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Ebola and burden diseases

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914852/a-call-to-strengthen-the-global-strategy-against-schistosomiasis-and-soil-transmitted-helminthiasis-the-time-is-now
#1
REVIEW
Nathan C Lo, David G Addiss, Peter J Hotez, Charles H King, J Russell Stothard, Darin S Evans, Daniel G Colley, William Lin, Jean T Coulibaly, Amaya L Bustinduy, Giovanna Raso, Eran Bendavid, Isaac I Bogoch, Alan Fenwick, Lorenzo Savioli, David Molyneux, Jürg Utzinger, Jason R Andrews
In 2001, the World Health Assembly (WHA) passed the landmark WHA 54.19 resolution for global scale-up of mass administration of anthelmintic drugs for morbidity control of schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminthiasis, which affect more than 1·5 billion of the world's poorest people. Since then, more than a decade of research and experience has yielded crucial knowledge on the control and elimination of these helminthiases. However, the global strategy has remained largely unchanged since the original 2001 WHA resolution and associated WHO guidelines on preventive chemotherapy...
November 30, 2016: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27833001/mathematical-model-of-ebola-transmission-dynamics-with-relapse-and-reinfection
#2
F B Agusto
The Ebola virus disease is caused by the Ebola virus which belongs to the filoviridae virus family. The 2014 outbreaks were estimated to have caused over 11,000 fatalities. In this paper, we formulate and analyze a system of ordinary differential equations which incorporates disease relapse and reinfection. The Ebola model with disease relapse and reinfection is locally-asymptotically stable when the basic reproduction number is less than unity. The model exhibits in the presence of disease reinfection, the phenomenon of backward bifurcation, where the stable disease-free equilibrium co-exists with a stable endemic equilibrium when the associated reproduction number is less than unity...
November 8, 2016: Mathematical Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27733281/global-regional-and-national-life-expectancy-all-cause-mortality-and-cause-specific-mortality-for-249-causes-of-death-1980-2015-a-systematic-analysis-for-the-global-burden-of-disease-study-2015
#3
COMMENT
(no author information available yet)
BACKGROUND: Improving survival and extending the longevity of life for all populations requires timely, robust evidence on local mortality levels and trends. The Global Burden of Disease 2015 Study (GBD 2015) provides a comprehensive assessment of all-cause and cause-specific mortality for 249 causes in 195 countries and territories from 1980 to 2015. These results informed an in-depth investigation of observed and expected mortality patterns based on sociodemographic measures. METHODS: We estimated all-cause mortality by age, sex, geography, and year using an improved analytical approach originally developed for GBD 2013 and GBD 2010...
October 8, 2016: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27709137/recent-trends-on-hydrogel-based-drug-delivery-systems-for-infectious-diseases
#4
Arti Vashist, Ajeet Kaushik, Atul Vashist, Rahul Dev Jayant, Asahi Tomitaka, Sharif Ahmad, Y K Gupta, Madhavan Nair
Since centuries, the rapid spread and cure of infectious diseases have been a major concern to the progress and survival of humans. These diseases are a global burden and the prominent cause for worldwide deaths and disabilities. Nanomedicine has emerged as the most excellent tool to eradicate and halt their spread. Various nanoformulations (NFs) using advanced nanotechnology are in demand. Recently, hydrogel and nanogel based drug delivery devices have posed new prospects to simulate the natural intelligence of various biological systems...
October 18, 2016: Biomaterials Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27584854/infectious-disease-physicians-perceptions-about-ebola-preparedness-early-in-the-us-response-a-qualitative-analysis-and-lessons-for-the-future
#5
Scott Santibañez, Philip M Polgreen, Susan E Beekmann, Mark E Rupp, Carlos Del Rio
On September 30, 2014, the first US patient with Ebola virus disease was diagnosed. Hospitals and healthcare systems identified many complex issues that needed to be addressed to prepare for possible future outbreaks. Here we summarize themes identified in free text responses from a query of infectious disease physicians from the Infectious Disease Society of America's (IDSA) Emerging Infections Network (EIN) early in the domestic Ebola response and place them into the context of biopreparedness for possible future events...
