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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28454445/role-of-reactive-oxygen-species-in-the-anticancer-activity-of-botanicals-comparing-sensitivity-profiles
#1
Zoya Cohen, Yair Maimon, Noah Samuels, Raanan Berger
Numerous botanicals have been shown to exhibit in vitro and in vivo anticancer activity, some of which is the result of the induction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in cancer cells with a high ROS content. The present study compared sensitivities to a series of botanicals among cancer cell lines, using an XTT viability test, in order to create a specific cancer-herb profile. Of the 27 botanicals screened, 10 exhibited a cytotoxic effect, 7 of which were ROS-mediated. The sensitivity profiles of the ROS-inducing botanicals in 10 cancer cell lines were similar, unlike 3 cytotoxic ROS-independent botanicals that displayed divergent botanical-specific profiles...
April 2017: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28454189/assessment-of-the-authenticity-of-herbal-dietary-supplements-comparison-of-chemical-and-dna-barcoding-methods
#2
Rahul S Pawar, Sara M Handy, Raymond Cheng, Nicole Shyong, Erich Grundel
About 7 % of the U. S. population reports using botanical dietary supplements. Increased use of such supplements has led to discussions related to their authenticity and quality. Reports of adulteration with substandard materials or pharmaceuticals are of concern because such substitutions, whether inadvertent or deliberate, may reduce the efficacy of specific botanicals or lead to adverse events. Methods for verifying the identity of botanicals include macroscopic and microscopic examinations, chemical analysis, and DNA-based methods including DNA barcoding...
April 28, 2017: Planta Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28454188/metabolic-profiling-of-hoodia-chamomile-terminalia-species-and-evaluation-of-commercial-preparations-using-ultrahigh-performance-liquid-chromatography-quadrupole-time-of-flight-mass-spectrometry
#3
Bharathi Avula, Yan-Hong Wang, Giorgis Isaac, Jimmy Yuk, Mark Wrona, Kate Yu, Ikhlas A Khan
Ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-QToF-MS) profiling was used for the identification of marker compounds and generation of metabolic patterns that could be interrogated using chemometric modeling software. UHPLC-QToF-MS was used to generate comprehensive fingerprints of three botanicals (Hoodia, Terminalia, and chamomile), each having different classes of compounds. Detection of a broad range of ions was carried out in full scan mode in both positive and negative modes over the range m/z 100-1700 using high-resolution mass spectrometry...
April 28, 2017: Planta Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453261/comparison-of-metabolomics-approaches-for-evaluating-the-variability-of-complex-botanical-preparations-green-tea-camellia-sinensis-as-a-case-study
#4
Joshua J Kellogg, Tyler N Graf, Mary F Paine, Jeannine S McCune, Olav M Kvalheim, Nicholas H Oberlies, Nadja B Cech
A challenge that must be addressed when conducting studies with complex natural products is how to evaluate their complexity and variability. Traditional methods of quantifying a single or a small range of metabolites may not capture the full chemical complexity of multiple samples. Different metabolomics approaches were evaluated to discern how they facilitated comparison of the chemical composition of commercial green tea [Camellia sinensis (L.) Kuntze] products, with the goal of capturing the variability of commercially used products and selecting representative products for in vitro or clinical evaluation...
April 28, 2017: Journal of Natural Products
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448467/chemical-composition-and-biological-activities-of-mono-and-heterofloral-bee-pollen-of-different-geographical-origins
#5
Jucilene Silva Araújo, Emerson Dechechi Chambó, Maria Angélica Pereira de Carvalho Costa, Samira Maria Peixoto Cavalcante da Silva, Carlos Alfredo Lopes de Carvalho, Leticia M Estevinho
Recent research shows variations in pollen chemical constituents and, consequently, in their therapeutic properties. Mono and multifloral bee pollen extracts were investigated for antioxidant and enzyme inhibitory activity properties, phenolic compounds and fatty acid composition. Generally, Eucalyptus spp. and multifloral extracts exhibited potent inhibitory activity against α-amylase, acetylcholinesterase, tyrosinase, lipoxygenase, lipase and hyaluronidase. On the other hand, Miconia spp. demonstrated higher antihemolytic activity...
