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Jasmine C Hollinger, Kunal Angra, Rebat M Halder
BACKGROUND: Hyperpigmentation disorders are commonly encountered in dermatology clinics. Botanical and natural ingredients have gained popularity as alternative depigmenting products. OBJECTIVE: We sought to review clinical studies evaluating the use of different natural products in treating hyperpigmentation so clinicians are better equipped to educate their patients. Specific ingredients reviewed include azelaic acid, aloesin, mulberry, licorice extracts, lignin peroxidase, kojic acid, niacinamide, ellagic acid, arbutin, green tea, turmeric, soy, and ascorbic acid...
February 2018: Journal of Clinical and Aesthetic Dermatology
Aihua Zhang, Zhinqing Liu, Fengjie Lei, Junfan Fu, Xinxin Zhang, Wenli Ma, Lianxue Zhang
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the antifeedant and oviposition-deterring activity of total ginsenosides against P. rapae. Total ginsenosides exhibited increased antifeedant effects against  P. rapae . The highest nonselective and selective antifeedant activity were observed at 2.0% concentration where ginsenosides caused antifeedant percentages of 86.09 and 88.90, respectively. The total ginsenosides showed significantly oviposition-deterring activity of 77.78% against oviposition of P. rapae at 1...
December 2017: Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences
Jia Ning, XinYue Cui, XiangNan Kong, YiFei Tang, Riana Wulandari, Lu Chen, Sebas Wesseling, Ivonne M C M Rietjens
In the present study, a risk assessment of plant food supplements (PFS), traditional Chinese medicines (TCM) and herbal teas containing alkenylbenzenes was performed using the Margin of Exposure (MOE) approach. The levels of alkenylbenzenes in botanical preparations collected on the Chinese market were quantified and the combined estimated daily intake (EDI) was determined using dose additivity. The combined EDI values obtained assuming equal potency of all alkenylbenzenes detected in the PFS, TCM and herbal teas were 0...
March 15, 2018: Food and Chemical Toxicology
Deepti Singh, Shwetha Narayanamoorthy, Sunita Gamre, Ananda Guha Majumdar, Manish Goswami, Umesh Gami, Susan Cherian, Mahesh Subramanian
Antibiotic resistance is a global problem and there is an urgent need to augment the arsenal against pathogenic bacteria. The emergence of different drug resistant bacteria is threatening human lives to be pushed towards the pre-antibiotic era. Botanical sources remain a vital source of diverse organic molecules that possess antibacterial property as well as augment existing antibacterial molecules. Piper betle, a climber, is widely used in south and south-east Asia whose leaves and nuts are consumed regularly...
March 14, 2018: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
Mohamed Djamel Miara, Hamdi Bendif, Mohammed Ait Hammou, Irene Teixidor-Toneu
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: This study is the first ethnobotanical survey focusing on the herbal medicines traditionally used by the nomadic community of the Algerian steppe, identifying new medicinal plants and uses from one of the most characteristic indigenous populations in Algeria. Moreover, the study contributes to the understanding of transmission of medicinal plant knowledge in the Mediterranean basin. AIM OF THE STUDY: This work aims to document the phytotherapeutical knowledge and practice of the nomadic community of the Algerian steppe, and compare it with neighbouring sedentary populations and Mediterranean historical texts...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Peter M Irving, Tariq Iqbal, Chuka Nwokolo, Sreedhar Subramanian, Stuart Bloom, Neeraj Prasad, Ailsa Hart, Charles Murray, James O Lindsay, Adam Taylor, Rachel Barron, Stephen Wright
Background: Cannabidiol (CBD) exhibits anti-inflammatory properties that could improve disease activity in inflammatory bowel disease. This proof-of-concept study assessed efficacy, safety and tolerability of CBD-rich botanical extract in ulcerative colitis (UC) patients. Methods: Patients aged 18 years or older, with left-sided or extensive UC, Mayo scores of 4-10 (endoscopy scores ≥1), and on stable 5-aminosalicylic acid dosing, were randomized to 10-weeks' CBD-rich botanical extract or placebo capsules...
March 10, 2018: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
Michaela M Hofmann, Andreas Fleischmann, Susanne S Renner
Botanical gardens represent artificial, but stable environments. With this premise, we analyzed the Munich Botanical Garden's bee fauna in 1997/1999 and again in 2015/2017. The garden covers 20 ha, uses no bee-relevant insecticides, has a protected layout, and on three sides abuts protected areas. Outdoors, it cultivates some 10,871 species/subspecies, many suitable as pollen and nectar sources for bees. The first survey found 79 species, the second 106, or 55% of the 192 species recorded for Munich since 1990...