September 2016: Health Security
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27558850/bayesian-uncertainty-quantification-for-transmissibility-of-influenza-norovirus-and-ebola-using-information-geometry
#6
Thomas House, Ashley Ford, Shiwei Lan, Samuel Bilson, Elizabeth Buckingham-Jeffery, Mark Girolami
Infectious diseases exert a large and in many contexts growing burden on human health, but violate most of the assumptions of classical epidemiological statistics and hence require a mathematically sophisticated approach. Viral shedding data are collected during human studies-either where volunteers are infected with a disease or where existing cases are recruited-in which the levels of live virus produced over time are measured. These have traditionally been difficult to analyse due to strong, complex correlations between parameters...
August 2016: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27531847/plasmodium-parasitemia-associated-with-increased-survival-in-ebola-virus-infected-patients
#7
Kyle Rosenke, Jennifer Adjemian, Vincent J Munster, Andrea Marzi, Darryl Falzarano, Clayton O Onyango, Melvin Ochieng, Bonventure Juma, Robert J Fischer, Joseph B Prescott, David Safronetz, Victor Omballa, Collins Owuor, Thomas Hoenen, Allison Groseth, Cynthia Martellaro, Neeltje van Doremalen, Galina Zemtsova, Joshua Self, Trenton Bushmaker, Kristin McNally, Thomas Rowe, Shannon L Emery, Friederike Feldmann, Brandi N Williamson, Sonja M Best, Tolbert G Nyenswah, Allen Grolla, James E Strong, Gary Kobinger, Fatorma K Bolay, Kathryn C Zoon, Jorgen Stassijns, Ruggero Giuliani, Martin de Smet, Stuart T Nichol, Barry Fields, Armand Sprecher, Moses Massaquoi, Heinz Feldmann, Emmie de Wit
BACKGROUND: The ongoing Ebola outbreak in West Africa has resulted in 28 646 suspected, probable, and confirmed Ebola virus infections. Nevertheless, malaria remains a large public health burden in the region affected by the outbreak. A joint Centers for Disease Control and Prevention/National Institutes of Health diagnostic laboratory was established in Monrovia, Liberia, in August 2014, to provide laboratory diagnostics for Ebola virus. METHODS: All blood samples from suspected Ebola virus-infected patients admitted to the Médecins Sans Frontières ELWA3 Ebola treatment unit in Monrovia were tested by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction for the presence of Ebola virus and Plasmodium species RNA...
October 15, 2016: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27522921/pharmacodynamics-and-systems-pharmacology-approaches-to-repurposing-drugs-in-the-wake-of-global-health-burden
#8
Jane P F Bai
There are emergent needs for cost-effective treatment worldwide, for which repurposing to develop a drug with existing marketing approval of disease(s) for new disease(s) is a valid option. Although strategic mining of electronic health records has produced real-world evidences to inform drug repurposing, using omics data (drug and disease), knowledge base of protein interactions, and database of transcription factors have been explored. Structured integration of all the existing data under the framework of drug repurposing will facilitate decision making...
October 2016: Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27509589/the-challenges-of-esrd-care-in-developing-economies-sub-saharan-african-opportunities-for-significant-improvement
#9
Ebun Ladipo Bamgboye
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in sub-Saharan Africa. This, along with other noncommunicable diseases like hypertension, diabetes, and heart diseases, poses a double burden on a region that is still struggling to cope with the scourge of communicable diseases like malaria, tuberculosis, HIV, and more recently Ebola. Causes of CKD in the region are predominantly glomerulonephritis and hypertension, although type 2 diabetes is also becoming a significant cause as is the retroviral disease...
2016: Clinical Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27458576/psychological-distress-among-ebola-survivors-discharged-from-an-ebola-treatment-unit-in-monrovia-liberia-a-qualitative-study
#10
Ionara Rabelo, Virginia Lee, Mosoka P Fallah, Moses Massaquoi, Iro Evlampidou, Rosa Crestani, Tom Decroo, Rafael Van den Bergh, Nathalie Severy
INTRODUCTION: A consequence of the West Africa Ebola outbreak 2014-2015 was the unprecedented number of Ebola survivors discharged from the Ebola Treatment Units (ETUs). Liberia alone counted over 5,000 survivors. We undertook a qualitative study in Monrovia to better understand the mental distress experienced by survivors during hospitalization and reintegration into their community. METHODS: Purposively selected Ebola survivors from ELWA3, the largest ETU in Liberia, were invited to join focus group discussions...