April 27, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444796/determination-of-volatile-flavour-profiles-of-citrus-spp-fruits-by-sde-gc-ms-and-enantiomeric-composition-of-chiral-compounds-by-mdgc-ms
#6
Joon Ho Hong, Naeem Khan, Nargis Jamila, Young Shin Hong, Eun Yeong Nho, Ji Yeon Choi, Cheong Mi Lee, Kyong Su Kim
INTRODUCTION: Citrus fruits are known to have characteristic enantiomeric key compounds biosynthesised by highly stereoselective enzymatic mechanisms. In the past, evaluation of the enantiomeric ratios of chiral compounds in fruits has been applied as an effective indicator of adulteration by the addition of synthetic compounds or natural components of different botanical origin. OBJECTIVE: To analyse the volatile flavour compounds of Citrus junos Sieb. ex Tanaka (yuzu), Citrus limon BURM...
April 25, 2017: Phytochemical Analysis: PCA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444217/direct-and-indirect-effects-of-pesticides-on-the-insidious-flower-bug-hemiptera-anthocoridae-under-laboratory-conditions
#7
Nathan J Herrick, Raymond A Cloyd
Greenhouse producers are interested in integrating natural enemies along with pesticides to suppress western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande), populations. The insidious flower bug, Orius insidiosus (Say), is a commercially available natural enemy of western flower thrips. We conducted a series of laboratory experiments to determine the direct and indirect effects of 28 pesticides (insecticides, miticides, and fungicides), 4 pesticide mixtures, and 4 surfactants (36 total treatments plus a water control) on the adult O...
April 21, 2017: Journal of Economic Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437143/motivations-for-botanical-use-by-socioeconomically-diverse-urban-adults-does-evidence-support-motivation
#8
Grace F Duffy, Emily Stave Shupe, Marie Fanelli Kuczmarski, Alan B Zonderman, Michele K Evans
OBJECTIVE: The study objectives were to characterize botanical dietary supplement (BDS) use and to compare the motivations for botanical supplement (BS) use to the efficacy of the botanical in a socioeconomically and racially diverse urban adult population. METHODS: Subjects were from the Healthy Aging in Neighborhoods of Diversity across the Life Span (HANDLS) study, a 20-year prospective health disparities study with African American and white adults from Baltimore, Maryland...
February 16, 2017: Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine: Research on Paradigm, Practice, and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427530/phenolic-compounds-and-its-bioavailability-in-vitro-bioactive-compounds-or-health-promoters
#9
Isabel C F R Ferreira, Natália Martins, Lillian Barros
Botanical preparations present a widespread and secular history of use. In fact, natural matrices possess a rich pool of phytochemicals, with promising biological effects. Among them, phenolic compounds have revealed to confer very important attributes to improve the well-being and longevity of worldwide population. Numerous in vitro studies have been carried out evaluating the wide spectrum of bioactivities of phenolic compounds, including its health effects, but through in vivo experiments some of these previous results cannot be properly confirmed, and considerable variations are observed...
2017: Advances in Food and Nutrition Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426165/hydrogen-peroxide-dependent-antibacterial-action-of-melilotus-albus-honey
#10
Patrycja Sowa, Dorota Grabek-Lejko, Monika Wesołowska, Sylwia Swacha, Małgorzata Dżugan
Honey originating from different floral sources exhibits the broad-spectrum of antibacterial activity as a result of the presence of hydrogen peroxide as well as non peroxide bioactive compounds. The mechanisms of antibacterial activity of Polish melilot honey were investigated for the first time. Polish melilot honey samples (Melilotus albus biennal -3 and annual-5, Melilotus officinalis -1) were collected directly from beekeepers and analyzed for pollen profile, basic physicochemical parameters, antioxidant capacity, radical scavenging activity, total phenolics contents as well as antibacterial properties against pathogenic bacteria Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Salmonella spp...
