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Ebola and burden diseases

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396479/heterogeneities-in-the-case-fatality-ratio-in-the-west-african-ebola-outbreak-2013-2016
#1
Tini Garske, Anne Cori, Archchun Ariyarajah, Isobel M Blake, Ilaria Dorigatti, Tim Eckmanns, Christophe Fraser, Wes Hinsley, Thibaut Jombart, Harriet L Mills, Gemma Nedjati-Gilani, Emily Newton, Pierre Nouvellet, Devin Perkins, Steven Riley, Dirk Schumacher, Anita Shah, Maria D Van Kerkhove, Christopher Dye, Neil M Ferguson, Christl A Donnelly
The 2013-2016 Ebola outbreak in West Africa is the largest on record with 28 616 confirmed, probable and suspected cases and 11 310 deaths officially recorded by 10 June 2016, the true burden probably considerably higher. The case fatality ratio (CFR: proportion of cases that are fatal) is a key indicator of disease severity useful for gauging the appropriate public health response and for evaluating treatment benefits, if estimated accurately. We analysed individual-level clinical outcome data from Guinea, Liberia and Sierra Leone officially reported to the World Health Organization...
May 26, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343255/giving-voice-to-african-thought-in-medical-research-ethics
#2
Godfrey B Tangwa
In this article, I consider the virtual absence of an African voice and perspective in global discourses of medical research ethics against the backdrop of the high burden of diseases and epidemics on the continent and the fact that the continent is actually the scene of numerous and sundry medical research studies. I consider some reasons for this state of affairs as well as how the situation might be redressed. Using examples from the HIV/AIDS and Ebola epidemics, I attempt to show that the marginalization of Africa in medical research and medical research ethics is deliberate rather than accidental...
March 25, 2017: Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337491/meeting-report-unesco-merck-africa-research-summit-2015-accelerating-access-and-sustaining-innovation-from-africa-for-africa
#3
R W Omange, A O Ocholla, A O Kwallah, S N Kageha, J Mwangi, R K Cherutich, Odeny T A, T Nzomo, S Angwenyi, P Yonga, F Kariuki, M Kyalo, P C Mutai, F Nindo, E M Songok
BACKGROUND: The Ebola virus disease outbreak of 2014 was the largest, longest and most devastating in the history of the disease. It demonstrated the social and economic impact an emerging infectious disease can have in a globalized world. Health systems in affected countries were stretched to the point of near collapse, while social relations and traditional practices were negatively impacted. Heads of African research institutions, African government representatives, leaders of global pharmaceutical companies, global infectious disease experts and close to 100 young African researchers from 25 countries; Assembled in Geneva on 19 and 20th October 2015, for the inaugural UNESCO-Merck Africa Summit sponsored by the United Nations Educational, Science and Culture Organization and Merck KGA...
2017: African Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333986/building-the-road-to-a-regional-zoonoses-strategy-a-survey-of-zoonoses-programmes-in-the-americas
#4
Melody J Maxwell, Mary H Freire de Carvalho, Armando E Hoet, Marco A N Vigilato, Julio C Pompei, Ottorino Cosivi, Victor J Del Rio Vilas
BACKGROUND: In recent years, global public health security has been threatened by zoonotic disease emergence as exemplified by outbreaks of H5N1 and H1N1 influenza, SARS, and most recently Ebola and Zika. Additionally, endemic zoonoses, such as rabies, burden countries year after year, placing demands on limited finances and personnel. To survey the baseline status of the emerging and endemic zoonoses programmes of the Latin American and the Caribbean (LAC) countries, the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) conducted a survey of priority emerging and endemic zoonoses, countries´ prioritization criteria and methodologies, and suggestions to strengthen countries capacities and regional approaches to zoonoses control...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303774/physiological-evaluation-of-personal-protective-ensembles-recommended-for-use-in-west-africa
#5
Aitor Coca, Tyler Quinn, Jung-Hyun Kim, Tianzhou Wu, Jeff Powell, Raymond Roberge, Ronald Shaffer
OBJECTIVE: Personal protective equipment (PPE) provides health care workers with a barrier to prevent human contact with viruses like Ebola and potential transmission of the disease. However, PPE can also introduce an additional physiological burden from potentially increased heat stress. This study evaluated the human physiological and subjective responses to continuous light exercise within environmental conditions similar to those in West Africa while wearing 3 different, commonly used PPE ensembles (E1, E2, and E3)...