2016: Frontiers in Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27314652/surveillance-for-emerging-diseases-with-multiplexed-point-of-care-diagnostics
#11
Alina Deshpande, Benjamin McMahon, Ashlynn R Daughton, Esteban L Abeyta, David Hodge, Kevin Anderson, Segaran Pillai
We present an analysis of the diagnostic technologies that were used to identify historical outbreaks of Ebola virus disease and consider systematic surveillance strategies that may greatly reduce the peak size of future epidemics. We observe that clinical signs and symptoms alone are often insufficient to recognize index cases of diseases of global concern against the considerable background infectious disease burden that is present throughout the developing world. We propose a simple sampling strategy to enrich in especially dangerous pathogens with a low background for molecular diagnostics by targeting blood-borne pathogens in the healthiest age groups...
May 2016: Health Security
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27243817/accuracy-precision-ease-of-use-and-cost-of-methods-to-test-ebola-relevant-chlorine-solutions
#12
Emma Wells, Marlene K Wolfe, Anna Murray, Daniele Lantagne
To prevent transmission in Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) outbreaks, it is recommended to disinfect living things (hands and people) with 0.05% chlorine solution and non-living things (surfaces, personal protective equipment, dead bodies) with 0.5% chlorine solution. In the current West African EVD outbreak, these solutions (manufactured from calcium hypochlorite (HTH), sodium dichloroisocyanurate (NaDCC), and sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl)) have been widely used in both Ebola Treatment Unit and community settings...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27185252/critiquing-the-response-to-the-ebola-epidemic-through-a-primary-health-care-approach
#13
Vera Scott, Sarah Crawford-Browne, David Sanders
BACKGROUND: The 2014/2015 West Africa Ebola epidemic has caused the global public health community to engage in difficult self-reflection. First, it must consider the part it played in relation to an important public health question: why did this epidemic take hold and spread in this unprecedented manner? Second, it must use the lessons learnt to answer the subsequent question: what can be done now to prevent further such outbreaks in the future? These questions remain relevant, even as scientists announce that the Guinea Phase III efficacy vaccine trial shows that rVSV-EBOV (Merck, Sharp & Dohme) is highly efficacious in individuals...
2016: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27118853/infection-control-for-drug-resistant-tuberculosis-early-diagnosis-and-treatment-is-the-key
#14
Gilles van Cutsem, Petros Isaakidis, Jason Farley, Ed Nardell, Grigory Volchenkov, Helen Cox
Multidrug-resistant (MDR) tuberculosis, "Ebola with wings," is a significant threat to tuberculosis control efforts. Previous prevailing views that resistance was mainly acquired through poor treatment led to decades of focus on drug-sensitive rather than drug-resistant (DR) tuberculosis, driven by the World Health Organization's directly observed therapy, short course strategy. The paradigm has shifted toward recognition that most DR tuberculosis is transmitted and that there is a need for increased efforts to control DR tuberculosis...
May 15, 2016: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27052794/deciphering-emerging-zika-and-dengue-viral-epidemics-implications-for-global-maternal-child-health-burden
#15
REVIEW
Ernest Tambo, Pascal D Chuisseu, Jeanne Y Ngogang, Emad I M Khater
Since its discovery in 1947 in Uganda and control and eradication efforts have aimed at its vectors (Aedes mosquitoes) in Latin America in the 1950s, an absolute neglect of Zika programs and interventions has been documented in Aedes endemic and epidemic-prone countries. The current unprecedented Zika viral epidemics and rapid spread in the Western hemisphere pose a substantial global threat, with associated anxiety and consequences. The lack of safe and effective drugs and vaccines against Zika or dengue epidemics further buttresses the realization from the West Africa Ebola outbreak that most emerging disease-prone countries are still poorly prepared for an emergency response...