April 20, 2017: Letters in Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424535/human-papillomavirus-hpv-systemic-treatment-with-gene-eden-vir-novirin-safely-and-effectively-clears-virus
#11
Hanan Polansky, Edan Itzkovitz, Adrian Javaherian
PURPOSE: This paper reports the results of a clinical study that tested the effect of systemic treatment with the botanical product Gene-Eden-VIR/Novirin on the clearance rate (also called time to clearance) of the human papillomavirus (HPV). The study compared the clearance rate in treated and untreated individuals suffering from a symptomatic HPV infection. The data on the untreated individuals were obtained by reverse engineering of the Kaplan-Meier figures in five published papers...
2017: Drug Design, Development and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423430/bioactivity-of-novel-botanical-insecticide-from-gnidia-kaussiana-thymeleaceae-against-callosobruchus-maculatus-coleoptera-chrysomelidae-in-stored-vigna-subterranea-fabaceae-grains
#12
D Kosini, E N Nukenine
Hexane, acetone, and methanol extracts from Gnidia kaussiana Meisn (Thymeleaceae), each at two dosages (0.2 and 1 ml/50 g grains corresponding, respectively to 1 and 5g/kg), and neem seed oil (NSO), used as standard insecticide were evaluated for repellence, toxicity to Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) adults, F1 progeny inhibition, persistence and as grain protectant during storage. Experiments were laid out at complete randomized design with five replications for repellence test and four for others...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421543/changing-and-partially-successful-local-institutions-for-harvest-of-thatch-palm-leaves
#13
Anders H Sirén
In some cases, users of common-pool resources (CPR) successfully govern and manage these for collective benefit but in other cases they fail to do so. When evaluating the success of local institutions for CPR management, however, researchers have not always clearly distinguished between success in terms of compliance and endurance, and success in terms of the socio-economic and environmental outcomes of the management. This study focused on the governance and management of wayuri palms (Pholidostachys synanthera robusta), whose leaves are harvested for roof thatch, in Ecuadorian Amazonia...
April 18, 2017: Ambio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411017/biological-properties-of-propolis-extracts-something-new-from-an-ancient-product
#14
REVIEW
Nada Zabaiou, Allan Fouache, Amalia Trousson, Silvère Baron, Amar Zellagui, Mesbah Lahouel, Jean-Marc A Lobaccaro
Natural products are an interesting source of new therapeutics, especially for cancer therapy as 70% of them have botany origin. Propolis, a resinous mixture that honey bees collect and transform from tree buds, sap flows, or other botanical sources, has been used by ethnobotany and traditional practitioners as early in Egypt as 3000 BC. Enriched in flavonoids, phenol acids and terpene derivatives, propolis has been widely used for its antibacterial, antifungal and anti-inflammatory properties. Even though it is a challenge to standardize propolis composition, chemical analyses have pointed out interesting molecules that also present anti-oxidant and anti-proliferative properties that are of interest in the field of anti-cancer therapy...
April 11, 2017: Chemistry and Physics of Lipids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401525/new-world-tryptamine-hallucinogens-and-the-neuroscience-of-ayahuasca
#15
Dennis McKenna, Jordi Riba
New World indigenous peoples are noted for their sophisticated use of psychedelic plants in shamanic and ethnomedical practices. The use of psychedelic plant preparations among New World tribes is far more prevalent than in the Old World. Yet, although these preparations are botanically diverse, almost all are chemically similar in that their active principles are tryptamine derivatives, either DMT or related constituents. Part 1 of this paper provides an ethnopharmacological overview of the major tryptamine-containing New World hallucinogens...
April 2, 2017: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399279/the-botanical-monoterpenes-linalool-and-eugenol-flush-out-nymphs-of-triatoma-infestans-hemiptera-reduviidae
#16
A N Moretti, E A Seccacini, E N Zerba, D Canale, R A Alzogaray
Monoterpenes are the main components of essential oils. Some members of this chemical family present insecticidal activity. Triatoma infestans (Klug) is the main vector of Chagas disease in Argentina, Bolivia, Paraguay, and Perú. The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of six monoterpenes (1,8-cineole, eugenol, linalool, menthol, α-terpineol, and thymol) on the locomotor and flushing out activity of T. infestans. A video tracking technique was used to evaluate the locomotor activity of nymphs exposed to different concentrations of these chemicals applied as films on filter paper...