March 17, 2017: Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28253995/policy-making-for-vaccine-use-as-a-driver-of-vaccine-innovation-and-development-in-the-developed-world
#6
REVIEW
Katherine Seib, Andrew J Pollard, Philippe de Wals, Ross M Andrews, Fangjun Zhou, Richard J Hatchett, Larry K Pickering, Walter A Orenstein
In the past 200years, vaccines have had unmistakable impacts on public health including declines in morbidity and mortality, most markedly in economically-developed countries. Highly engineered vaccines including vaccines for conditions other than infectious diseases are expected to dominate future vaccine development. We examine immunization vaccine policy as a driver of vaccine innovation and development. The pathways to recommendation for use of licensed vaccines in the US, UK, Canada and Australia have been similar, including: expert review of disease epidemiology, disease burden and severity; vaccine immunogenicity, efficacy and safety; programmatic feasibility; public demand; and increasingly cost-effectiveness...
March 7, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933782/integration-of-global-analyses-of-host-molecular-responses-with-clinical-data-to-evaluate-pathogenesis-and-advance-therapies-for-emerging-and-re-emerging-viral-infections
#7
Shane D Falcinelli, Daniel S Chertow, Jason Kindrachuk
Outbreaks associated with emerging and re-emerging viral pathogens continue to increase in frequency and are associated with an increasing burden to global health. In light of this, there is a need to integrate basic and clinical research for investigating the connections between molecular and clinical pathogenesis and for therapeutic development strategies. Here, we will discuss this approach with a focus on the emerging viral pathogens Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), Ebola virus (EBOV), and monkeypox virus (MPXV) from the context of clinical presentation, immunological and molecular features of the diseases, and OMICS-based analyses of pathogenesis...
November 11, 2016: ACS Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914852/a-call-to-strengthen-the-global-strategy-against-schistosomiasis-and-soil-transmitted-helminthiasis-the-time-is-now
#8
REVIEW
Nathan C Lo, David G Addiss, Peter J Hotez, Charles H King, J Russell Stothard, Darin S Evans, Daniel G Colley, William Lin, Jean T Coulibaly, Amaya L Bustinduy, Giovanna Raso, Eran Bendavid, Isaac I Bogoch, Alan Fenwick, Lorenzo Savioli, David Molyneux, Jürg Utzinger, Jason R Andrews
In 2001, the World Health Assembly (WHA) passed the landmark WHA 54.19 resolution for global scale-up of mass administration of anthelmintic drugs for morbidity control of schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminthiasis, which affect more than 1·5 billion of the world's poorest people. Since then, more than a decade of research and experience has yielded crucial knowledge on the control and elimination of these helminthiases. However, the global strategy has remained largely unchanged since the original 2001 WHA resolution and associated WHO guidelines on preventive chemotherapy...
February 2017: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27833001/mathematical-model-of-ebola-transmission-dynamics-with-relapse-and-reinfection
#9
F B Agusto
The Ebola virus disease is caused by the Ebola virus which belongs to the filoviridae virus family. The 2014 outbreaks were estimated to have caused over 11,000 fatalities. In this paper, we formulate and analyze a system of ordinary differential equations which incorporates disease relapse and reinfection. The Ebola model with disease relapse and reinfection is locally-asymptotically stable when the basic reproduction number is less than unity. The model exhibits in the presence of disease reinfection, the phenomenon of backward bifurcation, where the stable disease-free equilibrium co-exists with a stable endemic equilibrium when the associated reproduction number is less than unity...
January 2017: Mathematical Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27733281/global-regional-and-national-life-expectancy-all-cause-mortality-and-cause-specific-mortality-for-249-causes-of-death-1980-2015-a-systematic-analysis-for-the-global-burden-of-disease-study-2015
#10
COMMENT
(no author information available yet)
BACKGROUND: Improving survival and extending the longevity of life for all populations requires timely, robust evidence on local mortality levels and trends. The Global Burden of Disease 2015 Study (GBD 2015) provides a comprehensive assessment of all-cause and cause-specific mortality for 249 causes in 195 countries and territories from 1980 to 2015. These results informed an in-depth investigation of observed and expected mortality patterns based on sociodemographic measures. METHODS: We estimated all-cause mortality by age, sex, geography, and year using an improved analytical approach originally developed for GBD 2013 and GBD 2010...
