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Ebola and burden diseases

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764104/the-response-to-and-impact-of-the-ebola-epidemic-towards-an-agenda-for-interdisciplinary-research
#1
Michael Calnan, Erica W Gadsby, Mandy Kader Kondé, Abdourahime Diallo, Jeremy S Rossman
BACKGROUND: The 2013-2016 Ebola virus disease (EVD) epidemic in West Africa was the largest in history and resulted in a huge public health burden and significant social and economic impact in those countries most affected. Its size, duration and geographical spread presents important opportunities for research than might help national and global health and social care systems to better prepare for and respond to future outbreaks. This paper examines research needs and research priorities from the perspective of those who directly experienced the EVD epidemic in Guinea...
September 3, 2017: International Journal of Health Policy and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29698521/positive-experiences-of-volunteers-working-in-deployable-laboratories-in-west-africa-during-the-ebola-outbreak
#2
Evelien Belfroid, Madelief Mollers, Pieter W Smit, Marlies Hulscher, Marion Koopmans, Chantal Reusken, Aura Timen
The largest outbreak of Ebola virus disease ever started in West Africa in December 2013; it created a pressing need to expand the workforce dealing with it. The aim of this study was to gain insight into the experiences of volunteers from the European Union who worked in deployable laboratories in West Africa during the outbreak. This study is part of the EMERGE project. We assessed the experiences of 251 volunteers with a 19-item online questionnaire. The questions asked about positive aspects of volunteering such as learning new skills, establishing a new path in life, and changing life values...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29622025/health-workers-experiences-of-coping-with-the-ebola-epidemic-in-sierra-leone-s-health-system-a-qualitative-study
#3
Joanna Raven, Haja Wurie, Sophie Witter
BACKGROUND: The 2014 Ebola Virus Disease epidemic evolved in alarming ways in Sierra Leone spreading to all districts. The country struggled to control it against a backdrop of a health system that was already over-burdened. Health workers play an important role during epidemics but there is limited research on how they cope during health epidemics in fragile states. This paper explores the challenges faced by health workers and their coping strategies during the Ebola outbreak in four districts - Bonthe, Kenema, Koinadugu and Western Area - of Sierra Leone...
April 5, 2018: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29619364/harnessing-big-data-for-communicable-tropical-and-sub-tropical-disorders-implications-from-a-systematic-review-of-the-literature
#4
Vincenza Gianfredi, Nicola Luigi Bragazzi, Daniele Nucci, Mariano Martini, Roberto Rosselli, Liliana Minelli, Massimo Moretti
Aim: According to the World Health Organization (WHO), communicable tropical and sub-tropical diseases occur solely, or mainly in the tropics, thriving in hot, and humid conditions. Some of these disorders termed as neglected tropical diseases are particularly overlooked. Communicable tropical/sub-tropical diseases represent a diverse group of communicable disorders occurring in 149 countries, favored by tropical and sub-tropical conditions, affecting more than one billion people and imposing a dramatic societal and economic burden...
2018: Frontiers in Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29569244/maternal-and-perinatal-outcomes-in-pregnant-women-with-suspected-ebola-virus-disease-in-sierra-leone-2014
#5
Meghan Lyman, Jonetta Johnson Mpofu, Fatma Soud, Titilope Oduyebo, Sascha Ellington, Gabriel W Schlough, Alimamy P Koroma, Jevon McFadden, Diane Morof
OBJECTIVE: To describe maternal and perinatal outcomes among pregnant women with suspected Ebola virus disease (EVD) in Sierra Leone. METHODS: Observational investigation of maternal and perinatal outcomes among pregnant women with suspected EVD from five districts in Sierra Leone from June-December 2014. Suspected cases were ill pregnant women with symptoms suggestive of EVD or relevant exposures who were tested for EVD. Case frequencies and odds ratios were calculated to compare patient characteristics and outcomes by EVD status...