March 14, 2018: Oecologia
Benshui Shu, Jingjing Zhang, Gaofeng Cui, Ranran Sun, Xin Yi, Guohua Zhong
Azadirachtin, the environmentally friendly botanical pesticide, has been used as an antifeedant and pest growth regulator in integrated pest management for decades. It has shown strong biological activity against Spodoptera litura , but the mechanism of toxicity remains unclear. The present study showed that azadirachtin inhibited the growth of S. litura larvae, which was resulted by structure destroy and size inhibition of the midgut. Digital gene expression (DGE) analysis of midgut suggested that azadirachtin regulated the transcriptional level of multiple unigenes involved in mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and calcium apoptotic signaling pathways...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Neeraj K Sethiya, Alok Nahata, Pawan Kumar Singh, S H Mishra
OBJECTIVE: The present study was undertaken to evaluate the neuropharmacological effect of four herbs commonly identified as source of Shankhpushpi. BACKGROUND: Shankhpushpi is an Ayurvedic drug, widely used for its actions on the central nervous system, especially to improve intellect and boost memory. Four botanicals viz. Canscora decussata Schult. (CD), Clitorea ternatea Linn. (CT), Convolvulus pluricaulis Choisy. (CP) and Evolvulus alsinoides Linn. (EA) are considered as sources of Shankhpushpi by Indian practitioners on the basis of their morphological descriptions given in ancient texts...
March 9, 2018: Journal of Ayurveda and Integrative Medicine
V Botan, S Fan, H Critchley, J Ward
The Rubber Hand Illusion (RHI) paradigm has been widely used to investigate the sense of body ownership. People who report experiencing the pain of others are hypothesised to have differences in computing body ownership and, hence, we predicted that they would perform atypically on the RHI. The Vicarious Pain Questionnaire (VPQ), was used to divide participants into three groups: (1) non-responders (people who report no pain when seeing someone else experiencing physical pain), (2) sensory-localised responders (report sensory qualities and a localised feeling of pain) and (3) affective-general responders (report a generalised and emotional feeling of pain)...
March 9, 2018: Consciousness and Cognition
Fan Zhu, Qian Xie
New Zealand sweetpotatoes (kumara) (Ipomoea batatas) represent unique genetic resources for sweetpotato diversity, though they are much under-studied. In this study, 7 New Zealand sweetpotato varieties with commercial significance were collected for the characterization of the molecular and granular structure of the starches. In particular, the internal molecular structure of the amylopectins was detailed by chromatographic and enzymatic techniques. Maize and potato starches with normal amylose contents, which are among the most important commercial starch sources, were employed for comparison...
May 15, 2018: Carbohydrate Polymers
Letizia Romeo, Renato Iori, Patrick Rollin, Placido Bramanti, Emanuela Mazzon
The use of plant-derived products as antimicrobial agents has been investigated in depth. Isothiocyanates (ITCs) are bioactive products resulting from enzymatic hydrolysis of glucosinolates (GLs), the most abundant secondary metabolites in the botanical order Brassicales. Although the antimicrobial activity of ITCs against foodborne and plant pathogens has been well documented, little is known about their antimicrobial properties against human pathogens. This review collects studies that focus on this topic...
March 9, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Mohammad M Zarshenas, Ramin Ansari, Amirhossein Dadbakhsh, Maryam Mohammadi
Among various neurological disorders, multiple sclerosis (MS) is an expanding global immune-related inflammatory disease with complex etiologies. There is increasing demand for the use and administration of natural medicaments for this disorder. Traditional Persian medicine (TPM) is a school of medicine and a medicinal plants-based resource for clinical studies put forward by Persian scholars. This paper aims to gather and study the effectiveness of all medicinal plants from the most popular Persian pharmacopeias...
March 5, 2018: Current Drug Metabolism
Tatiana V Kirichenko, Veronika A Myasoedova, Igor A Sobenin, Alexander N Orekhov
BACKGROUND: Cerebrovascular disease caused by atherosclerosis affecting cerebral and pre-cerebral arteries is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in high-income countries. Medications of botanical origin are often characterized by good tolerability and are suitable for long-term treatment. Therefore, phytotherapy provides an interesting possibility for developing new therapies for prevention of atherosclerosis and its complications that could be used at preclinical stages of the disease...