March 29, 2017: Journal of Medical Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28393442/wide-but-not-impermeable-testing-the-riverine-barrier-hypothesis-for-an-amazonian-plant-species
#17
Alison G Nazareno, Christopher W Dick, Lúcia G Lohmann
Wallace's riverine barrier hypothesis postulates that large rivers, such as the Amazon and its tributaries, reduce or prevent gene flow between populations on opposite banks, leading to allopatry and areas of species endemism occupying interfluvial regions. Several studies have shown that two major tributaries, Rio Branco and Rio Negro, are important barriers to gene flow for birds, amphibians and primates. No botanical studies have considered the potential role of the Rio Branco as a barrier, while a single botanical study has evaluated the Rio Negro as a barrier...
April 10, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391450/in-vitro-acaricidal-activity-of-crescentia-cujete-l-fruit-pulp-against-rhipicephalus-microplus
#18
Sinval Garcia Pereira, Sandra Alves de Araújo, Giselle Maria Skelding Pinheiro Guilhon, Lourivaldo Silva Santos, Livio Martins Costa Junior
Cattle tick (Rhipicephalus microplus) is an important constraint on livestock production, particularly in tropical and subtropical areas. Synthetic acaricides are the primary method of control this thick. Resistance of R. microplus to synthetic acaricides has given rise to the need of new scientific investigations on alternative ways to control it. The objective of this work was to conduct a chemical investigation of Crescentia cujete L. fruit pulp and to evaluate the acaricide effect on R. microplus larvae of extracts, fractions, and isolated substances from this species...
April 8, 2017: Parasitology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390026/fabrication-of-highly-effective-mosquito-nanolarvicides-using-an-asian-plant-of-ethno-pharmacological-interest-priyangu-aglaia-elaeagnoidea-toxicity-on-non-target-mosquito-natural-enemies
#19
Giovanni Benelli, Marimuthu Govindarajan, Sengamalai Senthilmurugan, Periasamy Vijayan, Shine Kadaikunnan, Naiyf S Alharbi, Jamal M Khaled
Mosquitoes threaten the lives of humans, livestock, pets and wildlife around the globe, due to their ability to vector devastating diseases. Aglaia elaeagnoidea, commonly known as Priyangu, is widely employed in Asian traditional medicine and pest control. Medicinal activities include anti-inflammatory, analgesic, anticancer, and anesthetic actions. Flavaglines, six cyclopenta[b]benzofurans, a cyclopenta[bc]benzopyran, a benzo[b]oxepine, and an aromatic butyrolactone showed antifungal properties, and aglaroxin A and rocaglamide were effective to control moth pests...
April 8, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389280/in-vitro-safety-and-efficacy-evaluations-of-a-complex-botanical-mixture-of-eugenia-dysenterica-dc-myrtaceae-prospects-for-developing-a-new-dermocosmetic-product
#20
Larissa Cleres Moreira, Renato Ivan de Ávila, Danillo Fabrini Maciel Costa Veloso, Tatiana Nascimento Pedrosa, Emerson Silva Lima, Renê Oliveira do Couto, Eliana Martins Lima, Aline Carvalho Batista, José Realino de Paula, Marize Campos Valadares
In the context of developing a new natural product-based cosmetic, the in vitro efficacy and safety evaluations of a complex botanical mixture based on Eugenia dysenterica leaf hydroalcoholic extract (EDE) (2.5-1000μg/mL) were carried out. Chromatographic analysis demonstrated the presence of the tannin (ellagic acid) and flavonoids (quercetin and gallic acid) which characterize the EDE as a polyphenol-rich mixture. Using HFF-1 fibroblasts, it was shown that EDE promoted cell regeneration after UVA exposure...
April 4, 2017: Toxicology in Vitro: An International Journal Published in Association with BIBRA
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