March 23, 2018: International Journal of Gynaecology and Obstetrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29555345/rapid-response-to-an-emerging-infectious-disease-lessons-learned-from-development-of-a-synthetic-dna-vaccine-targeting-zika-virus
#6
Sagar B Kudchodkar, Hyeree Choi, Emma L Reuschel, Rianne Esquivel, Jackie Jin-Ah Kwon, Moonsup Jeong, Joel N Maslow, Charles C Reed, Scott White, J Joseph Kim, Gary P Kobinger, Pablo Tebas, David B Weiner, Kar Muthumani
Vaccines are considered one of the greatest advances in modern medicine. The global burden of numerous infectious diseases has been significantly reduced, and in some cases, effectively eradicated through the deployment of specific vaccines. However, efforts to develop effective vaccines against infectious pathogens such as influenza, HIV, dengue virus (DENV), chikungunya virus (CHIKV), Ebola virus, and Zika virus (ZIKV) have proven challenging. Zika virus is a mosquito-vectored flavivirus responsible for periodic outbreaks of disease in Africa, Southeast Asia, and the Pacific Islands dating back over 50 years...
March 16, 2018: Microbes and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346369/the-rise-of-neglected-tropical-diseases-in-the-new-texas
#7
REVIEW
Peter J Hotez
Within the last five years, the State of Texas has experienced either transmission or outbreaks of Ebola, chikungunya, West Nile, and Zika virus infections. Autochthonous transmission of neglected parasitic and bacterial diseases has also become increasingly reported. The rise of such emerging and neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) has not occurred by accident but instead reflects rapidly evolving changes and shifts in a "new" Texas beset by modern and globalizing forces that include rapid expansions in population together with urbanization and human migrations, altered transportation patterns, climate change, steeply declining vaccination rates, and a new paradigm of poverty known as "blue marble health...
January 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155670/lessons-learned-from-emergency-response-vaccination-efforts-for-cholera-typhoid-yellow-fever-and-ebola
#8
Jenny A Walldorf, Kashmira A Date, Nandini Sreenivasan, Jennifer B Harris, Terri B Hyde
Countries must be prepared to respond to public health threats associated with emergencies, such as natural disasters, sociopolitical conflicts, or uncontrolled disease outbreaks. Rapid vaccination of populations vulnerable to epidemic-prone vaccine-preventable diseases is a major component of emergency response. Emergency vaccination planning presents challenges, including how to predict resource needs, expand vaccine availability during global shortages, and address regulatory barriers to deliver new products...
December 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131822/impact-of-the-ebola-outbreak-on-trypanosoma-brucei-gambiense-infection-medical-activities-in-coastal-guinea-2014-2015-a-retrospective-analysis-from-the-guinean-national-human-african-trypanosomiasis-control-program
#9
Mariame Camara, Eric Ouattara, Alexandre Duvignaud, René Migliani, Oumou Camara, Mamadou Leno, Philippe Solano, Bruno Bucheton, Mamadou Camara, Denis Malvy
BACKGROUND: The 2014-2015 Ebola outbreak massively hit Guinea. The coastal districts of Boffa, Dubreka and Forecariah, three major foci of Human African Trypanosomiasis (HAT), were particularly affected. We aimed to assess the impact of this epidemic on sleeping sickness screening and caring activities. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We used preexisting data from the Guinean sleeping sickness control program, collected between 2012 and 2015. We described monthly: the number of persons (i) screened actively; (ii) or passively; (iii) treated for HAT; (iv) attending post-treatment follow-up visits...
November 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29073992/ebola-virus-epidemic-in-west-africa-global-health-economic-challenges-lessons-learned-and-policy-recommendations
#10
Mahmoud Elmahdawy, Gihan H Elsisi, Joao Carapinha, Mohamed Lamorde, Abdulrazaq Habib, Peter Agyie-Baffour, Redouane Soualmi, Samah Ragab, Anthony W Udezi, Cyril Usifoh, Stella Usifoh
The Ebola virus has spread across several Western Africa countries, adding a significant financial burden to their health systems and economies. In this article the experience with Ebola is reviewed, and economic challenges and policy recommendations are discussed to help curb the impact of other diseases in the future. The West African Ebola virus disease epidemic started in resource-constrained settings and caused thousands of fatalities during the last epidemic. Nevertheless, given population mobility, international travel, and an increasingly globalized economy, it has the potential to re-occur and evolve into a global pandemic...
September 2017: Value in Health Regional Issues
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29058968/reporting-of-false-data-during-ebola-virus-disease-active-monitoring-new-york-city-january-1-2015-december-29-2015
#11
Anna Tate, Ifeoma Ezeoke, David E Lucero, Chaorui C Huang, Alhaji Saffa, Jay K Varma, Neil M Vora
The New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene (DOHMH) began to actively monitor people potentially exposed to Ebola virus on October 25, 2014. Active monitoring was critical to the Ebola virus disease (EVD) response and mitigated risk without restricting individual liberties. Noncompliance with active monitoring procedures has been reported. We conducted a survey of 4,075 eligible persons to evaluate (1) the frequency of reporting of false data during active monitoring, and (2) factors associated with reporting of false temperature data...