May 2016: Journal of Infection and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26949867/temperature-related-morbidity-and-mortality-in-sub-saharan-africa-a-systematic-review-of-the-empirical-evidence
#16
REVIEW
A Kofi Amegah, Giovanni Rezza, Jouni J K Jaakkola
BACKGROUND: Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) contributes very little to overall climate change and yet it is estimated to bear the highest burden of climate change, with 34% of the global DALYs attributable to the effects of climate change found in SSA. With the exception of vector-borne diseases, particularly malaria, there is very limited research on human health effects of climate change in SSA, in spite of growing awareness of the region's vulnerability to climate change. OBJECTIVES: Our objective is to systematically review all studies investigating temperature variability and non-vector borne morbidity and mortality in SSA to establish the state and quality of available evidence, identify gaps in knowledge, and propose future research priorities...
May 2016: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26829532/fostering-prevention-and-care-delivery-services-capability-on-hiv-pandemic-and-ebola-outbreak-symbiosis-in-africa
#17
Ernest Tambo, Clarence S Yah, Chidiebere E Ugwu, Oluwasogo A Olalubi, Isatta Wurie, Jeannetta K Jonhson, Jeanne Y Ngogang
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and the re-emerging Ebola virus disease (EVD) are closely intertwined and remain a persistent public health threat and global challenge. Their origin and rapid transmission and spread have similar boundaries and share overlapping impact characteristics, including related symptoms and other interactions. The controversies and global threat of these viruses require rapid response policy and evidence-based implementation findings. The constraints and dual burden inflicted by Ebola and HIV infections are highly characterized by similar socio-demographics, socio-economic and political factors...
January 2016: Journal of Infection in Developing Countries
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26827135/gastro-enteritis-in-a-military-population-deployed-in-west-africa-in-the-uk-ebola-response-was-the-observed-lower-disease-burden-due-to-handwashing
#18
J J H Tuck, J R Williams, A L Doyle
BACKGROUND: Travellers' diarrhoea in military populations is reported ranging from 50 to 70 cases per thousand person months. The UK personnel deployed to the Ebola Outbreak in Sierra Leone during the Ebola outbreak adopted standard measures associated with disease prevention. As part of the infection control measures against transmission of Ebola, personnel also rinsed their hands frequently in 0.05% hypochlorite. This was felt to have reduced the incidence of travellers' diarrhoea in the population and an audit was carried out to test this hypothesis...
March 2016: Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26510633/indirect-costs-associated-with-deaths-from-the-ebola-virus-disease-in-west-africa
#19
Joses Muthuri Kirigia, Felix Masiye, Doris Gatwiri Kirigia, Patricia Akweongo
BACKGROUND: By 28 June 2015, there were a total of 11,234 deaths from the Ebola virus disease (EVD) in five West African countries (Guinea, Liberia, Mali, Nigeria and Sierra Leone). The objective of this study was to estimate the future productivity losses associated with EVD deaths in these West African countries, in order to encourage increased investments in national health systems. METHODS: A cost-of-illness method was employed to calculate future non-health (NH) gross domestic product (GDP) (NHGDP) losses associated with EVD deaths...
October 29, 2015: Infectious Diseases of Poverty
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26417098/global-biogeography-of-human-infectious-diseases
#20
Kris A Murray, Nicholas Preston, Toph Allen, Carlos Zambrana-Torrelio, Parviez R Hosseini, Peter Daszak
The distributions of most infectious agents causing disease in humans are poorly resolved or unknown. However, poorly known and unknown agents contribute to the global burden of disease and will underlie many future disease risks. Existing patterns of infectious disease co-occurrence could thus play a critical role in resolving or anticipating current and future disease threats. We analyzed the global occurrence patterns of 187 human infectious diseases across 225 countries and seven epidemiological classes (human-specific, zoonotic, vector-borne, non-vector-borne, bacterial, viral, and parasitic) to show that human infectious diseases exhibit distinct spatial grouping patterns at a global scale...
October 13, 2015: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
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