March 5, 2018: Current Drug Metabolism
Chunting Li, Navindra P Seeram
The red maple (Acer rubrum) species is economically important to North America because of its sap which is used to produce maple syrup. In addition, various other red maple plant parts, including leaves, were used as a traditional medicine by the Native Americans. Currently, red maple leaves are being used for nutraceutical and cosmetic applications but there are no published analytical methods for comprehensive phytochemical characterization of this material. Herein, a rapid and sensitive method using liquid chromatography with electrospray ionization time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry was developed to characterize the phenolics in a methanol extract of red maple leaves and a proprietary phenolic-enriched red maple leaves extract (Maplifa™)...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Separation Science
Emmanuel O Olawode, Roman Tandlich, Garth Cambray
Honey is the natural sweet substance produced by honeybee from nectar or honeydew, exhibiting several nutritional and health benefits. It contains a complex mixture of compounds in different proportions, with sugars being the main component. The physicochemical characteristics of ten honeys were evaluated; represented by five, three, and two from South Africa, Slovakia, and Zambia, respectively. The range of values for the pH (3.75-4.38), electrical conductivity (99-659 µS/cm), and moisture content (14.2-17...
March 5, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Jean-François Barczi, Hervé Rey, Sébastien Griffon, Christophe Jourdan
Background and Aims: Many studies exist in the literature dealing with mathematical representations of root systems, categorized, for example, as pure structure description, partial derivative equations or functional-structural plant models. However, in these studies, root architecture modelling has seldom been carried out at the organ level with the inclusion of environmental influences that can be integrated into a whole plant characterization. Methods: We have conducted a multidisciplinary study on root systems including field observations, architectural analysis, and formal and mathematical modelling...
March 1, 2018: Annals of Botany
Wei Wang, Chenzhe Li, Maenghyo Cho, Sung-Hoon Ahn
Botanic nastic movements that occur in response to environmental stimuli have inspired many man-made shape-morphing systems. Tendril is an exemplification serving the climbing plants as their parasitic grasping component through transforming from a straight shape into a coiled configuration via the asymmetric contraction of internal stratiform plant tissues. Inspired by tendrils, this study using three-dimensional (3D) printing approach developed a class of soft gripper with pre-programmed deformations being capable of imitating the general motions of plant tendrils including bending, spiral and helical distortions for grasping...
March 5, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Mark van Kleunen, Franz Essl, Jan Pergl, Giuseppe Brundu, Marta Carboni, Stefan Dullinger, Regan Early, Pablo González-Moreno, Quentin J Groom, Philip E Hulme, Christoph Kueffer, Ingolf Kühn, Cristina Máguas, Noëlie Maurel, Ana Novoa, Madalin Parepa, Petr Pyšek, Hanno Seebens, Rob Tanner, Julia Touza, Laura Verbrugge, Ewald Weber, Wayne Dawson, Holger Kreft, Patrick Weigelt, Marten Winter, Günther Klonner, Matthew V Talluto, Katharina Dehnen-Schmutz
The number of alien plants escaping from cultivation into native ecosystems is increasing steadily. We provide an overview of the historical, contemporary and potential future roles of ornamental horticulture in plant invasions. We show that currently at least 75% and 93% of the global naturalised alien flora is grown in domestic and botanical gardens, respectively. Species grown in gardens also have a larger naturalised range than those that are not. After the Middle Ages, particularly in the 18th and 19th centuries, a global trade network in plants emerged...
March 5, 2018: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
Cécilia Gallardo, Bárbara Hufnagel, Célia Casset, Carine Alcon, Fanny Garcia, Fanchon Divol, Laurence Marquès, Patrick Doumas, Benjamin Péret
Cluster root (CR) is one of the most spectacular plant developmental adaptations to hostile environment. It can be found in a few species from a dozen botanical families, including white lupin (Lupinus albus) in the Fabaceae family. These amazing structures are produced in phosphate-deprived conditions and are made of hundreds of short roots also known as rootlets. White lupin is the only crop bearing CRs and is considered as the model species for CR studies. However, little information is available on CRs atypical development, including the molecular events that trigger their formation...
March 1, 2018: Physiologia Plantarum
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