September 2017: Health Security
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813542/the-african-cholera-surveillance-network-africhol-consortium-meeting-10-11-june-2015-lom%C3%A3-togo
#12
Aline Munier, Berthe-Marie Njanpop-Lafourcade, Delphine Sauvageot, Raymond B Mhlanga, Léonard Heyerdahl, Johara Nadri, Richard Wood, Issaka Ouedraogo, Alexandre Blake, Laurent Akilimali Mukelenge, Jean-Claude B Anné, Abiba Banla Kere, Lucienne Dempouo, Sakoba Keita, José P M Langa, Issa Makumbi, Elibariki R Mwakapeje, Ian J Njeru, Olubunmi E Ojo, Isaac Phiri, Lorenzo Pezzoli, Bradford D Gessner, Martin Mengel
The fifth annual meeting of the African cholera surveillance network (Africhol) took place on 10-11 June 2015 in Lomé, Togo. Together with international partners, representatives from the 11 member countries -Cameroon, Côte d'Ivoire, Democratic Republic of Congo, Guinea, Kenya, Mozambique, Nigeria, Tanzania, Togo, Uganda, Zimbabwe- and an invited country (Malawi) shared their experience. The meeting featured three sessions: i) cholera surveillance, prevention and control in participating countries, ii) cholera surveillance methodology, such as cholera mapping, cost-effectiveness studies and the issue of overlapping epidemics from different diseases, iii) cholera laboratory diagnostics tools and capacity building...
2017: BMC Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28756828/is-google-trends-a-reliable-tool-for-digital-epidemiology-insights-from-different-clinical-settings
#13
Gianfranco Cervellin, Ivan Comelli, Giuseppe Lippi
Internet-derived information has been recently recognized as a valuable tool for epidemiological investigation. Google Trends, a Google Inc. portal, generates data on geographical and temporal patterns according to specified keywords. The aim of this study was to compare the reliability of Google Trends in different clinical settings, for both common diseases with lower media coverage, and for less common diseases attracting major media coverage. We carried out a search in Google Trends using the keywords "renal colic", "epistaxis", and "mushroom poisoning", selected on the basis of available and reliable epidemiological data...
September 2017: Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706039/when-an-emerging-disease-becomes-endemic
#14
REVIEW
Graham F Medley, Anna Vassall
Epidemics, such as HIV in the early 1980s and Ebola in 2014, inspire decisive government investment and action, and individual and societal concern, sometimes bordering on panic. By contrast, endemic diseases, such as HIV in 2017 and tuberculosis, struggle to maintain the same attention. For many, the paradox is that endemic disease, in its totality, continues to impose a far higher public health burden than epidemic disease. Overall, the swift political response to epidemics has resulted in success. It has proven possible to eradicate epidemic diseases, often without the availability of vaccines and other biomedical technologies...
July 14, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615211/vesicular-stomatitis-virus-pseudotyped-with-ebola-virus-glycoprotein-serves-as-a-protective-non-infectious-vaccine-against-ebola-virus-challenge-in-mice
#15
Nicholas J Lennemann, Andrew S Herbert, Rachel Brouillette, Bethany Rhein, Russell A Bakken, Katherine J Perschbacher, Ashley L Cooney, Catherine L Miller-Hunt, Patrick Ten Eyck, Julia Biggins, Gene Olinger, John M Dye, Wendy Maury
The recent Ebola virus (EBOV) epidemic in West Africa demonstrates the potential for a significant public health burden caused by filoviral infections. No vaccine or antiviral is currently FDA-approved. To expand the vaccine options potentially available, we assessed protection conferred by an EBOV vaccine composed of vesicular stomatitis virus pseudovirions that lack native G glycoprotein (VSVΔG) and bear EBOV glycoprotein (GP). These pseudovirions mediate a single round of infection. Both single dose and prime/boost vaccination regimens protected mice against lethal challenge with mouse-adapted Ebola virus (ma-EBOV) in a dose-dependent manner...
