
James C Melville, Marcus A Couey, Matthew S Tong, Robert E Marx
Central giant cell tumors (CGCTs) are uncommon lesions occurring in the jaw. They are benign but locally destructive osteolytic lesions. They usually occur in pediatric patients 5 to 15 years of age. Multiple noninvasive modalities of treatment (intralesional steroids, interferon, calcitonin, and denosumab) have been described for those lesions, but for those that are refractory to treatment, enucleation and curettage or resection is a curative surgery. This case report describes a pediatric patient who was diagnosed with an aggressive CGCT of the left mandible encompassing the right angle to the condyle...
September 29, 2016: Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
Hugo Lara-Sánchez, Candelas Álvarez Nuño, Elisa Gil-Carcedo Sañudo, Agustín Mayo Iscar, Luis Ángel Vallejo Valdezate
INTRODUCTION: Prospective study of patients with nasal obstruction (NO) in order to measure therapeutic success by anterior active rhinomanometry (AAR), Nasal Obstruction Symptom Evaluation (NOSE) scale and Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) and to establish the correlation between these tests. METHODS: Patients with NO, on whom we performed an AAR, NOSE and VAS scales at baseline and after medical treatment (topical nasal steroid) or surgery (septoplasty, turbinoplasty or septoplasty and turbinoplasty)...
October 22, 2016: Acta Otorrinolaringológica Española
Yuna Rapoport, Peter Veldman
INTRODUCTION: As Descemet's Membrane Endothelial Keratoplasty (DMEK) continues to gain in popularity, the postoperative management of DMEK surgery is becoming increasingly important, as these management strategies may affect postoperative success rates. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This article reviews the current evidence for postoperative management in DMEK. RESULTS: There are variable strategies in the postoperative management of DMEK as it relates to postoperative positioning, need for and timing of rebubble, tamponade agent utilized (both primarily and at rebubble), steroid agent and tapering schedule, timing of secondary regraft when required, and postoperative monitoring...
October 26, 2016: Seminars in Ophthalmology
Seema Patel
Cardiac glycosides, the cardiotonic steroids such as digitalis have been in use as heart ailment remedy since ages. They manipulate the renin-angiotensin axis to improve cardiac output. However; their safety and efficacy have come under scrutiny in recent times, as poisoning and accidental mortalities have been observed. In order to better understand and exploit them as cardiac ionotropes, studies are being pursued using different cardiac glycosides such as digitoxin, digoxin, ouabain, oleandrin etc. Several cardiac glycosides as peruvoside have shown promise in cancer control, especially ovary cancer and leukemia...
October 22, 2016: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Murat Artan, Seon Woo A An, Seung-Jae V Lee
Temperature-sensing neurons in C. elegans reduce the life-shortening effects of high temperatures via steroid signaling. In this issue of Developmental Cell, Chen et al. (2016) elucidate the underlying mechanisms by which the transcription factor CREB induces the neuropeptide FLP-6 in the temperature-sensing neurons to counteract the life-shortening effects of high temperature.
October 24, 2016: Developmental Cell
Marina C Pils, Karla Dreckmann, Katharina Jansson, Silke Glage, Nadine Held, Wiebke Sommer, Florian Länger, Murat Avsar, Gregor Warnecke, André Bleich
Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) infection was diagnosed in 6 Göttingen minipigs (Sus scrofa domestica) with severe interstitial pneumonia. The virus was defined as a North American (NA) subtype virus, which is common in the commercial pig population and might be derived from a widely used attenuated live-virus vaccine in Europe. The ORF5 sequence of the isolated PRRSV was 98% identical to the vaccine virus. The affected pigs were part of a lung transplantation model and received tacrolimus and steroids as well as irradiation or CD8 antibody for immunosuppression...
2016: Comparative Medicine
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