October 8, 2016: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27709137/recent-trends-on-hydrogel-based-drug-delivery-systems-for-infectious-diseases
#11
REVIEW
Arti Vashist, Ajeet Kaushik, Atul Vashist, Rahul Dev Jayant, Asahi Tomitaka, Sharif Ahmad, Y K Gupta, Madhavan Nair
Since centuries, the rapid spread and cure of infectious diseases have been a major concern to the progress and survival of humans. These diseases are a global burden and the prominent cause for worldwide deaths and disabilities. Nanomedicine has emerged as the most excellent tool to eradicate and halt their spread. Various nanoformulations (NFs) using advanced nanotechnology are in demand. Recently, hydrogel and nanogel based drug delivery devices have posed new prospects to simulate the natural intelligence of various biological systems...
October 18, 2016: Biomaterials Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27584854/infectious-disease-physicians-perceptions-about-ebola-preparedness-early-in-the-us-response-a-qualitative-analysis-and-lessons-for-the-future
#12
Scott Santibañez, Philip M Polgreen, Susan E Beekmann, Mark E Rupp, Carlos Del Rio
On September 30, 2014, the first US patient with Ebola virus disease was diagnosed. Hospitals and healthcare systems identified many complex issues that needed to be addressed to prepare for possible future outbreaks. Here we summarize themes identified in free text responses from a query of infectious disease physicians from the Infectious Disease Society of America's (IDSA) Emerging Infections Network (EIN) early in the domestic Ebola response and place them into the context of biopreparedness for possible future events...
September 2016: Health Security
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27558850/bayesian-uncertainty-quantification-for-transmissibility-of-influenza-norovirus-and-ebola-using-information-geometry
#13
Thomas House, Ashley Ford, Shiwei Lan, Samuel Bilson, Elizabeth Buckingham-Jeffery, Mark Girolami
Infectious diseases exert a large and in many contexts growing burden on human health, but violate most of the assumptions of classical epidemiological statistics and hence require a mathematically sophisticated approach. Viral shedding data are collected during human studies-either where volunteers are infected with a disease or where existing cases are recruited-in which the levels of live virus produced over time are measured. These have traditionally been difficult to analyse due to strong, complex correlations between parameters...
August 2016: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27531847/plasmodium-parasitemia-associated-with-increased-survival-in-ebola-virus-infected-patients
#14
Kyle Rosenke, Jennifer Adjemian, Vincent J Munster, Andrea Marzi, Darryl Falzarano, Clayton O Onyango, Melvin Ochieng, Bonventure Juma, Robert J Fischer, Joseph B Prescott, David Safronetz, Victor Omballa, Collins Owuor, Thomas Hoenen, Allison Groseth, Cynthia Martellaro, Neeltje van Doremalen, Galina Zemtsova, Joshua Self, Trenton Bushmaker, Kristin McNally, Thomas Rowe, Shannon L Emery, Friederike Feldmann, Brandi N Williamson, Sonja M Best, Tolbert G Nyenswah, Allen Grolla, James E Strong, Gary Kobinger, Fatorma K Bolay, Kathryn C Zoon, Jorgen Stassijns, Ruggero Giuliani, Martin de Smet, Stuart T Nichol, Barry Fields, Armand Sprecher, Moses Massaquoi, Heinz Feldmann, Emmie de Wit
BACKGROUND: The ongoing Ebola outbreak in West Africa has resulted in 28 646 suspected, probable, and confirmed Ebola virus infections. Nevertheless, malaria remains a large public health burden in the region affected by the outbreak. A joint Centers for Disease Control and Prevention/National Institutes of Health diagnostic laboratory was established in Monrovia, Liberia, in August 2014, to provide laboratory diagnostics for Ebola virus. METHODS: All blood samples from suspected Ebola virus-infected patients admitted to the Médecins Sans Frontières ELWA3 Ebola treatment unit in Monrovia were tested by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction for the presence of Ebola virus and Plasmodium species RNA...