June 14, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396479/heterogeneities-in-the-case-fatality-ratio-in-the-west-african-ebola-outbreak-2013-2016
#16
Tini Garske, Anne Cori, Archchun Ariyarajah, Isobel M Blake, Ilaria Dorigatti, Tim Eckmanns, Christophe Fraser, Wes Hinsley, Thibaut Jombart, Harriet L Mills, Gemma Nedjati-Gilani, Emily Newton, Pierre Nouvellet, Devin Perkins, Steven Riley, Dirk Schumacher, Anita Shah, Maria D Van Kerkhove, Christopher Dye, Neil M Ferguson, Christl A Donnelly
The 2013-2016 Ebola outbreak in West Africa is the largest on record with 28 616 confirmed, probable and suspected cases and 11 310 deaths officially recorded by 10 June 2016, the true burden probably considerably higher. The case fatality ratio (CFR: proportion of cases that are fatal) is a key indicator of disease severity useful for gauging the appropriate public health response and for evaluating treatment benefits, if estimated accurately. We analysed individual-level clinical outcome data from Guinea, Liberia and Sierra Leone officially reported to the World Health Organization...
May 26, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343255/giving-voice-to-african-thought-in-medical-research-ethics
#17
Godfrey B Tangwa
In this article, I consider the virtual absence of an African voice and perspective in global discourses of medical research ethics against the backdrop of the high burden of diseases and epidemics on the continent and the fact that the continent is actually the scene of numerous and sundry medical research studies. I consider some reasons for this state of affairs as well as how the situation might be redressed. Using examples from the HIV/AIDS and Ebola epidemics, I attempt to show that the marginalization of Africa in medical research and medical research ethics is deliberate rather than accidental...
April 2017: Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337491/meeting-report-unesco-merck-africa-research-summit-2015-accelerating-access-and-sustaining-innovation-from-africa-for-africa
#18
R W Omange, A O Ocholla, A O Kwallah, S N Kageha, J Mwangi, R K Cherutich, Odeny T A, T Nzomo, S Angwenyi, P Yonga, F Kariuki, M Kyalo, P C Mutai, F Nindo, E M Songok
BACKGROUND: The Ebola virus disease outbreak of 2014 was the largest, longest and most devastating in the history of the disease. It demonstrated the social and economic impact an emerging infectious disease can have in a globalized world. Health systems in affected countries were stretched to the point of near collapse, while social relations and traditional practices were negatively impacted. Heads of African research institutions, African government representatives, leaders of global pharmaceutical companies, global infectious disease experts and close to 100 young African researchers from 25 countries; Assembled in Geneva on 19 and 20th October 2015, for the inaugural UNESCO-Merck Africa Summit sponsored by the United Nations Educational, Science and Culture Organization and Merck KGA...
2017: African Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333986/building-the-road-to-a-regional-zoonoses-strategy-a-survey-of-zoonoses-programmes-in-the-americas
#19
Melody J Maxwell, Mary H Freire de Carvalho, Armando E Hoet, Marco A N Vigilato, Julio C Pompei, Ottorino Cosivi, Victor J Del Rio Vilas
BACKGROUND: In recent years, global public health security has been threatened by zoonotic disease emergence as exemplified by outbreaks of H5N1 and H1N1 influenza, SARS, and most recently Ebola and Zika. Additionally, endemic zoonoses, such as rabies, burden countries year after year, placing demands on limited finances and personnel. To survey the baseline status of the emerging and endemic zoonoses programmes of the Latin American and the Caribbean (LAC) countries, the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) conducted a survey of priority emerging and endemic zoonoses, countries´ prioritization criteria and methodologies, and suggestions to strengthen countries capacities and regional approaches to zoonoses control...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303774/physiological-evaluation-of-personal-protective-ensembles-recommended-for-use-in-west-africa
#20
Aitor Coca, Tyler Quinn, Jung-Hyun Kim, Tianzhou Wu, Jeff Powell, Raymond Roberge, Ronald Shaffer
OBJECTIVE: Personal protective equipment (PPE) provides health care workers with a barrier to prevent human contact with viruses like Ebola and potential transmission of the disease. However, PPE can also introduce an additional physiological burden from potentially increased heat stress. This study evaluated the human physiological and subjective responses to continuous light exercise within environmental conditions similar to those in West Africa while wearing 3 different, commonly used PPE ensembles (E1, E2, and E3)...
October 2017: Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness
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