October 15, 2016: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27522921/pharmacodynamics-and-systems-pharmacology-approaches-to-repurposing-drugs-in-the-wake-of-global-health-burden
#15
Jane P F Bai
There are emergent needs for cost-effective treatment worldwide, for which repurposing to develop a drug with existing marketing approval of disease(s) for new disease(s) is a valid option. Although strategic mining of electronic health records has produced real-world evidences to inform drug repurposing, using omics data (drug and disease), knowledge base of protein interactions, and database of transcription factors have been explored. Structured integration of all the existing data under the framework of drug repurposing will facilitate decision making...
October 2016: Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27509589/the-challenges-of-esrd-care-in-developing-economies-sub-saharan-african-opportunities-for-significant-improvement
#16
Ebun Ladipo Bamgboye
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in sub-Saharan Africa. This, along with other noncommunicable diseases like hypertension, diabetes, and heart diseases, poses a double burden on a region that is still struggling to cope with the scourge of communicable diseases like malaria, tuberculosis, HIV, and more recently Ebola. Causes of CKD in the region are predominantly glomerulonephritis and hypertension, although type 2 diabetes is also becoming a significant cause as is the retroviral disease...
2016: Clinical Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27458576/psychological-distress-among-ebola-survivors-discharged-from-an-ebola-treatment-unit-in-monrovia-liberia-a-qualitative-study
#17
Ionara Rabelo, Virginia Lee, Mosoka P Fallah, Moses Massaquoi, Iro Evlampidou, Rosa Crestani, Tom Decroo, Rafael Van den Bergh, Nathalie Severy
INTRODUCTION: A consequence of the West Africa Ebola outbreak 2014-2015 was the unprecedented number of Ebola survivors discharged from the Ebola Treatment Units (ETUs). Liberia alone counted over 5,000 survivors. We undertook a qualitative study in Monrovia to better understand the mental distress experienced by survivors during hospitalization and reintegration into their community. METHODS: Purposively selected Ebola survivors from ELWA3, the largest ETU in Liberia, were invited to join focus group discussions...
2016: Frontiers in Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27314652/surveillance-for-emerging-diseases-with-multiplexed-point-of-care-diagnostics
#18
Alina Deshpande, Benjamin McMahon, Ashlynn R Daughton, Esteban L Abeyta, David Hodge, Kevin Anderson, Segaran Pillai
We present an analysis of the diagnostic technologies that were used to identify historical outbreaks of Ebola virus disease and consider systematic surveillance strategies that may greatly reduce the peak size of future epidemics. We observe that clinical signs and symptoms alone are often insufficient to recognize index cases of diseases of global concern against the considerable background infectious disease burden that is present throughout the developing world. We propose a simple sampling strategy to enrich in especially dangerous pathogens with a low background for molecular diagnostics by targeting blood-borne pathogens in the healthiest age groups...
May 2016: Health Security
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27243817/accuracy-precision-ease-of-use-and-cost-of-methods-to-test-ebola-relevant-chlorine-solutions
#19
Emma Wells, Marlene K Wolfe, Anna Murray, Daniele Lantagne
To prevent transmission in Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) outbreaks, it is recommended to disinfect living things (hands and people) with 0.05% chlorine solution and non-living things (surfaces, personal protective equipment, dead bodies) with 0.5% chlorine solution. In the current West African EVD outbreak, these solutions (manufactured from calcium hypochlorite (HTH), sodium dichloroisocyanurate (NaDCC), and sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl)) have been widely used in both Ebola Treatment Unit and community settings...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27185252/critiquing-the-response-to-the-ebola-epidemic-through-a-primary-health-care-approach
#20
Vera Scott, Sarah Crawford-Browne, David Sanders
BACKGROUND: The 2014/2015 West Africa Ebola epidemic has caused the global public health community to engage in difficult self-reflection. First, it must consider the part it played in relation to an important public health question: why did this epidemic take hold and spread in this unprecedented manner? Second, it must use the lessons learnt to answer the subsequent question: what can be done now to prevent further such outbreaks in the future? These questions remain relevant, even as scientists announce that the Guinea Phase III efficacy vaccine trial shows that rVSV-EBOV (Merck, Sharp & Dohme) is highly efficacious in individuals...
2016: BMC Public Health
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